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  • mytholog66 <fantalov@rambler.ru>
    Alex Fantalov CULTURE of BARBAROUS EUROPE: TYPOLOGY of MYTHOLOGICAL IMAGES The Thesis on competition a scientific degree of the candidate of cultural science
    Message 1 of 1 , Jan 30, 2003
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      Alex Fantalov

      CULTURE of BARBAROUS EUROPE:

      TYPOLOGY of MYTHOLOGICAL IMAGES

      The Thesis on competition a scientific degree of the candidate of
      cultural science


      Chapter 1. Barbarous Europe and typology problem of mythological
      characters.

      1.1. Barbarous Europe, and it cultural worlds

      Concept of "Barbarous Europe ".

      The Term "barbarians" - "bearded", having the Greek origin, has
      undergone the certain evolution in scientific and ordinary
      consciousness. Greeks of classical epoch named so all other peoples.
      Such opposition of "we" - "outsiders" is present in any cultures.
      Hence, Greeks included in concept "barbarians" and representatives
      advanced ancient oriental civilisations: Egyptians, Babylonians,
      Lydians, and Phoenicians. From the point of view of ancient Greek
      thinkers, for example, Aristotle, such division existed and will
      exist always.

      The Romans, former pupils and successors of Greeks apprehended this
      terminology. But they bring about an extensive coloniser politics,
      first of all in Europe (Iberia, Gallia, Illyria, Thrace, Britain),
      involving in an orbit of the activity and a way of life independent
      peoples. Those, accepting the Roman order, "Pax Romana", as though
      ceased be "barbarians", becoming, on modern expression by "civilised
      people", (as, for example, Gallo-Romans). Hence, "barbarians", from
      the point of view of Rome are peoples and tribes of Europe, yet not
      had time to perceive an antiques culture (or it is active opposed to
      this). Thus, the Romans perceived " Barbarous Europe " - "Barbaricum"
      as a certain ethnic-cultural integrity. This opposition was promoted
      also by that the Roman world and Barbaricum belonged to various types
      of culture: The first - to type of culture of the antique policy, the
      second - to type of culture of cattlemen - nomads (Kagan, 2000, v.1,
      162-165). Though traditionally nomads name Turkish-Mongolian peoples
      of the Central Asia, it is necessary to recognise, that the expanded
      understanding of the term including numerous vagrant peoples allows
      see the nomadic world as the global history-cultural phenomenon.
      Peoples of Barbarous Europe can be considered as a part of this
      world, showing characteristic for it three dominants: " cattle
      breeding, a nomadic way of life and aggression " (Kagan, 2000, v.1,
      182). Even in 12 century in the Irish and Scottish kingdoms the
      cattle played a role of the basic riches.

      The Roman understanding in any measure has inherited and arisen in
      bowels of empire Christianity. But when it became prevailing,
      confession of the Christian doctrine was included in number of
      necessary attributes of a belonging to a civilisation also. The
      follower of new belief began to refer to as a proud name "Roman",
      opposing itself "Paganus" - to the pagan as whom it could be
      understood both the native of empire and the foreigner. Later the
      countryman was named Paganus (and not casually - in a countryside
      pagan rites longly kept).

      Then, half christianisiried and romanisiried German have destroyed
      decayed Rome and have based the medieval world. But elements of the
      Roman ideology were kept. To tell the truth, new, feudal way is not
      deduced neither from antique society, nor from the Christian
      community, and represents generation of a "barbarous" society (for
      example, feudal tournament performance, probably, occurs from love of
      barbarians to tinsel and vanity). To some extent, it is a way for the
      tribe of the conquerors, which have replaced besides a habitant
      landscape to dominate over conquested Roman population. On the other
      hand, the European feudalism has, probably, and deeper roots about
      what speak feature of the organisation Celt to a generality
      supervising the Western Europe in pre-Roman times.

      Despite of the introduced innovations, representation about universal
      empire as about the certain ideal it was kept. From here and Charles
      Great's crowning, and " Sacred Roman empire of the German nation ",
      and even an imperial title of Napoleon. The western Europeans began
      to name "Barbarians" peoples which were not recognising religious
      authority Roman pontifics and political (let even fictitious)
      domination of new emperors. Mainly peoples of the East Europe fell
      under this concept.

      After 16 century, in connection with secularisation of the Western
      Europe, last, having lost the name " the Christian world ", to epoch
      of Education began to be called as the world "civilised". Gradually
      the belonging to the Christian religion (not only in its western
      variant, but also as a whole) has ceased to play a role of the
      indicator for entry in this cultural - historical generality. Crucial
      importance, as well as in the Roman epoch, has received opposition of
      "barbarity" and "civilisation". From the similar point of view,
      mastering by such exotic country as Japan of some political,
      technological, legal standards has attached it to the Western,
      "civilised" world.

      In scientific area the Roman understanding of "barbarians", as
      peoples of the ancient Europe which has been not covered with an
      antique civilisation was fixed. But there is also a parallel tendency
      to treat the term as any stage of development. For example, Marks,
      speaking about the periods of "barbarity" previous to the state
      development and "wildness followed for Morgan. This approach has
      except for lacks and the certain advantages. You see Greeks have
      realised the delimitation with next peoples since the certain period.
      As writes N. Nikulina "... Division into Greeks and non-Greeks "
      barbarians " has arisen, in essence, only in the classical period of
      the Greek history, after well-known Greek-Persian wars in which
      Greeks have gained a brilliant victory " (N. Nikulina, 1994, p. 20).
      And if we shall glance deep into their histories we shall see, that
      ancestors of Spartans have come to Balkan Peninsula in 12-th. c. BD
      From the Central Europe where lived side by side with ancestors the
      Celts, Illyrians, Germans, Balts and other, nothing being allocated
      among them. And others pre-Greek tribes were from different places of
      Europe where in any way did not surpass in the civilised to a level
      its other peoples. Means, they were then barbarians, similarly to the
      neighbours. We shall not approve "barbarians" environmental peoples
      began then when Greeks have counted as their those. And the
      transition to "civilisation" occured gradually. Macedonians, for
      example, were slighted as "barbarians" even after Peloponess war.
      Even later "civilised people" have realised itself the Romans and
      Italics as a whole.

      The stage conception of "barbarity" has important value for the
      present research. It is the most probable that mythopoethic the
      tradition is a product of oral creativity of peoples which are taking
      place at a heroic, "barbarous" step of development. Indian rishas,
      Celtic bards Scandinavian skalds and even Greek aedas sang of gods
      and brave leaders with such force of images because their hearts were
      young. On words Levi-Strauss, in "... Those last times creators were
      such format what now seems outside achievable ".

      And ingenious Italian J. Viko, developed in 18 century (on a material
      of Europe and Near East) wrote the cyclic concept of a history about
      two circulations of development. The first covered the Ancient world.
      The beginning of it is lost in depth of centuries when king-priests
      ruled. Over their era was triumphed with "religious times". Then
      there has come homeric epoch which Viko has named "heroic" from time
      to time. They were topped with Roman empire with the monarchic
      principle ratified in it. Each time, on Viko, was characterised by
      the type of legal norms: "The divine law", "the heroic law", "the
      human law". The new cycle of a history began from " the second
      barbarity " (we speak - the period of Great resettlement of peoples).
      Then " the divine right " (we shall recollect " the divine court " in
      legal practice) again was established. Divine times were replaced
      from time to time heroic (aristocratic) with their feudal wars and
      crusades. And, at last, in New Time there has come epoch of civil
      times. From the theory of the Italian thinker follows, by the way,
      that " human times " for outcome and we stand on a threshold of "the
      third barbarity".



      Ethnic-cultural and chronological limits of a material:

      It Is necessary to note, that Barbarous Europe as cultural -
      historical unity, it was formed almost exclusively " Indo-European by
      Europeans ". Peoples which are taking place outside Indo-European
      language family (Iberians, Picts etc.) turned in relicts to time of
      the beginning of the period interesting us, have left rather limited
      pagan heritage.

      The language criterion is put in terms of the allocation of this or
      that mythological tradition standard in a science. It is connected to
      names of German scientists A. Kun, W. Manhard, English M. Muller,
      Russian F. Buslajev, I. Afanasjev and others, basing on achievements
      of comparative-historical linguistics and aimed at reconstruction
      Indo-European mythologies as initial system of mythological
      representations of ancestors of modern peoples of this language
      family. "We consider Indo-European mythology as set Hittite (and
      others Anatolean mythologies - Luwian, Pali and later - Lydian,
      Lycian), Aryan (including the Indian mythology, the Iranian
      mythology, Dard and Nuristan (Cafir), middle East, aryan
      mythologies), the Armenian mythology, the Greek mythology, Italic
      mythologies, Celt mythologies, the German-Scandinavian mythology, the
      Baltic mythology, Slavic mythology, Tocharic mythologies, and also
      fragments of mythologies concerning to Albanian, Thracian, Illyrian,
      Phrygian, Venetian and to some other traditions known in incomplete
      transfer " (Myths of nations of the world, 1998, ò. 1, 527).

      The Second criterion for allocation of this or that tradition are
      this to archaeology. An origin Indo-European frequently connect to
      archaeological culture of fighting axes. This culture reached in the
      beginning 3 thousand BD From Jutland up to Volga. To speak about any
      representatives nowadays existing language groups, in view of full
      absence of written certificates it is not necessary. In the period
      with late bronze up to early Iron Age (14 - 7-th. c. BD) the
      significant part of the Western and Central Europe was occupied with
      so-called culture of fields of burials. In parallel there were
      cultures in Scandinavia and the East Europe. It is probable, then
      already there was a process of formation of European peoples known to
      us. Nevertheless, a gloom around of their history clears away later
      (Laten period - with 5 c. BD) when they get in sight the Greek
      authors.

      With reference to this time, using in aggregate linguistic and
      archaeological criteria, experts allocate large cultural a
      generality. For example, in Europe on the limit of 1-th c. BD M. B.
      Shchukin totals such 7 unites, having named them " the cultural
      worlds ". " All these worlds are not monoethnical and not
      monocultural, and represent conglomerates of various archaeological
      cultures, various tribes and peoples (that cultures and ethnoses not
      necessarily coincide with each other). But making each world have and
      the certain similarity caused by a number of the reasons - similar
      forms of economic activities, the social organisation, an
      environment, and also following from here and similarity of structure
      of the majority of cultures of everyone of " the world ", and,
      probably, in any measure and a mental warehouse of overwhelming part
      of the population that is most adequately reflected in art, but also
      in the general shape of culture." (Shchukin, 1994, with. 12 - 13).
      Conditionally Shchukin calls these worlds 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7,
      but recognises, that in fact these were the Greeks and Italics, the
      Celts , the Germanics , the Balts , the Finno-Ugrics, the Scythian-
      Sarmatians, the Thracian-Dacians , though considers, that in this
      worlds could enter and peoples of other language groups. "The
      cultural world" the present research and as a whole will adhere to
      this definition of concept. However the classical antiquity is behind
      frameworks of Barbarous Europe. It represented, faster, other pole of
      existence forming together with " a pole of barbarians " more
      extensive system. These both poles were in close interaction. Do not
      enter into a circle of Barbarous Europe and the Finno-Ugrics which
      are not Indo-European and practically did not contact to a classical
      antiquity and had special historical destiny. On the other hand, as
      in the present research wider time interval is mentioned, rather than
      in work Shchukin, to number of the cultural worlds of considered
      region it is necessary to attribute also the Slavs (which are not
      taken into account). Shchukin believes, that they were not generated
      yet by 1 century AD) and the Illyrians (the last from Shchukin's
      point of view already have left to a limit millennium from a
      historical stage). So, we have seven cultural worlds of Barbarous
      Europe: Celt, Germanic-Scandinavian, Baltic, Scythian-Sarmatian,
      Thracian-Dacian, Illyrian, Slavic ones. Except for them and a
      classical antiquity this research repeatedly addresses to some other
      related Indo-European to the cultural worlds: Etruscan, Hittite-
      Luwian, Iranian and Indian, giving the important additional
      information.

      Chronologically the material is marked as follows. In mass volume,
      the works of art, able to comprise mythological images and the plots
      correlated with references, start to appear in Barbarous Europe from
      the beginning of the Iron Age (so-called Halstadt With - 7 in. AD,
      and it is especial from the following behind it Laten the period -
      with 5-th. c. BD). To this time have arisen the Celts and the Slavs ,
      Thracian-Dacian and Illyrian the cultural worlds (be relative so
      early origin of Germanic-Scandinavians, Balts and Slavs are not
      present such confidence). And, that it is important, in the same
      period cultural has stood apart, having opposed itself to
      "barbarians" antique Greece, (the fact having far-reaching
      consequences).

      The top limit of existence of Barbarous Europe is more dim. In
      territory of Roman Empire by which were won Celt and the Thracian-
      Dacians the worlds, the Christianity was ratified in 4-th AD,
      superseding pagan cults. In parallel there was slower process of
      christening of the German, finished to 10-th AD the Scythian-
      Sarmatians became victims of epoch of Great resettlement of peoples
      though their relict - Alanians, has escaped in mountains of Caucasus
      and has created rich epic the tradition richly sated with
      mythological motives.

      Pagan mythology Slavs and Scandinavians Longer kept. At the last it
      even has gone through original blossoming in 5 - 11-th. c. AD That
      were "overdue flowers northern paganism" Nevertheless, by 12 century
      christening of Slavs and Scandinavians basically was completed. Last
      bastion - Lithuanian paganism has fallen in the beginning of 15
      centuries.

      All told concerns to pagan cults as to prevailing system of outlook.
      But at a level of folklore and a folk art vestiges of mythology were
      strongly kept up to 19 - the beginnings of 20 centuries. They also
      are the important materials for the researcher.

      The Basic cultural worlds of Barbarous Europe had in many respects
      the common destiny. They have taken place from uniform Indo-European
      a root, during centuries keeping similarity in pagan cults and
      mythologies. Thus an enormous role in their evolutions the Greek-
      Roman influence (mentioned, in particular, iconography and writing)
      has played. Characteristic absence at peoples, taking place on heroic
      - a "barbarous" stage of development of graphic tradition,
      apparently, is. We can observe a similar collision on various
      examples. D.S. Raevsky writes: " In pre-Scythian epoch in Northern
      Black Sea coast in an equal measure are not known neither images of
      the person, nor the image of animals <...> We Compare these data to
      that fact, that in a history Indo-Aryans, promoted on territory
      Hindustan Peninsula, also existed the long period when they,
      probably, did not know the fine arts <...> Have not brought with
      itself the fine arts and the Iranians, settled on a boundary 2 - 1
      millenniums AD On the Iranian plateau: in a basis of the graphic
      tradition existing here later, has lain, on V.G. Lukonina's
      expression, " style of citations ", ò. å. She(it) was generated on
      the basis of borrowing images and iconographic circuits from an
      arsenal of art of Near East of previous time. " (Raevsky, 1985, 89 -
      90). The Germans borrowed graphic receptions at the Romans, Celts
      borrowed them at the Etruscans, and those, in turn - at Greeks.
      Certainly, the heroic stage frequently is characterised by a high
      level of spiritual culture and barbarians, using another's
      iconographic circuits, put in them the original maintenance. However
      the temptation of the next advanced civilisation always very strongly
      influences barbarians. Any of peoples of Barbarous Europe could not
      from the beginning and up to the end to pass the original way of
      development, being cultural is absorbed antique, or in later time
      Christian by the worlds. Any of these peoples has not generated the
      steady centralised power within the framework of the primary
      tradition. The Celts, Thracian-Dacians and Scythian-Sarmatians became
      victims of a gain. German and Slavic peoples built the statehood on
      the basis of the Christian-Roman heritage. Nevertheless, features
      Indo-European traditions appeared are deeply implanted in the
      European cultures, rendering powerful influence on all subsequent
      history of these parts of the world. In feudal epoch they became
      important making simultaneously national and aristocratic outlooks,
      and in 19 century - during formation of the national states of Europe
      were claimed by the new intelligence searching for ways of self-
      identification.

      So, summarising told, it is possible to tell, that the concept of
      "barbarity" of this research has incorporated:

      1. cultural historical ("Roman") understanding;

      2. religious ("medieval") understanding;

      3. stage understanding.

      Cultural - historical concept " Barbarous Europe " is because it was
      occupied by peoples having general Indo-European the origin and on
      which, besides, a strong print influence of a powerful Greek-Roman
      civilization has lain. Religious concept it is owing to domination in
      its territory of the pagan religions also having a uniform origin. At
      last, it is possible to consider Barbarous Europe and with stage
      points of view as its existence passed within the limits of the
      delayed heroic century which overcoming for this or that people
      meant, simultaneously, and an output from uniform "barbarous"
      cultural space. The territory of this space, certainly, varied for so
      long period of a history. In different time it occupied space of
      modern Spain, France, British Isles, Germany, Scandinavia, Central
      and the East Europe (up to Volga).

      Our days, it is possible to divide Barbarous Europe, as well as
      Europe into two big regions conditionally. The first covers its west,
      the second - the centre and the east. The tradition of similar
      differentiation takes the beginning in the Greek sources speaking
      about "Celts" and "Scythians" (using these concepts it is wider, than
      we). The West-European barbarians is the Celts and German, "
      barbarians in the pure state ", taking place in close interaction
      with each other. Besides peoples Celt and the German-Scandinavian
      groups occupy unique position among other European barbarians on
      volume of the mythological heritage. And it in an equal measure
      concerns both the fine arts, and literary monuments. The analogy
      between the Celts and German-Scandinavians in this question is rather
      remarkable. Continental the Celts (basically Gauls) have created huge
      quantity of images of the gods, but have not left mythological texts.
      But island tradition (mainly Irish, but also and British) have kept
      great mythoephic the tradition comparable on volume with antique.
      German peoples (to be exact, their Scandinavian branch) posess the
      significant file of the pagan fine arts concentrating on continent -
      in Sweden, to Denmark, Norway. But the mythology was besides kept on
      island - in Iceland. Thus, the West-European barbarians are
      favourably allocated in comparison with the east neighbours who are
      almost not having in writing fixed myths.

      However, at significant similarity of situations in the field of
      preservation Celt and the Scandinavian mythologies, a parity
      iconography and a textual material in both traditions unequally. The
      Irish sagas have undergone to powerful processing from positions of
      the Christian doctrine. Therefore, in business of reconstruction Celt
      pantheon monuments of pagan, continental art have paramount value. On
      the contrary, the Scandinavian written sources were kept in rather
      complete kind and allow to be guided by them at the analysis of
      artefacts (and chronological break between them is not so great).

      The Celts and German long time were the basic contenders of a
      classical antiquity, and have made skeleton of feudal Europe later.
      Their many primary features have determined process of a medieval
      society.

      Central and the East Europe more mosaic region. Its territory can be
      divided into three smaller sizes of area by cultural - historical and
      language criteria. The first was occupied the Thracians and
      Illyrians, the second Scythians and Sarmatians, the third Balts and
      Slavs. Many philologists - Indo-European as it was already marked,
      carry these peoples to east branch of this language family allocated
      some more of A. Meje. A.N. Savchenko includes in it Indo-Iranians,
      Greeks, Armenians, Phrigians, Thracians, Balts and Slavs - the truth,
      without Illyrians (Savchenko, 1974, p. 374 - 375). On this question
      there is no full clearness. However, for mentioned peoples of East
      and Central Europe the common tendencies of social-cultural
      development that was reflected and in mythological representations
      are characteristic. It is typical, that Thracians, Illyrians,
      Scythians, Sarmatians, Balts practically have not kept the texts
      containing a coherent statement of legends about gods and attitudes
      between them. Instead of it we have late folklore and brief
      annalistic data. But the leading role in reconstruction of mythology
      of region is played with the fine arts. Studying of this material
      allows to draw a conclusion, that characteristic feature pagan (and
      appreciably and post pagan) ideologies central and East-European
      peoples, at all variants, is reverence in quality of very important
      religious object of the horseman on a white horse, "king of past and
      future", messiah.


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