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Sugar question

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  • annyannypanny
    Is it possible to add more sugar to your fementer while the yeast is still active, on a regular basis? Will that give a better alcohol yield? If so how much do
    Message 1 of 14 , Jul 23 11:56 PM
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      Is it possible to add more sugar to your fementer while the yeast is
      still active, on a regular basis? Will that give a better alcohol
      yield? If so how much do you add, how frequently and how long for in a
      25 litre wash. Most importantly, is it worth it.
      Anne
    • Robert Thomas
      Hi Anne, sure you can do that. But do make the sugar up as a solution before adding it (otherwise it is volcano city!). This is quite a common occurance for
      Message 2 of 14 , Jul 24 4:43 AM
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        Hi Anne,
        sure you can do that. But do make the sugar up as a solution before
        adding it (otherwise it is volcano city!). This is quite a common
        occurance for "country wine" makers (ie non-grape based). You won't get
        miraculous abvs, but it can add a few % to the wash.
        Is it worth it? Well, I guess if you haven't got access to turboyeasts
        then maybe. But only if you are making neutral alcohol.
        As has been said many times, if you want whiskey etc, you don't want
        too high an abv as it means your ratio of alcohol to flavour goes out
        the window.
        Hope that helps,
        Rob.

        --- annyannypanny <annyannypanny@...> wrote:

        > Is it possible to add more sugar to your fementer while the yeast is
        > still active, on a regular basis? Will that give a better alcohol
        > yield? If so how much do you add, how frequently and how long for in
        > a
        > 25 litre wash. Most importantly, is it worth it.
        > Anne
        >
        >


        Cheers,
        Rob.



        ____________________________________________________________________________________
        Sick sense of humor? Visit Yahoo! TV's
        Comedy with an Edge to see what's on, when.
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      • Debbie Wright
        It is for neutral alcohol. So how much sugar would you suggest adding and how often? Deb ... From: Robert Thomas To:
        Message 3 of 14 , Jul 24 1:28 PM
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          It is for neutral alcohol. So how much sugar would you suggest adding and how often?
          Deb

          ----- Original Message ----
          From: Robert Thomas <whosbrewing@...>
          To: new_distillers@yahoogroups.com
          Sent: Tuesday, 24 July, 2007 9:43:54 PM
          Subject: Re: [new_distillers] Sugar question

          Hi Anne,
          sure you can do that. But do make the sugar up as a solution before
          adding it (otherwise it is volcano city!). This is quite a common
          occurance for "country wine" makers (ie non-grape based). You won't get
          miraculous abvs, but it can add a few % to the wash.
          Is it worth it? Well, I guess if you haven't got access to turboyeasts
          then maybe. But only if you are making neutral alcohol.
          As has been said many times, if you want whiskey etc, you don't want
          too high an abv as it means your ratio of alcohol to flavour goes out
          the window.
          Hope that helps,
          Rob.

          --- annyannypanny <annyannypanny@ yahoo.com. au> wrote:

          > Is it possible to add more sugar to your fementer while the yeast is
          > still active, on a regular basis? Will that give a better alcohol
          > yield? If so how much do you add, how frequently and
          how long for in
          > a
          > 25 litre wash. Most importantly, is it worth it.
          > Anne
          >
          >

          Cheers,
          Rob.

          ____________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _
          Sick sense of humor? Visit Yahoo! TV's
          Comedy with an Edge to see what's on, when.
          http://tv.yahoo. com/collections/ 222




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        • Harry
          ... , Debbie Wright ... and how often? ... Glad to see you re still with us. :) What you re referring to
          Message 4 of 14 , Jul 24 3:56 PM
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            --- In new_distillers@yahoogroups.com, Debbie Wright <jidy66@...> wrote:

            >
            > It is for neutral alcohol. So how much sugar would you suggest adding and how often?
            > Deb

             

            Glad to see you're still with us.  :)

            What you're referring to is called "step-fermentation".  It's an old trick to coax yeasts into performing beyond their normal parameters.  It' a work-around for problems like osmotic pressure etc.

            Here's a good place to start...
            http://homedistiller.org/wash-sugar.htm#conc

            And when you're feeling more adventurous, you can try the 19th century rum recipe from my ancestor...
            http://tinyurl.com/2yv8b5 

            Slainte!
            regards Harry

          • sonum norbu
            And a bloody good recipe recipe it is too, Deb. Good to see you back. ... Most of the troubles of the world are caused by human beings . (Shakyamuni Buddha)
            Message 5 of 14 , Jul 25 5:38 AM
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              And a bloody good recipe recipe it is too, Deb.
              Good to see you back.


              > ----- Original Message -----
              > From: Harry <gnikomson2000@...>
              > To: new_distillers@yahoogroups.com
              > Subject: [new_distillers] Re: Sugar question
              > Date: Tue, 24 Jul:56:28 -0000
              >
              >
              >
              > --- In new_distillers@yahoogroups.com
              > <mailto:new_distillers@yahoogroups.com> , Debbie Wright <jidy66@...>
              > wrote:
              > >
              > > It is for neutral alcohol. So how much sugar would you suggest adding
              > and how often?
              > > Deb
              >
              >
              >
              > Glad to see you're still with us. :)
              >
              > What you're referring to is called "step-fermentation". It's an old
              > trick to coax yeasts into performing beyond their normal parameters.
              > It' a work-around for problems like osmotic pressure etc.
              >
              > Here's a good place to start...
              > http://homedistiller.org/wash-sugar.htm#conc
              > <http://homedistiller.org/wash-sugar.htm#conc>
              >
              > And when you're feeling more adventurous, you can try the 19th century
              > rum recipe from my ancestor...
              > http://tinyurl.com/2yv8b5 <http://tinyurl.com/2yv8b5>
              >
              >
              > Slainte!
              > regards Harry

              >



              "Most of the troubles of the world are caused by human beings". (Shakyamuni Buddha)

              SOARING, SAILING AND SKYDIVING web page
              http://www.angelfire.com/fl2/cloudbase/



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            • Anne Panny
              I actually unsubbed and can t work out why I am still getting mail. I had better have a look. Deb ... From: sonum norbu To:
              Message 6 of 14 , Jul 25 1:16 PM
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                I actually unsubbed and can't work out why I am still getting mail. I had better have a look.
                Deb

                ----- Original Message ----
                From: sonum norbu <blanik@...>
                To: new_distillers@yahoogroups.com
                Sent: Wednesday, 25 July, 2007 10:38:18 PM
                Subject: Re: [new_distillers] Re: Sugar question

                And a bloody good recipe recipe it is too, Deb.
                Good to see you back.

                > ----- Original Message -----
                > From: Harry <gnikomson2000@ yahoo.com>
                > To: new_distillers@ yahoogroups. com
                > Subject: [new_distillers] Re: Sugar question
                > Date: Tue, 24 Jul:56:28 -0000
                >
                >
                >
                > --- In new_distillers@ yahoogroups. com
                > <mailto:new_distillers@ yahoogroups. com> , Debbie Wright <jidy66@...>
                > wrote:
                > >
                > > It is for neutral alcohol. So how much sugar would you suggest adding
                > and how often?
                > > Deb
                >
                >
                >
                > Glad to see you're still with us. :)
                >
                > What you're referring to is called "step-fermentation" . It's an old
                > trick to coax yeasts into performing beyond their normal parameters.
                > It' a work-around for problems like osmotic pressure etc.
                >
                > Here's a good place to start...
                > http://homedistille r.org/wash- sugar.htm# conc
                > <http://homedistille r.org/wash- sugar.htm# conc>
                >
                > And when you're feeling more adventurous, you can try the 19th century
                > rum recipe from my ancestor...
                > http://tinyurl. com/2yv8b5 <http://tinyurl. com/2yv8b5>
                >
                >
                > Slainte!
                > regards Harry

                >

                "Most of the troubles of the world are caused by human beings". (Shakyamuni Buddha)

                SOARING, SAILING AND SKYDIVING web page
                http://www.angelfir e.com/fl2/ cloudbase/

                --
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                Surf the Web in a faster, safer and easier way:
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              • Harry
                ... I had better have a look. ... Hey Deb! Ya musta broke the bloody thing!!!! Been no posts for 4 days! Heh, j/k . It s all good. :) Slainte! regards
                Message 7 of 14 , Jul 29 4:58 PM
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                  --- In new_distillers@yahoogroups.com, Anne Panny <annyannypanny@...>
                  wrote:
                  >
                  > I actually unsubbed and can't work out why I am still getting mail.
                  I had better have a look.
                  > Deb



                  Hey Deb! Ya musta broke the bloody thing!!!! Been no posts for 4
                  days! Heh, j/k <G>. It's all good. :)


                  Slainte!
                  regards Harry
                • sonum norbu
                  I was so relieved to get this message, Harry. I thought I must ve broken my bloody thing too. :) ... Most of the troubles of the world are caused by human
                  Message 8 of 14 , Jul 29 6:03 PM
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                    I was so relieved to get this message, Harry. I thought I must've broken my bloody thing too. :)


                    > ----- Original Message -----
                    > From: Harry <gnikomson2000@...>
                    > To: new_distillers@yahoogroups.com
                    > Subject: [new_distillers] Re: Sugar question
                    > Date: Sun, 29 Jul:58:31 -0000
                    >
                    >
                    > --- In new_distillers@yahoogroups.com, Anne Panny <annyannypanny@...>
                    > wrote:
                    > >
                    > > I actually unsubbed and can't work out why I am still getting mail.
                    > I had better have a look.
                    > > Deb
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > Hey Deb! Ya musta broke the bloody thing!!!! Been no posts for 4
                    > days! Heh, j/k <G>. It's all good. :)
                    >
                    >
                    > Slainte!
                    > regards Harry

                    >



                    "Most of the troubles of the world are caused by human beings". (Shakyamuni Buddha)

                    SOARING, SAILING AND SKYDIVING web page
                    http://www.angelfire.com/fl2/cloudbase/



                    --
                    _______________________________________________
                    Surf the Web in a faster, safer and easier way:
                    Download Opera 9 at http://www.opera.com

                    Powered by Outblaze
                  • nenengstoute
                    just wanted to say i m still out here in the swamps. just been busy putting my newest creation together and pressure testing. now i just gotta find the time to
                    Message 9 of 14 , Jul 30 5:37 AM
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                      just wanted to say i'm still out here in the swamps. just been busy
                      putting my newest creation together and pressure testing. now i just
                      gotta find the time to run that keg full of corn crash through it.
                      Mabuhay. MIKE --- In
                      new_distillers@yahoogroups.com, "Harry" <gnikomson2000@...> wrote:
                      >
                      > --- In new_distillers@yahoogroups.com, Anne Panny <annyannypanny@>
                      > wrote:
                      > >
                      > > I actually unsubbed and can't work out why I am still getting mail.
                      > I had better have a look.
                      > > Deb
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > Hey Deb! Ya musta broke the bloody thing!!!! Been no posts for 4
                      > days! Heh, j/k <G>. It's all good. :)
                      >
                      >
                      > Slainte!
                      > regards Harry
                      >
                    • Eugene Harrison
                      Old potaoes, old maize .... What does this accomplish? Eugene
                      Message 10 of 14 , Jul 30 5:42 PM
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                        Old potaoes, old maize ....
                        What does this accomplish?
                        Eugene

                        > Here's a good place to start...
                        > http://homedistiller.org/wash-sugar.htm#conc
                        >>
                        > And when you're feeling more adventurous, you can try the 19th century
                        > rum recipe from my ancestor...
                        > http://tinyurl.com/2yv8b5 <http://tinyurl.com/2yv8b5>
                        >
                        >
                        > Slainte!
                        > regards Harry
                        >
                      • Harry
                        ... Bear in mind that this rum recipe is circa 1870. In those days there were no ready sources of pure-strain yeasts for the common man, nor stores to stock
                        Message 11 of 14 , Jul 31 4:19 AM
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                          --- In new_distillers@yahoogroups.com, "Eugene Harrison" <eugh@...>
                          wrote:
                          >
                          > Old potaoes, old maize ....
                          > What does this accomplish?
                          > Eugene



                          Bear in mind that this rum recipe is circa 1870. In those days
                          there were no ready sources of pure-strain yeasts for the common
                          man, nor stores to stock them, nor any useful refrigeration or on-
                          demand electricity in country areas. Hell, they didn't even have
                          telephones, and internet was a hundred years away! We tend to
                          forget how our forefathers managed. Try reading the Foxfire series
                          sometime. A real eye-opener.

                          So, in days of yore, almost all yeasts for small-scale fermentations
                          and breadmaking were captured from the wild, and used much like we
                          use sourdoughs today. When breadmaking, a piece of uncooked dough
                          was kept back and re-moistened to start the next day's doughs.
                          People jealously guarded their sourdoughs because it often meant the
                          difference between eating or starving!

                          Our ancestors knew how to propagate these wild spores. Old potatoes
                          and old grains provided a ready source of easily-broken down starch,
                          fully matured (therefore somewhat sweet already) as a growth medium
                          for the wild spores. Given this knowledge, it's not surprising to
                          see the growth medium incorporated into recipes for booze of that
                          era.

                          Of course we today know a little more about fermentation and what
                          yeasts and bacteria can use as foods, plus we have the advantage of
                          all the mod cons e.g. pure strains, refrigeration, ready access to
                          cultures etc.

                          If you want to try making bread or brew without commercial yeast,
                          here's a standard recipe for making sourdough starter which can be
                          used both as a source of leavening for breads, and as a starter for
                          old-style brews. How it performs will largely depend on the strains
                          of yeast and bacteria floating in the air in your area, but remember
                          all the famous strains were once wild, so if you persist and
                          propagate any good ones (good results, that is), you just may come
                          up with that 'unique' style you're looking for in your brews or
                          homemade breads. :)

                          Here's the recipe...

                          INGREDIENTS:
                          Old Potatoes 100g (4oz)
                          Rye Flour 100g (4oz)
                          Sugar 2 tsp
                          Salt 1/2 tsp

                          METHOD:
                          1. Boil the un-peeled potatoes.
                          2. Mash them into the cooking water.
                          3. Add remaining ingredients and stir.
                          4. Leave uncovered outdoors for 2 hours.
                          5. Bring indoors, cover with a cloth and leave for 3 days.
                          6. Use instead of yeast in your recipe.

                          Enjoy!

                          Slainte!
                          regards Harry
                        • waljaco
                          It is also the only documented Australian sly grog (illegal rum) recipe that I have seen. Convicts were still sent to Australia until about the time of the
                          Message 12 of 14 , Aug 1, 2007
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                            It is also the only documented Australian 'sly grog' (illegal rum)
                            recipe that I have seen. Convicts were still sent to Australia until
                            about the time of the recipe.
                            wal

                            --- In new_distillers@yahoogroups.com, "Harry" <gnikomson2000@...> wrote:
                            >
                            > --- In new_distillers@yahoogroups.com, "Eugene Harrison" <eugh@>
                            > wrote:
                            > >
                            > > Old potaoes, old maize ....
                            > > What does this accomplish?
                            > > Eugene
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            > Bear in mind that this rum recipe is circa 1870. In those days
                            > there were no ready sources of pure-strain yeasts for the common
                            > man, nor stores to stock them, nor any useful refrigeration or on-
                            > demand electricity in country areas. Hell, they didn't even have
                            > telephones, and internet was a hundred years away! We tend to
                            > forget how our forefathers managed. Try reading the Foxfire series
                            > sometime. A real eye-opener.
                            >
                            > So, in days of yore, almost all yeasts for small-scale fermentations
                            > and breadmaking were captured from the wild, and used much like we
                            > use sourdoughs today. When breadmaking, a piece of uncooked dough
                            > was kept back and re-moistened to start the next day's doughs.
                            > People jealously guarded their sourdoughs because it often meant the
                            > difference between eating or starving!
                            >
                            > Our ancestors knew how to propagate these wild spores. Old potatoes
                            > and old grains provided a ready source of easily-broken down starch,
                            > fully matured (therefore somewhat sweet already) as a growth medium
                            > for the wild spores. Given this knowledge, it's not surprising to
                            > see the growth medium incorporated into recipes for booze of that
                            > era.
                            >
                            > Of course we today know a little more about fermentation and what
                            > yeasts and bacteria can use as foods, plus we have the advantage of
                            > all the mod cons e.g. pure strains, refrigeration, ready access to
                            > cultures etc.
                            >
                            > If you want to try making bread or brew without commercial yeast,
                            > here's a standard recipe for making sourdough starter which can be
                            > used both as a source of leavening for breads, and as a starter for
                            > old-style brews. How it performs will largely depend on the strains
                            > of yeast and bacteria floating in the air in your area, but remember
                            > all the famous strains were once wild, so if you persist and
                            > propagate any good ones (good results, that is), you just may come
                            > up with that 'unique' style you're looking for in your brews or
                            > homemade breads. :)
                            >
                            > Here's the recipe...
                            >
                            > INGREDIENTS:
                            > Old Potatoes 100g (4oz)
                            > Rye Flour 100g (4oz)
                            > Sugar 2 tsp
                            > Salt 1/2 tsp
                            >
                            > METHOD:
                            > 1. Boil the un-peeled potatoes.
                            > 2. Mash them into the cooking water.
                            > 3. Add remaining ingredients and stir.
                            > 4. Leave uncovered outdoors for 2 hours.
                            > 5. Bring indoors, cover with a cloth and leave for 3 days.
                            > 6. Use instead of yeast in your recipe.
                            >
                            > Enjoy!
                            >
                            > Slainte!
                            > regards Harry
                            >
                          • sonum norbu
                            And thank god that the British sent their best to AUSTRALIA. :) ... Most of the troubles of the world are caused by human beings . (Shakyamuni Buddha)
                            Message 13 of 14 , Aug 1, 2007
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                              And thank 'god' that the British sent their best to AUSTRALIA. :)



                              > ----- Original Message -----
                              > From: waljaco <waljaco@...>
                              > To: new_distillers@yahoogroups.com
                              > Subject: [new_distillers] Oldstyle yeasts (was) Re: Sugar question
                              > Date: Wed, 01 Aug:02:53 -0000
                              >
                              >
                              > It is also the only documented Australian 'sly grog' (illegal rum)
                              > recipe that I have seen. Convicts were still sent to Australia until
                              > about the time of the recipe.
                              > wal
                              >
                              > --- In new_distillers@yahoogroups.com, "Harry" <gnikomson2000@...> wrote:
                              > >
                              > > --- In new_distillers@yahoogroups.com, "Eugene Harrison" <eugh@> wrote:
                              > > >
                              > > > Old potaoes, old maize ....
                              > > > What does this accomplish?
                              > > > Eugene
                              > >
                              > >
                              > >
                              > > Bear in mind that this rum recipe is circa 1870. In those days
                              > > there were no ready sources of pure-strain yeasts for the common
                              > > man, nor stores to stock them, nor any useful refrigeration or on-
                              > > demand electricity in country areas. Hell, they didn't even have
                              > > telephones, and internet was a hundred years away! We tend to
                              > > forget how our forefathers managed. Try reading the Foxfire
                              > > series sometime. A real eye-opener.
                              > >
                              > > So, in days of yore, almost all yeasts for small-scale
                              > > fermentations and breadmaking were captured from the wild, and
                              > > used much like we use sourdoughs today. When breadmaking, a piece
                              > > of uncooked dough was kept back and re-moistened to start the
                              > > next day's doughs. People jealously guarded their sourdoughs
                              > > because it often meant the difference between eating or starving!
                              > >
                              > > Our ancestors knew how to propagate these wild spores. Old
                              > > potatoes and old grains provided a ready source of easily-broken
                              > > down starch, fully matured (therefore somewhat sweet already) as
                              > > a growth medium for the wild spores. Given this knowledge, it's
                              > > not surprising to see the growth medium incorporated into recipes
                              > > for booze of that era.
                              > >
                              > > Of course we today know a little more about fermentation and what
                              > > yeasts and bacteria can use as foods, plus we have the advantage
                              > > of all the mod cons e.g. pure strains, refrigeration, ready
                              > > access to cultures etc.
                              > >
                              > > If you want to try making bread or brew without commercial yeast,
                              > > here's a standard recipe for making sourdough starter which can
                              > > be used both as a source of leavening for breads, and as a
                              > > starter for old-style brews. How it performs will largely depend
                              > > on the strains of yeast and bacteria floating in the air in your
                              > > area, but remember all the famous strains were once wild, so if
                              > > you persist and propagate any good ones (good results, that is),
                              > > you just may come up with that 'unique' style you're looking for
                              > > in your brews or homemade breads. :)
                              > >
                              > > Here's the recipe...
                              > >
                              > > INGREDIENTS:
                              > > Old Potatoes 100g (4oz) Rye Flour 100g (4oz) Sugar 2 tsp Salt 1/2 tsp METHOD:
                              > > 1. Boil the un-peeled potatoes.
                              > > 2. Mash them into the cooking water. 3. Add remaining ingredients and stir.
                              > > 4. Leave uncovered outdoors for 2 hours.
                              > > 5. Bring indoors, cover with a cloth and leave for 3 days.
                              > > 6. Use instead of yeast in your recipe.
                              > >
                              > > Enjoy!
                              > >
                              > > Slainte!
                              > > regards Harry
                              > >

                              >



                              "Most of the troubles of the world are caused by human beings". (Shakyamuni Buddha)

                              SOARING, SAILING AND SKYDIVING web page
                              http://www.angelfire.com/fl2/cloudbase/



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                              _______________________________________________
                              Surf the Web in a faster, safer and easier way:
                              Download Opera 9 at http://www.opera.com

                              Powered by Outblaze
                            • sonum norbu
                              ..AND...it makes a bloody good Rum. :) I s so great to have freedom fighter piss pots as our founders. Long May They Reign!!! ... Most of the troubles of
                              Message 14 of 14 , Aug 1, 2007
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                                ..AND...it makes a bloody good Rum. :)

                                I's so great to have 'freedom fighter' piss pots as our founders. Long May They Reign!!!


                                > ----- Original Message -----
                                > From: waljaco <waljaco@...>
                                > To: new_distillers@yahoogroups.com
                                > Subject: [new_distillers] Oldstyle yeasts (was) Re: Sugar question
                                > Date: Wed, 01 Aug:02:53 -0000
                                >
                                >
                                > It is also the only documented Australian 'sly grog' (illegal rum)
                                > recipe that I have seen. Convicts were still sent to Australia until
                                > about the time of the recipe.
                                > wal
                                >
                                > --- In new_distillers@yahoogroups.com, "Harry" <gnikomson2000@...> wrote:
                                > >
                                > > --- In new_distillers@yahoogroups.com, "Eugene Harrison" <eugh@> wrote:
                                > > >
                                > > > Old potaoes, old maize ....
                                > > > What does this accomplish?
                                > > > Eugene
                                > >
                                > >
                                > >
                                > > Bear in mind that this rum recipe is circa 1870. In those days
                                > > there were no ready sources of pure-strain yeasts for the common
                                > > man, nor stores to stock them, nor any useful refrigeration or on-
                                > > demand electricity in country areas. Hell, they didn't even have
                                > > telephones, and internet was a hundred years away! We tend to
                                > > forget how our forefathers managed. Try reading the Foxfire
                                > > series sometime. A real eye-opener.
                                > >
                                > > So, in days of yore, almost all yeasts for small-scale
                                > > fermentations and breadmaking were captured from the wild, and
                                > > used much like we use sourdoughs today. When breadmaking, a piece
                                > > of uncooked dough was kept back and re-moistened to start the
                                > > next day's doughs. People jealously guarded their sourdoughs
                                > > because it often meant the difference between eating or starving!
                                > >
                                > > Our ancestors knew how to propagate these wild spores. Old
                                > > potatoes and old grains provided a ready source of easily-broken
                                > > down starch, fully matured (therefore somewhat sweet already) as
                                > > a growth medium for the wild spores. Given this knowledge, it's
                                > > not surprising to see the growth medium incorporated into recipes
                                > > for booze of that era.
                                > >
                                > > Of course we today know a little more about fermentation and what
                                > > yeasts and bacteria can use as foods, plus we have the advantage
                                > > of all the mod cons e.g. pure strains, refrigeration, ready
                                > > access to cultures etc.
                                > >
                                > > If you want to try making bread or brew without commercial yeast,
                                > > here's a standard recipe for making sourdough starter which can
                                > > be used both as a source of leavening for breads, and as a
                                > > starter for old-style brews. How it performs will largely depend
                                > > on the strains of yeast and bacteria floating in the air in your
                                > > area, but remember all the famous strains were once wild, so if
                                > > you persist and propagate any good ones (good results, that is),
                                > > you just may come up with that 'unique' style you're looking for
                                > > in your brews or homemade breads. :)
                                > >
                                > > Here's the recipe...
                                > >
                                > > INGREDIENTS:
                                > > Old Potatoes 100g (4oz) Rye Flour 100g (4oz) Sugar 2 tsp Salt 1/2 tsp METHOD:
                                > > 1. Boil the un-peeled potatoes.
                                > > 2. Mash them into the cooking water. 3. Add remaining ingredients and stir.
                                > > 4. Leave uncovered outdoors for 2 hours.
                                > > 5. Bring indoors, cover with a cloth and leave for 3 days.
                                > > 6. Use instead of yeast in your recipe.
                                > >
                                > > Enjoy!
                                > >
                                > > Slainte!
                                > > regards Harry
                                > >

                                >



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