A few days ago I said I would provide extracts from my

new exposition Grand Design in the works of Leonardo,

Vitruvius, Plato and Herodotus. The extracts enhance

the material in another of my works How Plato

designed Atlantis.

The first thing to say about the following material is

that it represents only one strand of a larger theme

from a unique ancient design technique. Nevertheless,

the examples given below have historic significance.

They should enable readers to reach some conclusions

about the claims I made in the expositions synopsis.

The strand in the examples relates to the number 36

and variants of that number, such as 360, a number

associated in antiquity with the number of days in a

sacred year. There are many published discussions on

this matter. Thirty-six is a square number: 6 x 6.

The second matter relates to Greek and Roman measures.

A Roman foot and a Greek foot each contained 16 digit

divisions. Sixteen is another square number: 4 x 4.

A Greek stade contained 600 Greek feet.

Here, then, is data for thought and discussion.

1. PLATO

In a commentary on Platos Republic, the Greek

philosophers most famous book, James Adam, author of

The Republic of Plato writes:

We know from the Laws that Plato counted 360 days

in the year. (Adam, Vol. II, p. 301)

Adams footnote to this passage states:

The number of Senators in the Laws is 360: these are

to be divided into 12 sections of 30 each, and each

section is to administer the State for one month. The

number 60 with its multiples and divisors is the

dominant number throughout the Laws. 360 days is of

course only an ideal division of the year: see § 6.

Plato elsewhere recognises (with Philolaus) 364 1/2

days (Rep. IX 587 E ). (Adam, Vol. II, p. 301)

2. VITRUVIAN MAN

Leonardo da Vincis famous illustration of Vitruvian

Man, the man in the square and the circle, generally

follows the formulation given by the Roman architect

Vitruvius in his famous treatise The Ten Books on

Architecture (Book 3.1.1 7). I recommend the

version translated by Morris Hicky Morgan and

published by Dover: see website below. Leonardos

illustration is also provided on the second website

below.

Websites:

http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999.02.0073&query=

http://encarta.msn.com/media_461530019/Vitruvian_Man.html

Note the lines marked on the body by Leonardo. The

lines on the upper body are locations mentioned by

Vitruvius.

Vitruvius says the well shaped man is six feet tall

and that the measure of his outstretched arms is the

same. Accordingly, the square is 6 by 6 feet, an area

of 36 square feet.

3. THE OUTSTRETCHED ARMS OF VITRUVIAN MAN

In Book 3.1.2 Vitruvius says the breadth of the breast

is one fourth of the body height. Accordingly, the

breadth of the breast is 1.5 feet (one cubit). See

the lines on the shoulders in the illustration.

Therefore, the distance from the side of the breast to

the tip of an outstretched arm is 2.25 feet:

2.25 + 1.5 + 2.25 = 6 feet.

The number 2.25 is 1.5 squared, that is, 1.5 x 1.5.

And 2.25 is equal to 36 digits.

4. PLATOS ATLANTIS

There are two main features of Atlantis as described

by Plato in Critias: the central water/land ring

arrangement (see my How Plato designed Atlantis) and

the great rectangular plain 3000 stades by 2000

stades. The plain contains 60,000 allotments, each

allotment being 10 stades by ten stades (includes

water frontages): see Stephanus 118 9. Note how

Plato brings the number six into the discussion. As

previously stated, a Greek stade contained 600 Greek

feet. Therefore each allotment is 6000 by 6000 feet

or 36,000,000 square Greek feet.

5. CENTRAL ATLANTIS

The water and land ring arrangement is circular and is

27 stades in diameter. The radius of the arrangement

is 13.5 stades; 13.5 stades is equal to 8100 Greek

feet or 129,600 Greek digits. The number 129,600 is

360 squared, that is, 360 x 360.

6. HERODOTUS AND A VOYAGE UP THE NILE

In The Histories Herodotus reports that the Egyptian

coastline measures 3600 stades and that this is equal

to 60 schoeni (an Egyptian measure, he reports): see

Book 2.6 7. The number 3600 is a square number:

60 x 60.

A few paragraphs later Herodotus discusses a voyage up

the Nile. Heliopolis is, he says, 4860 stades from

Thebes (Book 2.9). The distance 4860 stades can be

expressed in terms of digits: 4860 x 600 (the number

of feet in a stade) = 2,916,000 Greek feet. Multiply

the latter number by 16, the number of digits in a

foot, and the product is 46,656,000 digits.

The number 46,656,000 can be expressed as 360 x 360 x

360, that is, 360 cubed. Compare this with the

Atlantis radius formulation of 360 x 360 digits.

All this is brought into a clear, cohesive and larger

context in Grand Design in the works of Leonardo,

Vitruvius, Plato and Herodotus. I hope that any

reader using this material for other purposes will

properly attribute the source. (I have been

disappointed, but not surprised, to find that some

data from the Atlantis exposition is being used in a

less than ethical manner.

Regards

Les Greenhill

--- j_t_palomares <j_t_palomares@...> wrote:

> Hi Les,

P.O. Box 314

>

> What points did you have in mind?

>

> JT

>

>

> --- In neoplatonism@yahoogroups.com, leslie

> greenhill

> <neoplatonist2000@...> wrote:

> >

> > To get the ball rolling, has anyone

> > looked at "The Histories" by Herodotus from a

> > Pythagorean point of view?

> >

> > Les Greenhill

> >

> >

>

>

>

>

>

Mentone, Victoria 3194 Australia

Email: neoplatonist2000@...

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