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Re: Activated carbon

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  • Harry
    ... carbon activated ? What does activated mean? Could one use charcoal from a fire burning Box (australian hardwood) and crushing the hell out of it?
    Message 1 of 4 , Oct 2, 2005
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      --- In new_distillers@yahoogroups.com, "sonum norbu" <blanik@o...>
      wrote:
      > A question for the chemists out there. How is activated
      carbon "activated"? What does "activated" mean? Could one use
      charcoal from a fire burning Box (australian hardwood) and crushing
      the hell out of it? blanikdog



      Charcoal is carbon. Activated charcoal is charcoal that has been
      treated with oxygen to open up millions of tiny pores between the
      carbon atoms.

      According to Encylopedia Britannica...

      The use of special manufacturing techniques results in highly porous
      charcoals that have surface areas of 300-2,000 square metres per
      gram. These so-called active, or activated, charcoals are widely
      used to adsorb odorous or coloured substances from gases or liquids.

      The word adsorb is important here. When a material adsorbs
      something, it attaches to it by chemical attraction. The huge
      surface area of activated charcoal gives it countless bonding sites.
      When certain chemicals pass next to the carbon surface, they attach
      to the surface and are trapped. Activated charcoal is good at
      trapping other carbon-based impurities ("organic" chemicals), as
      well as things like chlorine.

      Many other chemicals are not attracted to carbon at all -- sodium,
      nitrates, etc. -- so they pass right through. This means that an
      activated charcoal filter will remove certain impurities while
      ignoring others. It also means that, once all of the bonding sites
      are filled, an activated charcoal filter stops working. At that
      point you must replace the filter.

      -----------------------------------------------


      Activated Carbon: How and Why It Works



      Adsorption vs. Absorption

      Removing gases and vapors involves capturing particles .01 microns
      and smaller. A micron is 1/25,400 of an inch. Particulate filters,
      like HEPA filters are effective into the .3 micron range. They can
      not and do not remove material that is as small as a gas. Activated
      carbon uses the process of ADSORPTION to remove gases and vapors
      from the air stream. The question often asked is what is the
      difference between ADSORPTION and ABSORPTION.



      ADSORPTION is the physical attraction and adherence of gas or liquid
      (vapor) molecules to the surface of a solid. Gas and vapor molecules
      are adsorbed by the solid activated carbon.



      ABSORPTION is the dissolving and even mixing of a substance in a
      liquid. Think of sugar being mixed into coffee. In an industrial
      application the gas is absorbed by a "scrubbing" liquid.



      Why is activated carbon a good adsorbent?

      Activated carbon is a unique material. No other material natural or
      man made has all these properties and abilities:



      1. It has the ability to adsorb some of almost any vapor.

      2. It has a large capacity for organic molecules, especially
      solvents. 3. It adsorbs and retains a wide variety of chemicals at
      the same time. 4. It works well under a wide range of temperatures
      and humidity levels. 5. It is inert and safe to handle and use. 6.
      It is readily available and affordable.



      What is activated carbon?

      It is a material that has been treated, or activated, to increase
      the internal surface area to the range of 950 to 1150 square meters
      per gram. The internal surface area is what holds the adsorbed gases
      and vapors. It is where the "work" of the filter is done. The term
      activated charcoal is often used interchangeably with activated
      carbon. They refer to the same material.



      How does it work?

      The Non-technical Explanation: It starts with the gas molecule
      coming in contact with the surface of an activated carbon particle.
      The gas molecule comes to rest in a large surface pore on the
      particle. Unbalanced forces on and within the carbon particle cause
      the gas molecule to move down into the smaller pores of the carbon
      particle where it will stop and be held in place. At some point the
      gas molecule will condense and become a liquid particle, trapped
      inside the carbon.



      The Technical Explanation: The adsorbate (gas) diffuses through
      the surface film of macropore structure (activated carbon). Van der
      Walls' forces cause the gas to migrate into the micropore structure,
      condensing during this movement. It stops when either the forces
      become balanced or it is physically blocked.



      What types of gases and vapors are adsorbed?

      Activated carbon is the universal adsorbent and will adsorb "some
      of almost any vapor". Below is a partial list of gases that are
      removed by activated carbon filter systems.



      : Organic Compounds: Acids, Alcohols, Aldehydes

      : Chlorinated Hydrocarbons: Esters, Ethers, Ketones, Mercaptans,
      Amines

      : Inorganic Compounds: Halogen Acids, Halogens, Sulphuric Acid,
      Sulphur Dioxide, Phosgene

      : Odors: Human, Animals, Food, Waste Processes, Cooking



      Source:

      James W. Kasmark Jr.; B.S. Mechanical Engineering; President D-
      MARK; "Activated Carbon" Why is it used?, ©2000, D-Mark Inc.



      Slainte!
      regards Harry
    • sonum norbu
      Thank you Harry. You answered everything I wanted to know in words suitable for a poor Archaeology major, not a chemist :)) What amazing stuff it is!!! Thanks
      Message 2 of 4 , Oct 2, 2005
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        Thank you Harry. You answered everything I wanted to know in words
        suitable for a poor Archaeology major, not a chemist :)) What amazing
        stuff it is!!! Thanks again..... blanikdog.

        ----- Original Message -----
        From: Harry
        To: new_distillers@yahoogroups.com
        Subject: [new_distillers] Re: Activated carbon
        Date: Mon, 03 Oct 2005 04:37:36 -0000

        --- In new_distillers@yahoogroups.com, "sonum norbu" <blanik@o...>
        wrote:
        > A question for the chemists out there. How is activated
        carbon "activated"? What does "activated" mean? Could one use
        charcoal from a fire burning Box (australian hardwood) and crushing
        the hell out of it? blanikdog



        Charcoal is carbon. Activated charcoal is charcoal that has been
        treated with oxygen to open up millions of tiny pores between the
        carbon atoms.

        According to Encylopedia Britannica...

        The use of special manufacturing techniques results in highly porous
        charcoals that have surface areas of 300-2,000 square metres per
        gram. These so-called active, or activated, charcoals are widely
        used to adsorb odorous or coloured substances from gases or liquids.

        The word adsorb is important here. When a material adsorbs
        something, it attaches to it by chemical attraction. The huge
        surface area of activated charcoal gives it countless bonding sites.
        When certain chemicals pass next to the carbon surface, they attach
        to the surface and are trapped. Activated charcoal is good at
        trapping other carbon-based impurities ("organic" chemicals), as
        well as things like chlorine.

        Many other chemicals are not attracted to carbon at all -- sodium,
        nitrates, etc. -- so they pass right through. This means that an
        activated charcoal filter will remove certain impurities while
        ignoring others. It also means that, once all of the bonding sites
        are filled, an activated charcoal filter stops working. At that
        point you must replace the filter.

        -----------------------------------------------


        Activated Carbon: How and Why It Works



        Adsorption vs. Absorption

        Removing gases and vapors involves capturing particles .01 microns
        and smaller. A micron is 1/25,400 of an inch. Particulate filters,
        like HEPA filters are effective into the .3 micron range. They can
        not and do not remove material that is as small as a gas. Activated
        carbon uses the process of ADSORPTION to remove gases and vapors
        from the air stream. The question often asked is what is the
        difference between ADSORPTION and ABSORPTION.



        ADSORPTION is the physical attraction and adherence of gas or liquid
        (vapor) molecules to the surface of a solid. Gas and vapor molecules
        are adsorbed by the solid activated carbon.



        ABSORPTION is the dissolving and even mixing of a substance in a
        liquid. Think of sugar being mixed into coffee. In an industrial
        application the gas is absorbed by a "scrubbing" liquid.



        Why is activated carbon a good adsorbent?

        Activated carbon is a unique material. No other material natural or
        man made has all these properties and abilities:



        1. It has the ability to adsorb some of almost any vapor.

        2. It has a large capacity for organic molecules, especially
        solvents. 3. It adsorbs and retains a wide variety of chemicals at
        the same time. 4. It works well under a wide range of temperatures
        and humidity levels. 5. It is inert and safe to handle and use. 6.
        It is readily available and affordable.



        What is activated carbon?

        It is a material that has been treated, or activated, to increase
        the internal surface area to the range of 950 to 1150 square meters
        per gram. The internal surface area is what holds the adsorbed gases
        and vapors. It is where the "work" of the filter is done. The term
        activated charcoal is often used interchangeably with activated
        carbon. They refer to the same material.



        How does it work?

        The Non-technical Explanation: It starts with the gas molecule
        coming in contact with the surface of an activated carbon particle.
        The gas molecule comes to rest in a large surface pore on the
        particle. Unbalanced forces on and within the carbon particle cause
        the gas molecule to move down into the smaller pores of the carbon
        particle where it will stop and be held in place. At some point the
        gas molecule will condense and become a liquid particle, trapped
        inside the carbon.



        The Technical Explanation: The adsorbate (gas) diffuses through
        the surface film of macropore structure (activated carbon). Van der
        Walls' forces cause the gas to migrate into the micropore structure,
        condensing during this movement. It stops when either the forces
        become balanced or it is physically blocked.



        What types of gases and vapors are adsorbed?

        Activated carbon is the universal adsorbent and will adsorb "some
        of almost any vapor". Below is a partial list of gases that are
        removed by activated carbon filter systems.



        : Organic Compounds: Acids, Alcohols, Aldehydes

        : Chlorinated Hydrocarbons: Esters, Ethers, Ketones, Mercaptans,
        Amines

        : Inorganic Compounds: Halogen Acids, Halogens, Sulphuric Acid,
        Sulphur Dioxide, Phosgene

        : Odors: Human, Animals, Food, Waste Processes, Cooking



        Source:

        James W. Kasmark Jr.; B.S. Mechanical Engineering; President D-
        MARK; "Activated Carbon" Why is it used?, ©2000, D-Mark Inc.



        Slainte!
        regards Harry







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      • Harry
        ... You can download a free 28 page pdf from Gert Strand about activated carbon and details of how it s made and used. Apart from the glaring mistake of
        Message 3 of 4 , Oct 3, 2005
        • 0 Attachment
          --- In new_distillers@yahoogroups.com, "sonum norbu" <blanik@o...>
          wrote:
          > Thank you Harry. You answered everything I wanted to know in words
          > suitable for a poor Archaeology major, not a chemist :)) What amazing
          > stuff it is!!! Thanks again..... blanikdog.



          You can download a free 28 page pdf from Gert Strand about activated
          carbon and details of how it's made and used. Apart from the glaring
          mistake of ADsorption vs ABsorption, the booklet is an interesting
          read.
          http://www.home-distillation.com/freebook.html


          Slainte!
          regards Harry
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