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Re: religion in Tolkien

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  • Margaret L. Carter
    Doubtless most of you have read Gracia Fay Ellwood s 1970 book GOOD NEWS FROM TOLKIEN S MIDDLE EARTH? Amazon has a handful of used copies. Margaret Carter
    Message 1 of 22 , Oct 14, 2010
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      Doubtless most of you have read Gracia Fay Ellwood's 1970 book GOOD
      NEWS FROM TOLKIEN'S MIDDLE EARTH? Amazon has a handful of used copies.

      Margaret Carter
    • Ellen
      I ve been reading these book suggestions with interest, because I m scheduled to be on a panel at the World Fantasy Convention at the end of the month with the
      Message 2 of 22 , Oct 14, 2010
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        I've been reading these book suggestions with interest, because I'm scheduled to be on a panel at the World Fantasy Convention at the end of the month with the following topic.  Note that I did not have any part in coming up with this topic or its wording:
        ---
        Why is There No Religion in Middle Earth? Lin Carter used to argue about this. Why are there no priests and temples in Tolkien's world? Is it because Tolkien was squeamish about paganism (made up gods) or is there a more profound explanation?
        ---
        For starters, I don't think the question really works as framed.  I don't think one can claim that there is no religion in Middle Earth, so this is one of the first things I'd address.  What I would assume is meant is something more like, "why did the characters in LotR not participate in organized worship?"  I have not read Lin Carter's work but have requested it from my local library.  However, from what I've read I'm not sure how worthwhile it is as a source, since he wrote it well before the publication of The Silmarillion or Tolkien's letters.  Can anyone who has read Lin Carter's "Tolkien: A Look Behind the Lord of the RIngs" comment on this?

        My sources I am prepared to discuss are Tolkien's letters, particularly the draft of a letter to Peter Hastings from September 1954 (p. 152 in my edition), the biography by Humphrey Carpenter, and of course LotR and The Silmarillion.  I'm also taking another look at "Morgoth's Ring" because if I recall correctly, there is some relevant information in the section on the Laws and Customs of the Eldar.  It's been a while since I read HoME.

        Are there other sources I should check out before the panel?  Of the books suggested on the subject in this thread, is there one in particular that might be useful?  Keep in mind that this is a panel discussion and I'm sure the other panelists will bring some interesting things to the discussion, and I don't have much time between now and then.

        Thanks,

        Ellen Denham

        On 10/14/10 2:06 PM, Margaret L. Carter wrote:  

        Doubtless most of you have read Gracia Fay Ellwood's 1970 book GOOD
        NEWS FROM TOLKIEN'S MIDDLE EARTH? Amazon has a handful of used copies.

        Margaret Carter

      • scribbler@scribblerworks.us
        If the discussion is launched from Lin Carter s observations, it sort of loses all force from the beginning. When his book came out, there was virtually
        Message 3 of 22 , Oct 14, 2010
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          If the discussion is launched from Lin Carter's observations, it sort of
          loses all force from the beginning. When his book came out, there was
          virtually nothing at all on Tolkien that most people knew of. I in fact
          read it in high school. From where I am now, I'd say that Carter's
          observations are excessively simplistic. If the only definition of
          "religion/faith" in a secondary world is something represented by massive
          temples and objects, hierarchies of priests and followers, complicated
          rituals - then no, you won't find it in LotR.

          But if you look closer: ceremonies of commemoration (such at the Rangers
          of Ithilien at sunset - remembering Numenor), the hymn to Elbereth, the
          references to the Secret Flame on the bridge of Khazadum, and then the
          discussions between Gandalf and Frodo about how Frodo was "meant" to have
          the Ring, meant by someone (implied) other than Sauron. These are all
          reflections of some issues of faith as opposed to "structural religion".




          > I've been reading these book suggestions with interest, because I'm
          > scheduled to be on a panel at the World Fantasy Convention at the end of
          > the month with the following topic. Note that I did not have any part
          > in coming up with this topic or its wording:
          > ---
          > Why is There No Religion in Middle Earth? Lin Carter used to argue about
          > this. Why are there no priests and temples in Tolkien's world? Is it
          > because Tolkien was squeamish about paganism (made up gods) or is there
          > a more profound explanation?
          > ---
          > For starters, I don't think the question really works as framed. I
          > don't think one can claim that there is no religion in Middle Earth, so
          > this is one of the first things I'd address. What I would assume is
          > meant is something more like, "why did the characters in LotR not
          > participate in organized worship?" I have not read Lin Carter's work
          > but have requested it from my local library. However, from what I've
          > read I'm not sure how worthwhile it is as a source, since he wrote it
          > well before the publication of The Silmarillion or Tolkien's letters.
          > Can anyone who has read Lin Carter's "Tolkien: A Look Behind the Lord of
          > the RIngs" comment on this?
          >
          > My sources I am prepared to discuss are Tolkien's letters, particularly
          > the draft of a letter to Peter Hastings from September 1954 (p. 152 in
          > my edition), the biography by Humphrey Carpenter, and of course LotR and
          > The Silmarillion. I'm also taking another look at "Morgoth's Ring"
          > because if I recall correctly, there is some relevant information in the
          > section on the Laws and Customs of the Eldar. It's been a while since I
          > read HoME.
          >
          > Are there other sources I should check out before the panel? Of the
          > books suggested on the subject in this thread, is there one in
          > particular that might be useful? Keep in mind that this is a panel
          > discussion and I'm sure the other panelists will bring some interesting
          > things to the discussion, and I don't have much time between now and then.
          >
          > Thanks,
          >
          > Ellen Denham
          >
          > On 10/14/10 2:06 PM, Margaret L. Carter wrote:
          >>
          >> Doubtless most of you have read Gracia Fay Ellwood's 1970 book GOOD
          >> NEWS FROM TOLKIEN'S MIDDLE EARTH? Amazon has a handful of used copies.
          >>
          >> Margaret Carter
          >>
          >>
          >
        • Cristina
          For those interested in religious themes in LOTR, the letters are a good source. Another source, already mentioned by someone else in this list, is Peter
          Message 4 of 22 , Oct 14, 2010
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            For those interested in religious themes in LOTR, the letters are a good source.

            Another source, already mentioned by someone else in this list, is Peter Kreeft's "Philosophy of Tolkien". The weakness of that book is that some details cited from LOTR are inaccurate, but Peter Kreeft's insights are superb. I also recommend "Tolkien: Man and Myth" by Joseph Pearce.

            There's this other book, "Sanctifying Myth" by Bradley Birzer but reviews of that book are mixed. But I mention it because you might want to read it and decide for yourself whether it helps.

            Another book that touches on religious themes in JRRT's writings is "Lord of the Elves and the Eldils" by Richard Purtill. I haven't read that book, though, so I can't comment on it.

            --- In mythsoc@yahoogroups.com, Ellen <carnimiriel@...> wrote:
            >
            > I've been reading these book suggestions with interest, because I'm
            > scheduled to be on a panel at the World Fantasy Convention at the end of
            > the month with the following topic. Note that I did not have any part
            > in coming up with this topic or its wording:
            > ---
            > Why is There No Religion in Middle Earth? Lin Carter used to argue about
            > this. Why are there no priests and temples in Tolkien's world? Is it
            > because Tolkien was squeamish about paganism (made up gods) or is there
            > a more profound explanation?
            > ---
            > For starters, I don't think the question really works as framed. I
            > don't think one can claim that there is no religion in Middle Earth, so
            > this is one of the first things I'd address. What I would assume is
            > meant is something more like, "why did the characters in LotR not
            > participate in organized worship?" I have not read Lin Carter's work
            > but have requested it from my local library. However, from what I've
            > read I'm not sure how worthwhile it is as a source, since he wrote it
            > well before the publication of The Silmarillion or Tolkien's letters.
            > Can anyone who has read Lin Carter's "Tolkien: A Look Behind the Lord of
            > the RIngs" comment on this?
            >
            > My sources I am prepared to discuss are Tolkien's letters, particularly
            > the draft of a letter to Peter Hastings from September 1954 (p. 152 in
            > my edition), the biography by Humphrey Carpenter, and of course LotR and
            > The Silmarillion. I'm also taking another look at "Morgoth's Ring"
            > because if I recall correctly, there is some relevant information in the
            > section on the Laws and Customs of the Eldar. It's been a while since I
            > read HoME.
            >
            > Are there other sources I should check out before the panel? Of the
            > books suggested on the subject in this thread, is there one in
            > particular that might be useful? Keep in mind that this is a panel
            > discussion and I'm sure the other panelists will bring some interesting
            > things to the discussion, and I don't have much time between now and then.
            >
            > Thanks,
            >
            > Ellen Denham
            >
            > On 10/14/10 2:06 PM, Margaret L. Carter wrote:
            > >
            > > Doubtless most of you have read Gracia Fay Ellwood's 1970 book GOOD
            > > NEWS FROM TOLKIEN'S MIDDLE EARTH? Amazon has a handful of used copies.
            > >
            > > Margaret Carter
            > >
            > >
            >
          • David Bratman
            If we re going to respond to Lin Carter - which I am about to do at considerable length - we need to have at hand what he actually said. Carter s contentious
            Message 5 of 22 , Oct 14, 2010
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              If we're going to respond to Lin Carter - which I am about to do at
              considerable length - we need to have at hand what he actually said.

              Carter's contentious comments on religion in Tolkien appeared only briefly
              in his 1969 book on Tolkien, which was focused on placing LOTR in the
              context of the history of fantasy literature, rather than on evaluating
              Tolkien's work. But his 1973 book _Imaginary Worlds_ was a history of
              fantasy, and its view of Tolkien was focused on evaluating his achievement
              in that context. LOTR had been so widely praised that Carter felt there was
              room to emphasize what he saw as the book's flaws, and one of the things he
              said was this: When he writes that "Tolkien's world has no religion in it,"
              Iluvatar and the Valar don't count.

              "That is not what I am talking about," he writes. "A religion is much more
              than just the presence of an actual god, or gods; it is also an established
              canon of inspired writings and an organized priesthood, a system of temples
              and shrines, and so on." Medieval societies of the kind Tolkien used as
              models had such an organized religion, he says, and other fantasies inspired
              by them have had them to. Then he gives a long list of examples, from Conan
              the Barbarian on up. "But there is no religion at all in _The Lord of the
              Rings_ - no temples, shrines, priests, prayers, amulets, scriptures, ikons,
              idols - _nothing!_ None of the many characters, not even the heroic
              warriors, so much as swears by his gods. Obviously because they _have_ no
              gods. Which is simply incredible in a primitive world of wizards and
              warriors and walled stone cities." (Imaginary Worlds, p. 122-24)

              The first thing that occurs to me to say in response to this is, "By
              Elbereth and Luthien the Fair, you shall have neither the Ring nor me!"
              which is what Frodo says to the Nazgul at the Ford of Bruinen. Luthien, or
              even Elbereth, may not technically be gods, but from a Catholic author they
              are definitely serving the function of angels or saints in this context.
              Anyway, so much for characters not swearing by them. There are other
              examples; this one is particularly memorable.

              Secondly, Carter has a rather limited idea of what an organized religion
              requires. The medieval Norse, for instance, did not have any canon of
              inspired writings that we know of. Their legends and poems about the gods
              and heroes were neither canonized nor considered sacred texts the way we
              consider the Bible. The Jews, after the fall of the Temple, simply
              abandoned the heriditary priesthood that had served them before that; even
              today, rabbis are not really "clergy" in the sense that Christians use that
              word; a rabbi is a learned man, not a priest. Some Asian religions, I
              believe, do without temples and shrines, and the diaspora Jews also rank low
              on that scale.

              The peoples of Middle-earth, however, do have some of the "and so on" which
              Carter doesn't enumerate. If they don't have a canonized scripture, they do
              have the kind of stories of the gods and heroes of the past that customarily
              appear in scriptures, even a creation myth (though Carter didn't have access
              to this one, as it first appeared in _The Silmarillion_ which hadn't been
              published when he wrote). They have some rituals, notably the moment of
              silence before eating that Faramir and his men perform at Henneth Annun.
              This, Faramir explains, is a gesture of respect towards Eldamar and Valinor,
              so they also have a holy place. They have funerary customs and respect the
              dead, a common religious practice. And, as Carter would say, so on.

              What they have more than any of this, however, are aspects of religion that
              are not dreamt of in Carter's philosophy. These are the moral and spiritual
              content of religious belief, which underlie every action the admirable
              characters take, and indeed drive the whole plot, because it is a spiritual
              concern to rid the world of an evil menace, and not a practical
              consideration to defeat the bad guy in the black hat, that inspires the
              decision to destroy the Ring, rather than - as practical men like Boromir
              would prefer - use it. I hardly need to go into this here, as so many
              authors have done so brilliantly. The best source for this purpose is
              Richard Purtill's _Lord of the Elves and Eldils_, because like Carter he was
              writing before _The Silmarillion_ and proves his case, rather dazzlingly,
              from LOTR alone. (Ellwood's _Good News from Middle-earth_, the other
              pre-Silmarillion religious study of Tolkien, is a hunt for Christ figures
              and new-age woo-woo, and even if you want such things, would not be suitable
              for countering Carter.) Of more recent books on Tolkien's religious
              dimension that consider the posthumous writings, I'd say the best ones which
              still focus mostly on LOTR are _The Battle for Middle-earth_ by Fleming
              Rutledge and _Following Gandalf_ by Matthew Dickerson. (The Birzer and
              Caldecott books mentioned by others are OK, but these are much better.)

              So the answer to Carter is that he's framed his question wrongly - what
              Tolkien lacks is not religion, it's colorful religious trappings - and even
              taken as Carter frames it, his charge is not entirely true. But
              nevertheless, his observations are not entirely hallucinatory, so we can
              also raise the questions of whether what he sees is, as he claims, "simply
              incredible," and of why Tolkien writes it this way. But these are further
              observations on the topic, not directly answers to Carter, because they
              attempt only to explain the case; they don't answer it.

              From an external, author-based perspective, we can say that Tolkien couldn't
              have his pre-Christian characters be Christians, for obvious chronological
              reasons, but he didn't want to have them worshipping false gods, so he made
              them the virtuous pagans of (mostly hypothetical) Christian theology. Some
              of the authors on religion in Tolkien go into this point.

              From an internal, character-based perspective, though, there's an answer so
              breath-taking that, again, it is not dreamt of in Carter's philosophy. The
              reason his pagan warriors don't worship false gods is that, through the
              Elves, and they through the Valar, have unfiltered access to the truth about
              the spiritual universe. (The truth as Tolkien sees it, of course, but as an
              author he has the right to make his Catholic theology the unfettered truth
              within his own fiction.) They don't need false gods; they have the real
              God. They don't need priests and rituals and so on; they have a closeness
              to the divine that few today are fortunate enough to experience. That
              palpable sense is part of what makes LOTR such an inspiring book.

              That's what I would say if I were on Ellen's panel, and I hope it helps.

              David Bratman
            • John Rateliff
              Hi Ellen If you can, listen to Tolkien s thirty-minute radio interview with Denis Gueroult, where G. asks him this very question and gets a pretty good answer,
              Message 6 of 22 , Oct 14, 2010
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                Hi Ellen
                   If you can, listen to Tolkien's thirty-minute radio interview with Denis Gueroult, where G. asks him this very question and gets a pretty good answer, direct from the horse's mouth.
                   --JDR


                On Oct 14, 2010, at 3:08 PM, Ellen wrote:
                I've been reading these book suggestions with interest, because I'm scheduled to be on a panel at the World Fantasy Convention at the end of the month with the following topic.  Note that I did not have any part in coming up with this topic or its wording:
                ---
                Why is There No Religion in Middle Earth? Lin Carter used to argue about this. Why are there no priests and temples in Tolkien's world? Is it because Tolkien was squeamish about paganism (made up gods) or is there a more profound explanation?
                ---
                For starters, I don't think the question really works as framed.  I don't think one can claim that there is no religion in Middle Earth, so this is one of the first things I'd address.  What I would assume is meant is something more like, "why did the characters in LotR not participate in organized worship?"  I have not read Lin Carter's work but have requested it from my local library.  However, from what I've read I'm not sure how worthwhile it is as a source, since he wrote it well before the publication of The Silmarillion or Tolkien's letters.  Can anyone who has read Lin Carter's "Tolkien: A Look Behind the Lord of the RIngs" comment on this?

                My sources I am prepared to discuss are Tolkien's letters, particularly the draft of a letter to Peter Hastings from September 1954 (p. 152 in my edition), the biography by Humphrey Carpenter, and of course LotR and The Silmarillion.  I'm also taking another look at "Morgoth's Ring" because if I recall correctly, there is some relevant information in the section on the Laws and Customs of the Eldar.  It's been a while since I read HoME.

                Are there other sources I should check out before the panel?  Of the books suggested on the subject in this thread, is there one in particular that might be useful?  Keep in mind that this is a panel discussion and I'm sure the other panelists will bring some interesting things to the discussion, and I don't have much time between now and then.

                Thanks,

                Ellen Denham
              • John Rateliff
                Thanks all who responded. I ve got a good list to start with now. Dale: I ve read one of Caldecott s books but don t remember if it was this one; I ll check
                Message 7 of 22 , Oct 14, 2010
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                  Thanks all who responded. I've got a good list to start with now.
                  Dale: I've read one of Caldecott's books but don't remember if it was this one; I'll check when I get back to Kent
                  Mike: I'll have to pick up the Milbanks, which I didn't get under the mistaken impression it was mostly about GKC, rather than about them both. Thanks for the review.
                  Jef & Christina: I've read the Kreeft, and while he's a good writer with a forceful point of view it bothered me that he seemed to think anything Lewis said could be taken as evidence Tolkien felt exactly the same way on any given issue.
                  Margaret: I've read the Ellwood, but that's so many years ago now (thirty?) that the only detail I remember from it is that it's where I learned the word "scry". Time to re-read it.
                  Christina: I've read the Pearce, and enjoyed his book -- it was high time someone approached Tolkien from that angle -- but like the Kreeft I thought him too doctrinaire. I've just finished the Birzer, and it was disappointment with it that sparked my initial query (his extensive research does not prevent too-frequent errors of fact, and his occasional insights don't keep him from egregious misinterpretations). The Purtill was one of the few early books I never got around to reading, so I'll see about remedying that.

                  No one mentioned the Bruner and Ware: any good? I just started reading Dickerson, who gave a good lecture at the Wade tonight on Tolkien & Lewis & Xian ecology.

                  --Thanks again for all the suggestions.

                  --John R.




                  On Oct 14, 2010, at 8:33 PM, Cristina wrote:

                  > For those interested in religious themes in LOTR, the letters are a good source.
                  >
                  > Another source, already mentioned by someone else in this list, is Peter Kreeft's "Philosophy of Tolkien". The weakness of that book is that some details cited from LOTR are inaccurate, but Peter Kreeft's insights are superb. I also recommend "Tolkien: Man and Myth" by Joseph Pearce.
                  >
                  > There's this other book, "Sanctifying Myth" by Bradley Birzer but reviews of that book are mixed. But I mention it because you might want to read it and decide for yourself whether it helps.
                  >
                  > Another book that touches on religious themes in JRRT's writings is "Lord of the Elves and the Eldils" by Richard Purtill. I haven't read that book, though, so I can't comment on it.
                  >
                  > --- In mythsoc@yahoogroups.com, Ellen <carnimiriel@...> wrote:
                  >>
                  >> I've been reading these book suggestions with interest, because I'm
                  >> scheduled to be on a panel at the World Fantasy Convention at the end of
                  >> the month with the following topic. Note that I did not have any part
                  >> in coming up with this topic or its wording:
                  >> ---
                  >> Why is There No Religion in Middle Earth? Lin Carter used to argue about
                  >> this. Why are there no priests and temples in Tolkien's world? Is it
                  >> because Tolkien was squeamish about paganism (made up gods) or is there
                  >> a more profound explanation?
                  >> ---
                  >> For starters, I don't think the question really works as framed. I
                  >> don't think one can claim that there is no religion in Middle Earth, so
                  >> this is one of the first things I'd address. What I would assume is
                  >> meant is something more like, "why did the characters in LotR not
                  >> participate in organized worship?" I have not read Lin Carter's work
                  >> but have requested it from my local library. However, from what I've
                  >> read I'm not sure how worthwhile it is as a source, since he wrote it
                  >> well before the publication of The Silmarillion or Tolkien's letters.
                  >> Can anyone who has read Lin Carter's "Tolkien: A Look Behind the Lord of
                  >> the RIngs" comment on this?
                  >>
                  >> My sources I am prepared to discuss are Tolkien's letters, particularly
                  >> the draft of a letter to Peter Hastings from September 1954 (p. 152 in
                  >> my edition), the biography by Humphrey Carpenter, and of course LotR and
                  >> The Silmarillion. I'm also taking another look at "Morgoth's Ring"
                  >> because if I recall correctly, there is some relevant information in the
                  >> section on the Laws and Customs of the Eldar. It's been a while since I
                  >> read HoME.
                  >>
                  >> Are there other sources I should check out before the panel? Of the
                  >> books suggested on the subject in this thread, is there one in
                  >> particular that might be useful? Keep in mind that this is a panel
                  >> discussion and I'm sure the other panelists will bring some interesting
                  >> things to the discussion, and I don't have much time between now and then.
                  >>
                  >> Thanks,
                  >>
                  >> Ellen Denham
                  >>
                  >> On 10/14/10 2:06 PM, Margaret L. Carter wrote:
                  >>>
                  >>> Doubtless most of you have read Gracia Fay Ellwood's 1970 book GOOD
                  >>> NEWS FROM TOLKIEN'S MIDDLE EARTH? Amazon has a handful of used copies.
                  >>>
                  >>> Margaret Carter
                  >>>
                  >>>
                  >>
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > ------------------------------------
                  >
                  > The Mythopoeic Society website http://www.mythsoc.orgYahoo! Groups Links
                  >
                  >
                  >
                • David Bratman
                  John - See also the end of the 7th paragraph of my latest long post, where I give my recommendations, somewhat different from others : Dickerson, Fleming
                  Message 8 of 22 , Oct 14, 2010
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                    John -

                    See also the end of the 7th paragraph of my latest long post, where I give
                    my recommendations, somewhat different from others': Dickerson, Fleming
                    Rutledge's _The Battle for Middle-earth_ (overlong, clumsily organized,
                    repetitive, impatient with Tolkien's discursions, but despite all that very
                    good), and the intrepid pioneer Purtill.

                    Bruner and Ware isn't really a religious study of Tolkien, but a set of
                    sermons inspired on Tolkienian texts (and thus, like most sermons, not
                    feeling required to stick to the text). Not bad, because the moral virtues
                    they find in his work are really there, but not significant as a Tolkien
                    study. Mark Eddy Smith and Sarah Arthur stick closer to Tolkien but are
                    otherwise in the same category.


                    ----- Original Message -----
                    From: "John Rateliff" <sacnoth@...>
                    To: <mythsoc@yahoogroups.com>
                    Sent: Thursday, October 14, 2010 10:30 PM
                    Subject: [mythsoc] re. religion in Tolkien


                    > Thanks all who responded. I've got a good list to start with now.
                    > Dale: I've read one of Caldecott's books but don't remember if it was this
                    > one; I'll check when I get back to Kent
                    > Mike: I'll have to pick up the Milbanks, which I didn't get under the
                    > mistaken impression it was mostly about GKC, rather than about them both.
                    > Thanks for the review.
                    > Jef & Christina: I've read the Kreeft, and while he's a good writer with a
                    > forceful point of view it bothered me that he seemed to think anything
                    > Lewis said could be taken as evidence Tolkien felt exactly the same way on
                    > any given issue.
                    > Margaret: I've read the Ellwood, but that's so many years ago now
                    > (thirty?) that the only detail I remember from it is that it's where I
                    > learned the word "scry". Time to re-read it.
                    > Christina: I've read the Pearce, and enjoyed his book -- it was high time
                    > someone approached Tolkien from that angle -- but like the Kreeft I
                    > thought him too doctrinaire. I've just finished the Birzer, and it was
                    > disappointment with it that sparked my initial query (his extensive
                    > research does not prevent too-frequent errors of fact, and his occasional
                    > insights don't keep him from egregious misinterpretations). The Purtill
                    > was one of the few early books I never got around to reading, so I'll see
                    > about remedying that.
                    >
                    > No one mentioned the Bruner and Ware: any good? I just started reading
                    > Dickerson, who gave a good lecture at the Wade tonight on Tolkien & Lewis
                    > & Xian ecology.
                    >
                    > --Thanks again for all the suggestions.
                    >
                    > --John R.
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > On Oct 14, 2010, at 8:33 PM, Cristina wrote:
                    >
                    >> For those interested in religious themes in LOTR, the letters are a good
                    >> source.
                    >>
                    >> Another source, already mentioned by someone else in this list, is Peter
                    >> Kreeft's "Philosophy of Tolkien". The weakness of that book is that some
                    >> details cited from LOTR are inaccurate, but Peter Kreeft's insights are
                    >> superb. I also recommend "Tolkien: Man and Myth" by Joseph Pearce.
                    >>
                    >> There's this other book, "Sanctifying Myth" by Bradley Birzer but reviews
                    >> of that book are mixed. But I mention it because you might want to read
                    >> it and decide for yourself whether it helps.
                    >>
                    >> Another book that touches on religious themes in JRRT's writings is "Lord
                    >> of the Elves and the Eldils" by Richard Purtill. I haven't read that
                    >> book, though, so I can't comment on it.
                    >>
                    >> --- In mythsoc@yahoogroups.com, Ellen <carnimiriel@...> wrote:
                    >>>
                    >>> I've been reading these book suggestions with interest, because I'm
                    >>> scheduled to be on a panel at the World Fantasy Convention at the end of
                    >>> the month with the following topic. Note that I did not have any part
                    >>> in coming up with this topic or its wording:
                    >>> ---
                    >>> Why is There No Religion in Middle Earth? Lin Carter used to argue about
                    >>> this. Why are there no priests and temples in Tolkien's world? Is it
                    >>> because Tolkien was squeamish about paganism (made up gods) or is there
                    >>> a more profound explanation?
                    >>> ---
                    >>> For starters, I don't think the question really works as framed. I
                    >>> don't think one can claim that there is no religion in Middle Earth, so
                    >>> this is one of the first things I'd address. What I would assume is
                    >>> meant is something more like, "why did the characters in LotR not
                    >>> participate in organized worship?" I have not read Lin Carter's work
                    >>> but have requested it from my local library. However, from what I've
                    >>> read I'm not sure how worthwhile it is as a source, since he wrote it
                    >>> well before the publication of The Silmarillion or Tolkien's letters.
                    >>> Can anyone who has read Lin Carter's "Tolkien: A Look Behind the Lord of
                    >>> the RIngs" comment on this?
                    >>>
                    >>> My sources I am prepared to discuss are Tolkien's letters, particularly
                    >>> the draft of a letter to Peter Hastings from September 1954 (p. 152 in
                    >>> my edition), the biography by Humphrey Carpenter, and of course LotR and
                    >>> The Silmarillion. I'm also taking another look at "Morgoth's Ring"
                    >>> because if I recall correctly, there is some relevant information in the
                    >>> section on the Laws and Customs of the Eldar. It's been a while since I
                    >>> read HoME.
                    >>>
                    >>> Are there other sources I should check out before the panel? Of the
                    >>> books suggested on the subject in this thread, is there one in
                    >>> particular that might be useful? Keep in mind that this is a panel
                    >>> discussion and I'm sure the other panelists will bring some interesting
                    >>> things to the discussion, and I don't have much time between now and
                    >>> then.
                    >>>
                    >>> Thanks,
                    >>>
                    >>> Ellen Denham
                    >>>
                    >>> On 10/14/10 2:06 PM, Margaret L. Carter wrote:
                    >>>>
                    >>>> Doubtless most of you have read Gracia Fay Ellwood's 1970 book GOOD
                    >>>> NEWS FROM TOLKIEN'S MIDDLE EARTH? Amazon has a handful of used copies.
                    >>>>
                    >>>> Margaret Carter
                    >>>>
                    >>>>
                    >>>
                    >>
                    >>
                    >>
                    >>
                    >> ------------------------------------
                    >>
                    >> The Mythopoeic Society website http://www.mythsoc.orgYahoo! Groups Links
                    >>
                    >>
                    >>
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > ------------------------------------
                    >
                    > The Mythopoeic Society website http://www.mythsoc.orgYahoo! Groups Links
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                  • dale nelson
                    This is very helpful, David. To your second point ( and so on ) I can add only that the faithful of Middle-earth have literal angels, messengers of God, in
                    Message 9 of 22 , Oct 15, 2010
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                      This is very helpful, David.  To your second point ("and so on") I can add only that the faithful of Middle-earth have literal angels, messengers of God, in their midst, since "Gandalf is an angel," as Tolkien said somewhere in an interview.  Someone can remind me of the source; but I'm sure it had appeared by the time Imaginary Worlds was written, although I'm not sure that Lin Carter saw it.  Granted, Gandalf has idiosyncrasies that we don't usually associate with angels, even after his return from combat (cf. the war in heaven) with the Balrog.  But he appears among the faithful peoples to bring counsel, encouragement, correction, etc.  I actually think Tolkien took the angelic aspect about as far as he could without raising distracting questions among readers.  Similarly, I'm glad that it is not a commonplace of commentary on Tolkien to regard Gandalf as a Melchizedek/Melchisedec figure (the priest-king who appears to Abraham after his victory, etc.).... and so on.  (I don't think it entered Tolkien's mind to see Gandalf as an angel at first, back when he was writing The Hobbit, and I wouldn't care to speculate on when it was that Tolkien "realized" this.) 

                      Dale


                      From: David Bratman <dbratman@...>
                      To: mythsoc@yahoogroups.com
                      Sent: Thu, October 14, 2010 10:24:20 PM
                      Subject: Re: [mythsoc] Re: religion in Tolkien

                       

                      If we're going to respond to Lin Carter - which I am about to do at
                      considerable length - we need to have at hand what he actually said.

                      Carter's contentious comments on religion in Tolkien appeared only briefly
                      in his 1969 book on Tolkien, which was focused on placing LOTR in the
                      context of the history of fantasy literature, rather than on evaluating
                      Tolkien's work. But his 1973 book _Imaginary Worlds_ was a history of
                      fantasy, and its view of Tolkien was focused on evaluating his achievement
                      in that context. LOTR had been so widely praised that Carter felt there was
                      room to emphasize what he saw as the book's flaws, and one of the things he
                      said was this: When he writes that "Tolkien's world has no religion in it,"
                      Iluvatar and the Valar don't count.

                      "That is not what I am talking about," he writes. "A religion is much more
                      than just the presence of an actual god, or gods; it is also an established
                      canon of inspired writings and an organized priesthood, a system of temples
                      and shrines, and so on." Medieval societies of the kind Tolkien used as
                      models had such an organized religion, he says, and other fantasies inspired
                      by them have had them to. Then he gives a long list of examples, from Conan
                      the Barbarian on up. "But there is no religion at all in _The Lord of the
                      Rings_ - no temples, shrines, priests, prayers, amulets, scriptures, ikons,
                      idols - _nothing!_ None of the many characters, not even the heroic
                      warriors, so much as swears by his gods. Obviously because they _have_ no
                      gods. Which is simply incredible in a primitive world of wizards and
                      warriors and walled stone cities." (Imaginary Worlds, p. 122-24)

                      The first thing that occurs to me to say in response to this is, "By
                      Elbereth and Luthien the Fair, you shall have neither the Ring nor me!"
                      which is what Frodo says to the Nazgul at the Ford of Bruinen. Luthien, or
                      even Elbereth, may not technically be gods, but from a Catholic author they
                      are definitely serving the function of angels or saints in this context.
                      Anyway, so much for characters not swearing by them. There are other
                      examples; this one is particularly memorable.

                      Secondly, Carter has a rather limited idea of what an organized religion
                      requires. The medieval Norse, for instance, did not have any canon of
                      inspired writings that we know of. Their legends and poems about the gods
                      and heroes were neither canonized nor considered sacred texts the way we
                      consider the Bible. The Jews, after the fall of the Temple, simply
                      abandoned the heriditary priesthood that had served them before that; even
                      today, rabbis are not really "clergy" in the sense that Christians use that
                      word; a rabbi is a learned man, not a priest. Some Asian religions, I
                      believe, do without temples and shrines, and the diaspora Jews also rank low
                      on that scale.

                      The peoples of Middle-earth, however, do have some of the "and so on" which
                      Carter doesn't enumerate. If they don't have a canonized scripture, they do
                      have the kind of stories of the gods and heroes of the past that customarily
                      appear in scriptures, even a creation myth (though Carter didn't have access
                      to this one, as it first appeared in _The Silmarillion_ which hadn't been
                      published when he wrote). They have some rituals, notably the moment of
                      silence before eating that Faramir and his men perform at Henneth Annun.
                      This, Faramir explains, is a gesture of respect towards Eldamar and Valinor,
                      so they also have a holy place. They have funerary customs and respect the
                      dead, a common religious practice. And, as Carter would say, so on.

                      What they have more than any of this, however, are aspects of religion that
                      are not dreamt of in Carter's philosophy. These are the moral and spiritual
                      content of religious belief, which underlie every action the admirable
                      characters take, and indeed drive the whole plot, because it is a spiritual
                      concern to rid the world of an evil menace, and not a practical
                      consideration to defeat the bad guy in the black hat, that inspires the
                      decision to destroy the Ring, rather than - as practical men like Boromir
                      would prefer - use it. I hardly need to go into this here, as so many
                      authors have done so brilliantly. The best source for this purpose is
                      Richard Purtill's _Lord of the Elves and Eldils_, because like Carter he was
                      writing before _The Silmarillion_ and proves his case, rather dazzlingly,
                      from LOTR alone. (Ellwood's _Good News from Middle-earth_, the other
                      pre-Silmarillion religious study of Tolkien, is a hunt for Christ figures
                      and new-age woo-woo, and even if you want such things, would not be suitable
                      for countering Carter.) Of more recent books on Tolkien's religious
                      dimension that consider the posthumous writings, I'd say the best ones which
                      still focus mostly on LOTR are _The Battle for Middle-earth_ by Fleming
                      Rutledge and _Following Gandalf_ by Matthew Dickerson. (The Birzer and
                      Caldecott books mentioned by others are OK, but these are much better.)

                      So the answer to Carter is that he's framed his question wrongly - what
                      Tolkien lacks is not religion, it's colorful religious trappings - and even
                      taken as Carter frames it, his charge is not entirely true. But
                      nevertheless, his observations are not entirely hallucinatory, so we can
                      also raise the questions of whether what he sees is, as he claims, "simply
                      incredible," and of why Tolkien writes it this way. But these are further
                      observations on the topic, not directly answers to Carter, because they
                      attempt only to explain the case; they don't answer it.

                      From an external, author-based perspective, we can say that Tolkien couldn't
                      have his pre-Christian characters be Christians, for obvious chronological
                      reasons, but he didn't want to have them worshipping false gods, so he made
                      them the virtuous pagans of (mostly hypothetical) Christian theology. Some
                      of the authors on religion in Tolkien go into this point.

                      From an internal, character-based perspective, though, there's an answer so
                      breath-taking that, again, it is not dreamt of in Carter's philosophy. The
                      reason his pagan warriors don't worship false gods is that, through the
                      Elves, and they through the Valar, have unfiltered access to the truth about
                      the spiritual universe. (The truth as Tolkien sees it, of course, but as an
                      author he has the right to make his Catholic theology the unfettered truth
                      within his own fiction.) They don't need false gods; they have the real
                      God. They don't need priests and rituals and so on; they have a closeness
                      to the divine that few today are fortunate enough to experience. That
                      palpable sense is part of what makes LOTR such an inspiring book.

                      That's what I would say if I were on Ellen's panel, and I hope it helps.

                      David Bratman


                    • David Bratman
                      ... Edmund Fuller, in 1962, published in the revision of his Tolkien article in Isaacs & Zimbardo s _Tolkien and the Critics_ in 1968. Too late for Carter to
                      Message 10 of 22 , Oct 15, 2010
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                        dale nelson wrote:

                        >"Gandalf is an angel," as Tolkien said
                        >somewhere in an interview. Someone can
                        >remind me of the source; but I'm sure it
                        >had appeared by the time Imaginary Worlds
                        >was written, although I'm not sure that
                        >Lin Carter saw it.

                        Edmund Fuller, in 1962, published in the revision of his Tolkien article in Isaacs & Zimbardo's _Tolkien and the Critics_ in 1968. Too late for Carter to have seen it for his 1969 book (which omits mention of some 1968 post-Tolkien fantasies he would surely have referenced had he seen them, as he cites them enthusiastically in 1973). The Isaacs/Zimbardo collection is in his 1973 bibliography, but he had perhaps not read it closely. The quote was seized gratefully by enthusiastic Tolkienists, but Carter was not a Tolkienist. The only reason for citing this quote in this context today, rather than the further explanations in the Silmarillion and elsewhere, would be on the supposition that Carter _had_ seen it.
                      • dale nelson
                        Of course; although there hovers around Gandalf (in LOTR) the sense that he is a person of power who yet serves some greater power. It is he who can tell
                        Message 11 of 22 , Oct 15, 2010
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                          Of course; although there hovers around Gandalf (in LOTR) the sense that he is a person of power who yet serves some greater power.  It is he who can tell Frodo that Bilbo was "meant" to find the Ring, and so on.  The "angel" remark merely confirms and makes explicit something that is already evident -- if one is prepared to see it.  I think your earlier message is right on target in saying that Lin Carter had an unduly restrictive, even on historical-cultural grounds, sense of what a "religion" looks like.

                          Dale


                          From: David Bratman <dbratman@...>
                          To: mythsoc@yahoogroups.com
                          Sent: Fri, October 15, 2010 9:45:05 AM
                          Subject: Re: [mythsoc] Re: religion in Tolkien

                           

                          dale nelson wrote:

                          >"Gandalf is an angel," as Tolkien said
                          >somewhere in an interview. Someone can
                          >remind me of the source; but I'm sure it
                          >had appeared by the time Imaginary Worlds
                          >was written, although I'm not sure that
                          >Lin Carter saw it.

                          Edmund Fuller, in 1962, published in the revision of his Tolkien article in Isaacs & Zimbardo's _Tolkien and the Critics_ in 1968. Too late for Carter to have seen it for his 1969 book (which omits mention of some 1968 post-Tolkien fantasies he would surely have referenced had he seen them, as he cites them enthusiastically in 1973). The Isaacs/Zimbardo collection is in his 1973 bibliography, but he had perhaps not read it closely. The quote was seized gratefully by enthusiastic Tolkienists, but Carter was not a Tolkienist. The only reason for citing this quote in this context today, rather than the further explanations in the Silmarillion and elsewhere, would be on the supposition that Carter _had_ seen it.


                        • icelofangeln
                          Just to add a couple of points to John s post- not that I m saying anything that others haven t said before, just reminding folks of them - Carter apparently
                          Message 12 of 22 , Oct 16, 2010
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                            Just to add a couple of points to John's post- not that I'm saying anything that others haven't said before, just reminding folks of them - Carter apparently didn't read very carefully.

                            "None of the many characters, not even the heroic warriors, so much as swears by his gods. Obviously because they _have_ no gods."

                            Clearly Carter missed "Mumak! May the Valar turn him aside!" In fact, backing up what John says, there are numerous examples in LR of a 'noble paganism' founded (in the fictional context) in actual knowledge of divine truth. "It is indeed a fundamentally Christian and even Catholic work, unconsciously in the writing, consciously so in the revision." A Elbereth Gilthoniel surely shouldn't have escaped Carter's notice, a hymn of praise to a divine being with unmistakable echoes of Mary Queen of Heaven. Nor should he have missed the rather obvious implications of the dell on Mindolluin.

                            And although Carter couldn't have known this in 1973, Tolkien certainly does include organized temple worship- evil, naturally. At least twice (the Akallabeth and the Tale of Adanel) we see Melkor-cults with fanes and human sacrifice; and Sauron is a God-King to his slaves, or at least a hierophant, Vicar of Melkor on Earth. In the Akallabeth in particular this is in intentional contrast to the non--organized non-temple worship, but worship all the same, associated with the summit of the Meneltarma.
                          • David Bratman
                            I don t think that is John s post you are replying to. I think it was mine. John was the one asking for recommendations of books on Tolkien and religion.
                            Message 13 of 22 , Oct 16, 2010
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                              I don't think that is John's post you are replying to. I think it was mine. John was the one asking for recommendations of books on Tolkien and religion.

                              Carter's inability to notice Tolkien's characters' invocations of the divine probably is a result of his having read, and written, too much hulking barbarian fiction in which the "by Crom!"-type oaths swarm in the air like bees. It isn't even the most imperceptive thing he says; a few pages earlier, he complains of Tolkien's "essential shallowness ... lack of real philosophical or psychological depth ... failure to explore the nature of evil." This has to rank among the top three or four most imperceptive remarks about LOTR ever made.

                              Thanks for mentioning the worship of Melkor imposed on Numenor in its decay. From an internal, character-based perspective, that experience should adequately explain _why_ the later Numenoreans in Gondor do not worship any false gods. They've seen what happens when you do that, and they're not making that mistake again.

                              DB


                              -----Original Message-----
                              >From: icelofangeln <solicitr@...>
                              >Sent: Oct 16, 2010 9:42 AM
                              >To: mythsoc@yahoogroups.com
                              >Subject: [mythsoc] Re: religion in Tolkien
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              >Just to add a couple of points to John's post- not that I'm saying anything that others haven't said before, just reminding folks of them - Carter apparently didn't read very carefully.
                              >
                              > "None of the many characters, not even the heroic warriors, so much as swears by his gods. Obviously because they _have_ no gods."
                              >
                              >Clearly Carter missed "Mumak! May the Valar turn him aside!" In fact, backing up what John says, there are numerous examples in LR of a 'noble paganism' founded (in the fictional context) in actual knowledge of divine truth. "It is indeed a fundamentally Christian and even Catholic work, unconsciously in the writing, consciously so in the revision." A Elbereth Gilthoniel surely shouldn't have escaped Carter's notice, a hymn of praise to a divine being with unmistakable echoes of Mary Queen of Heaven. Nor should he have missed the rather obvious implications of the dell on Mindolluin.
                              >
                              >And although Carter couldn't have known this in 1973, Tolkien certainly does include organized temple worship- evil, naturally. At least twice (the Akallabeth and the Tale of Adanel) we see Melkor-cults with fanes and human sacrifice; and Sauron is a God-King to his slaves, or at least a hierophant, Vicar of Melkor on Earth. In the Akallabeth in particular this is in intentional contrast to the non--organized non-temple worship, but worship all the same, associated with the summit of the Meneltarma.
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              >------------------------------------
                              >
                              >The Mythopoeic Society website http://www.mythsoc.orgYahoo! Groups Links
                              >
                              >
                              >
                            • scribbler@scribblerworks.us
                              There s so much wrong with Carter s real understanding of world-building, that it deserves separate discussion. Heh. Maybe even a Mythcon paper. Still, as
                              Message 14 of 22 , Oct 16, 2010
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                                There's so much wrong with Carter's real understanding of world-building,
                                that it deserves separate discussion. Heh. Maybe even a Mythcon paper.

                                Still, as much as I now, with the benefit of my education, can take apart
                                Carter's observations on Tolkien and fantasy world-building, I still have
                                to admit that but for him, I would not have encountered a whole flock of
                                fantasy novels. And seriously, I think his oversight of Ballantine's
                                fantasy line helped establish the sub-genre as viable in the marketplace.

                                But yes, he missed a lot in Tolkien - and was rather limited in his views
                                of what "religion" would look like.


                                > I don't think that is John's post you are replying to. I think it was
                                > mine. John was the one asking for recommendations of books on Tolkien and
                                > religion.
                                >
                                > Carter's inability to notice Tolkien's characters' invocations of the
                                > divine probably is a result of his having read, and written, too much
                                > hulking barbarian fiction in which the "by Crom!"-type oaths swarm in the
                                > air like bees. It isn't even the most imperceptive thing he says; a few
                                > pages earlier, he complains of Tolkien's "essential shallowness ... lack
                                > of real philosophical or psychological depth ... failure to explore the
                                > nature of evil." This has to rank among the top three or four most
                                > imperceptive remarks about LOTR ever made.
                                >
                                > Thanks for mentioning the worship of Melkor imposed on Numenor in its
                                > decay. From an internal, character-based perspective, that experience
                                > should adequately explain _why_ the later Numenoreans in Gondor do not
                                > worship any false gods. They've seen what happens when you do that, and
                                > they're not making that mistake again.
                                >
                                > DB
                                >
                                >
                                > -----Original Message-----
                                >>From: icelofangeln <solicitr@...>
                                >>Sent: Oct 16, 2010 9:42 AM
                                >>To: mythsoc@yahoogroups.com
                                >>Subject: [mythsoc] Re: religion in Tolkien
                                >>
                                >>
                                >>
                                >>
                                >>Just to add a couple of points to John's post- not that I'm saying
                                >> anything that others haven't said before, just reminding folks of them -
                                >> Carter apparently didn't read very carefully.
                                >>
                                >> "None of the many characters, not even the heroic warriors, so much as
                                >> swears by his gods. Obviously because they _have_ no gods."
                                >>
                                >>Clearly Carter missed "Mumak! May the Valar turn him aside!" In fact,
                                >> backing up what John says, there are numerous examples in LR of a 'noble
                                >> paganism' founded (in the fictional context) in actual knowledge of
                                >> divine truth. "It is indeed a fundamentally Christian and even Catholic
                                >> work, unconsciously in the writing, consciously so in the revision." A
                                >> Elbereth Gilthoniel surely shouldn't have escaped Carter's notice, a hymn
                                >> of praise to a divine being with unmistakable echoes of Mary Queen of
                                >> Heaven. Nor should he have missed the rather obvious implications of the
                                >> dell on Mindolluin.
                                >>
                                >>And although Carter couldn't have known this in 1973, Tolkien certainly
                                >> does include organized temple worship- evil, naturally. At least twice
                                >> (the Akallabeth and the Tale of Adanel) we see Melkor-cults with fanes
                                >> and human sacrifice; and Sauron is a God-King to his slaves, or at least
                                >> a hierophant, Vicar of Melkor on Earth. In the Akallabeth in particular
                                >> this is in intentional contrast to the non--organized non-temple worship,
                                >> but worship all the same, associated with the summit of the Meneltarma.
                                >>
                                >>
                                >>
                                >>------------------------------------
                                >>
                                >>The Mythopoeic Society website http://www.mythsoc.orgYahoo! Groups Links
                                >>
                                >>
                                >>
                                >
                                >
                              • John Rateliff
                                Hi David Thanks for the additional info. I ve been looking forward to eventually reading the Rutledge (having initially been put off by her boast in the first
                                Message 15 of 22 , Oct 16, 2010
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                                  Hi David
                                     Thanks for the additional info. I've been looking forward to eventually reading the Rutledge (having initially been put off by her boast in the first few pages that she's not a Tolkien scholar). I have the Mark Eddy Smith as an audiobook (why that one was released in that format, out of all the secondary works on Tolkien, is a bit of a mystery). I also have the Sarah Arthur as a Kindle e-book. So I'll have plenty to keep me busy.
                                     --John R.


                                  On Oct 15, 2010, at 1:22 AM, David Bratman wrote:
                                  John -

                                  See also the end of the 7th paragraph of my latest long post, where I give
                                  my recommendations, somewhat different from others': Dickerson, Fleming
                                  Rutledge's _The Battle for Middle-earth_ (overlong, clumsily organized,
                                  repetitive, impatient with Tolkien's discursions, but despite all that very
                                  good), and the intrepid pioneer Purtill.

                                  Bruner and Ware isn't really a religious study of Tolkien, but a set of
                                  sermons inspired on Tolkienian texts (and thus, like most sermons, not
                                  feeling required to stick to the text).  Not bad, because the moral virtues
                                  they find in his work are really there, but not significant as a Tolkien
                                  study.  Mark Eddy Smith and Sarah Arthur stick closer to Tolkien but are
                                  otherwise in the same category.


                                  ----- Original Message -----
                                  From: "John Rateliff" <sacnoth@...>
                                  To: <mythsoc@yahoogroups.com>
                                  Sent: Thursday, October 14, 2010 10:30 PM
                                  Subject: [mythsoc] re. religion in Tolkien


                                  Thanks all who responded. I've got a good list to start with now.
                                  Dale: I've read one of Caldecott's books but don't remember if it was this
                                  one; I'll check when I get back to Kent
                                  Mike: I'll have to pick up the Milbanks, which I didn't get under the
                                  mistaken impression it was mostly about GKC, rather than about them both.
                                  Thanks for the review.
                                  Jef & Christina: I've read the Kreeft, and while he's a good writer with a
                                  forceful point of view it bothered me that he seemed to think anything
                                  Lewis said could be taken as evidence Tolkien felt exactly the same way on
                                  any given issue.
                                  Margaret: I've read the Ellwood, but that's so many years ago now
                                  (thirty?) that the only detail I remember from it is that it's where I
                                  learned the word "scry". Time to re-read it.
                                  Christina: I've read the Pearce, and enjoyed his book -- it was high time
                                  someone approached Tolkien from that angle -- but like the Kreeft I
                                  thought him too doctrinaire. I've just finished the Birzer, and it was
                                  disappointment with it that sparked my initial query (his extensive
                                  research does not prevent too-frequent errors of fact, and his occasional
                                  insights don't keep him from egregious misinterpretations). The Purtill
                                  was one of the few early books I never got around to reading, so I'll see
                                  about remedying that.

                                  No one mentioned the Bruner and Ware: any good? I just started reading
                                  Dickerson, who gave a good lecture at the Wade tonight on Tolkien & Lewis
                                  & Xian ecology.

                                  --Thanks again for all the suggestions.

                                  --John R.
                                • David Bratman
                                  John - Rutledge s opening did not disturb me. The kind that annoy me are the likes of Matthew Lyons, who are so eager to assure you that they re not grubby
                                  Message 16 of 22 , Oct 18, 2010
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                                    John -

                                    Rutledge's opening did not disturb me. The kind that annoy me are the likes
                                    of Matthew Lyons, who are so eager to assure you that they're not grubby
                                    Tolkien FANS even as they're about to launch into obsessive book-length
                                    discussions of him. Rutledge is merely saying that she's taking LOTR as
                                    tabula rasa, rather than responding to previous scholars. People who start
                                    this way often turn out to be entirely flaky, but the proof is in the
                                    pudding, and this pudding I found good, with the caveats I mentioned before.
                                    She has grasped the book by the right end of the stick.

                                    If you do find anything attesting to Lewis's authorship of the Tolkien obit
                                    in the Times, please let us know. (And let Walter Hooper know.) My
                                    argument, when we discussed this before, was that in our current state of
                                    knowledge it is no longer justifiable to say, without note or caution of
                                    uncertainty, that Lewis wrote it. But anything that can advance our state
                                    of knowledge, either way, would be highly desirable to have.

                                    DB

                                    ----- Original Message -----
                                    From: "John Rateliff" <sacnoth@...>
                                    To: <mythsoc@yahoogroups.com>
                                    Sent: Saturday, October 16, 2010 10:17 PM
                                    Subject: Re: [mythsoc] re. religion in Tolkien


                                    Hi David
                                    Thanks for the additional info. I've been looking forward to eventually
                                    reading the Rutledge (having initially been put off by her boast in the
                                    first few pages that she's not a Tolkien scholar). I have the Mark Eddy
                                    Smith as an audiobook (why that one was released in that format, out of all
                                    the secondary works on Tolkien, is a bit of a mystery). I also have the
                                    Sarah Arthur as a Kindle e-book. So I'll have plenty to keep me busy.
                                    --John R.


                                    On Oct 15, 2010, at 1:22 AM, David Bratman wrote:
                                    > John -
                                    >
                                    > See also the end of the 7th paragraph of my latest long post, where I give
                                    > my recommendations, somewhat different from others': Dickerson, Fleming
                                    > Rutledge's _The Battle for Middle-earth_ (overlong, clumsily organized,
                                    > repetitive, impatient with Tolkien's discursions, but despite all that
                                    > very
                                    > good), and the intrepid pioneer Purtill.
                                    >
                                    > Bruner and Ware isn't really a religious study of Tolkien, but a set of
                                    > sermons inspired on Tolkienian texts (and thus, like most sermons, not
                                    > feeling required to stick to the text). Not bad, because the moral
                                    > virtues
                                    > they find in his work are really there, but not significant as a Tolkien
                                    > study. Mark Eddy Smith and Sarah Arthur stick closer to Tolkien but are
                                    > otherwise in the same category.
                                    >
                                    >
                                    > ----- Original Message -----
                                    > From: "John Rateliff" <sacnoth@...>
                                    > To: <mythsoc@yahoogroups.com>
                                    > Sent: Thursday, October 14, 2010 10:30 PM
                                    > Subject: [mythsoc] re. religion in Tolkien
                                    >
                                    >
                                    >> Thanks all who responded. I've got a good list to start with now.
                                    >> Dale: I've read one of Caldecott's books but don't remember if it was
                                    >> this
                                    >> one; I'll check when I get back to Kent
                                    >> Mike: I'll have to pick up the Milbanks, which I didn't get under the
                                    >> mistaken impression it was mostly about GKC, rather than about them both.
                                    >> Thanks for the review.
                                    >> Jef & Christina: I've read the Kreeft, and while he's a good writer with
                                    >> a
                                    >> forceful point of view it bothered me that he seemed to think anything
                                    >> Lewis said could be taken as evidence Tolkien felt exactly the same way
                                    >> on
                                    >> any given issue.
                                    >> Margaret: I've read the Ellwood, but that's so many years ago now
                                    >> (thirty?) that the only detail I remember from it is that it's where I
                                    >> learned the word "scry". Time to re-read it.
                                    >> Christina: I've read the Pearce, and enjoyed his book -- it was high time
                                    >> someone approached Tolkien from that angle -- but like the Kreeft I
                                    >> thought him too doctrinaire. I've just finished the Birzer, and it was
                                    >> disappointment with it that sparked my initial query (his extensive
                                    >> research does not prevent too-frequent errors of fact, and his occasional
                                    >> insights don't keep him from egregious misinterpretations). The Purtill
                                    >> was one of the few early books I never got around to reading, so I'll see
                                    >> about remedying that.
                                    >>
                                    >> No one mentioned the Bruner and Ware: any good? I just started reading
                                    >> Dickerson, who gave a good lecture at the Wade tonight on Tolkien & Lewis
                                    >> & Xian ecology.
                                    >>
                                    >> --Thanks again for all the suggestions.
                                    >>
                                    >> --John R.
                                  • John Rateliff
                                    Hi David Good to hear about the Rutledge. I actually had the opposite reaction to the Lyons, in that I felt that he really got something important about
                                    Message 17 of 22 , Oct 19, 2010
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                                      Hi David
                                         Good to hear about the Rutledge. I actually had the opposite reaction to the Lyons, in that I felt that he really got something important about Tolkien, and he got it right, and gave it the emphasis it deserved, more than anyone else before him. So I was willing to let slide his shortcomings more than wd have been the case with a run-of-the-mill effort. 

                                          I'll certainly let you know re. the obit if and when there's ever a definitive answer.* At present there's good evidence that Lewis wrote such a piece; the question is whether what was published in 1973 accurately represents what Lewis wrote. Basically there are three main possibilities:

                                      (1) the published piece is Lewis's work, aside from the opening paragraphs (giving Tolkien's age at the time he died, &c) added to the file obit by a Times staffer.

                                      (2) the published piece contains some genuine Lewis material, but it has been reworked to the extent that there's no way to say if a given line is Lewis's or not.

                                      (3) the Lewis piece on file was at some point replaced by a wholly new piece, which is what got published.

                                      Carpenter seems to have held position #1 without having the evidence to prove it

                                      Hooper initially held position #1 but later shifted to somewhere between #2 and #3, whereupon he removed it from his bibliography.

                                      I hold to position #1 as the most plausible option but do not yet have the evidence to prove it beyond all doubt. 

                                      --JDR

                                      *I summed up my current thinking on it in my guest editorial to the most recent issue of MALLORN.



                                      On Oct 18, 2010, at 9:55 PM, David Bratman wrote:
                                      John -

                                      Rutledge's opening did not disturb me.  The kind that annoy me are the likes
                                      of Matthew Lyons, who are so eager to assure you that they're not grubby
                                      Tolkien FANS even as they're about to launch into obsessive book-length
                                      discussions of him.  Rutledge is merely saying that she's taking LOTR as
                                      tabula rasa, rather than responding to previous scholars.  People who start
                                      this way often turn out to be entirely flaky, but the proof is in the
                                      pudding, and this pudding I found good, with the caveats I mentioned before.
                                      She has grasped the book by the right end of the stick.

                                      If you do find anything attesting to Lewis's authorship of the Tolkien obit
                                      in the Times, please let us know.  (And let Walter Hooper know.)  My
                                      argument, when we discussed this before, was that in our current state of
                                      knowledge it is no longer justifiable to say, without note or caution of
                                      uncertainty, that Lewis wrote it.  But anything that can advance our state
                                      of knowledge, either way, would be highly desirable to have.

                                      DB
                                    • Leslie A. Donovan
                                      As someone who fights the Orcs and Sarumans of academia nearly daily now in my new position as Acting Director (for one semester only, thanks be to all higher
                                      Message 18 of 22 , Oct 20, 2010
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                                        As someone who fights the Orcs and Sarumans of academia nearly daily now in
                                        my new position as Acting Director (for one semester only, thanks be to all
                                        higher powers!), this analogy gave me a much needed laugh today! Thanks to
                                        Jason for passing it along and to Mike for expanding on it. I loved it!

                                        Leslie


                                        Leslie A. Donovan
                                        Acting Director and Associate Professor
                                        University Honors Program
                                        MSC06 3890
                                        1 University of New Mexico
                                        Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
                                        (505) 277-4313
                                        ldonovan@...
                                        http://www.unm.edu/~ldonovan
                                      • Mike Foster
                                        Note found in adjunct hobbit s faculty mailbox: MR. TOOK: SEVERAL OF YOUR ORCISH STUDENTS IN THE 9 A.M. CLASS HAVE ASSERTED THAT YOUR REQUIREMENTS ARE TOO
                                        Message 19 of 22 , Oct 20, 2010
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                                          Note found in adjunct hobbit's faculty mailbox:

                                           

                                          "MR. TOOK:

                                          SEVERAL OF YOUR ORCISH STUDENTS IN THE 9 A.M. CLASS HAVE ASSERTED THAT YOUR REQUIREMENTS ARE TOO STRINGENT FOR ENGL 001 AND HAVE COMPLAINED THAT AN AUTOMATIC "C" FOR THREE SENTENCE ERRORS IS "ABUSIVE." 

                                           PLEASE MEET WITH ME AND DEAN WORMTONGUE AT 10:20 SHARP TODAY IN ORDER TO CONVINCE US THAT YOU DO NOT DESERVE TO BE SENT TO THE LOCKHOLES TO TUTOR STONE TROLLS.

                                          SINCERELY, DR. MOUTHOFSAURON"

                                           



                                          __________ Information from ESET NOD32 Antivirus, version of virus signature database 5549 (20101020) __________

                                          The message was checked by ESET NOD32 Antivirus.

                                          http://www.eset.com
                                        • Mike Foster
                                          MR. BRANDYBUCK: IN LIGHT OF MR. TOOK S DISMISSAL, WE MUST OBLIGE YOU TO TAKE OVER ALL HIS CLASSES AND GRADING RESPONSIBILITIES. PLEASE GRADE THE ATTACHED 27
                                          Message 20 of 22 , Oct 20, 2010
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                                            MR. BRANDYBUCK:
                                                IN LIGHT OF MR. TOOK'S DISMISSAL, WE MUST OBLIGE YOU TO TAKE OVER ALL HIS CLASSES AND GRADING RESPONSIBILITIES. 
                                             
                                                PLEASE GRADE THE ATTACHED 27 ESSAYS "WHY I LOVE VICE-PRESIDENT SARUMAN" ESSAYS AND RETURN THEM  TO MR. TOOK'S CLASS BY YESTERDAY. 
                                             
                                                WE REGRET THAT CURRENT FUNDING RESTRICTIONS MEAN WE CAN NOT PAY YOU FOR THIS EXTRA WORK AT THIS TIME.
                                            DR. MOUTHOFSAURON


                                            __________ Information from ESET NOD32 Antivirus, version of virus signature database 5549 (20101020) __________

                                            The message was checked by ESET NOD32 Antivirus.

                                            http://www.eset.com
                                          • lynnmaudlin
                                            Granted, Gandalf has idiosyncrasies that we don t usually associate with angels... We have such limited (and yet varied!) sources on angels, I suspect that
                                            Message 21 of 22 , Oct 20, 2010
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                                              "Granted, Gandalf has idiosyncrasies that we don't usually associate with angels..."

                                              We have such limited (and yet varied!) sources on angels, I suspect that our 'associations' are fairly far-ranging! But you're right, we don't think of angels as staying in this dimension with the consistency which Gandalf does; we tend to think of them as miracle-workers (and I suppose the powers Gandalf exercises could be viewed in miraculous terms although I don't think that's really the way Tolkien presents it) who come and go, staying for much less time than Gandalf does. I mean, Gandalf eats, drinks, sleeps, etc. w/the company - we're not used to angels being *present* in that way (although Bertie MacAvoy had a very present angel...).

                                              Also, I think Carter ignored Celtic and Druidic history, too - stone circles but not a lot of structure or documentation left over for us to examine; he seems to have been stuck in the European Christian model of the middle ages.

                                              -- Lynn --




                                              --- In mythsoc@yahoogroups.com, dale nelson <extollager2006@...> wrote:
                                              >
                                              > This is very helpful, David. To your second point ("and so on") I can add only
                                              > that the faithful of Middle-earth have literal angels, messengers of God, in
                                              > their midst, since "Gandalf is an angel," as Tolkien said somewhere in an
                                              > interview. Someone can remind me of the source; but I'm sure it had appeared by
                                              > the time Imaginary Worlds was written, although I'm not sure that Lin Carter saw
                                              > it. Granted, Gandalf has idiosyncrasies that we don't usually associate with
                                              > angels, even after his return from combat (cf. the war in heaven) with the
                                              > Balrog. But he appears among the faithful peoples to bring counsel,
                                              > encouragement, correction, etc. I actually think Tolkien took the angelic
                                              > aspect about as far as he could without raising distracting questions among
                                              > readers. Similarly, I'm glad that it is not a commonplace of commentary on
                                              > Tolkien to regard Gandalf as a Melchizedek/Melchisedec figure (the priest-king
                                              > who appears to Abraham after his victory, etc.).... and so on. (I don't think
                                              > it entered Tolkien's mind to see Gandalf as an angel at first, back when he was
                                              > writing The Hobbit, and I wouldn't care to speculate on when it was that Tolkien
                                              > "realized" this.)
                                              >
                                              >
                                              > Dale
                                              >
                                              >
                                              >
                                              >
                                              > ________________________________
                                              > From: David Bratman <dbratman@...>
                                              > To: mythsoc@yahoogroups.com
                                              > Sent: Thu, October 14, 2010 10:24:20 PM
                                              > Subject: Re: [mythsoc] Re: religion in Tolkien
                                              >
                                              >
                                              > If we're going to respond to Lin Carter - which I am about to do at
                                              > considerable length - we need to have at hand what he actually said.
                                              >
                                              > Carter's contentious comments on religion in Tolkien appeared only briefly
                                              > in his 1969 book on Tolkien, which was focused on placing LOTR in the
                                              > context of the history of fantasy literature, rather than on evaluating
                                              > Tolkien's work. But his 1973 book _Imaginary Worlds_ was a history of
                                              > fantasy, and its view of Tolkien was focused on evaluating his achievement
                                              > in that context. LOTR had been so widely praised that Carter felt there was
                                              > room to emphasize what he saw as the book's flaws, and one of the things he
                                              > said was this: When he writes that "Tolkien's world has no religion in it,"
                                              > Iluvatar and the Valar don't count.
                                              >
                                              > "That is not what I am talking about," he writes. "A religion is much more
                                              > than just the presence of an actual god, or gods; it is also an established
                                              > canon of inspired writings and an organized priesthood, a system of temples
                                              > and shrines, and so on." Medieval societies of the kind Tolkien used as
                                              > models had such an organized religion, he says, and other fantasies inspired
                                              > by them have had them to. Then he gives a long list of examples, from Conan
                                              > the Barbarian on up. "But there is no religion at all in _The Lord of the
                                              > Rings_ - no temples, shrines, priests, prayers, amulets, scriptures, ikons,
                                              > idols - _nothing!_ None of the many characters, not even the heroic
                                              > warriors, so much as swears by his gods. Obviously because they _have_ no
                                              > gods. Which is simply incredible in a primitive world of wizards and
                                              > warriors and walled stone cities." (Imaginary Worlds, p. 122-24)
                                              >
                                              > The first thing that occurs to me to say in response to this is, "By
                                              > Elbereth and Luthien the Fair, you shall have neither the Ring nor me!"
                                              > which is what Frodo says to the Nazgul at the Ford of Bruinen. Luthien, or
                                              > even Elbereth, may not technically be gods, but from a Catholic author they
                                              > are definitely serving the function of angels or saints in this context.
                                              > Anyway, so much for characters not swearing by them. There are other
                                              > examples; this one is particularly memorable.
                                              >
                                              > Secondly, Carter has a rather limited idea of what an organized religion
                                              > requires. The medieval Norse, for instance, did not have any canon of
                                              > inspired writings that we know of. Their legends and poems about the gods
                                              > and heroes were neither canonized nor considered sacred texts the way we
                                              > consider the Bible. The Jews, after the fall of the Temple, simply
                                              > abandoned the heriditary priesthood that had served them before that; even
                                              > today, rabbis are not really "clergy" in the sense that Christians use that
                                              > word; a rabbi is a learned man, not a priest. Some Asian religions, I
                                              > believe, do without temples and shrines, and the diaspora Jews also rank low
                                              > on that scale.
                                              >
                                              > The peoples of Middle-earth, however, do have some of the "and so on" which
                                              > Carter doesn't enumerate. If they don't have a canonized scripture, they do
                                              > have the kind of stories of the gods and heroes of the past that customarily
                                              > appear in scriptures, even a creation myth (though Carter didn't have access
                                              > to this one, as it first appeared in _The Silmarillion_ which hadn't been
                                              > published when he wrote). They have some rituals, notably the moment of
                                              > silence before eating that Faramir and his men perform at Henneth Annun.
                                              > This, Faramir explains, is a gesture of respect towards Eldamar and Valinor,
                                              > so they also have a holy place. They have funerary customs and respect the
                                              > dead, a common religious practice. And, as Carter would say, so on.
                                              >
                                              > What they have more than any of this, however, are aspects of religion that
                                              > are not dreamt of in Carter's philosophy. These are the moral and spiritual
                                              > content of religious belief, which underlie every action the admirable
                                              > characters take, and indeed drive the whole plot, because it is a spiritual
                                              > concern to rid the world of an evil menace, and not a practical
                                              > consideration to defeat the bad guy in the black hat, that inspires the
                                              > decision to destroy the Ring, rather than - as practical men like Boromir
                                              > would prefer - use it. I hardly need to go into this here, as so many
                                              > authors have done so brilliantly. The best source for this purpose is
                                              > Richard Purtill's _Lord of the Elves and Eldils_, because like Carter he was
                                              > writing before _The Silmarillion_ and proves his case, rather dazzlingly,
                                              > from LOTR alone. (Ellwood's _Good News from Middle-earth_, the other
                                              > pre-Silmarillion religious study of Tolkien, is a hunt for Christ figures
                                              > and new-age woo-woo, and even if you want such things, would not be suitable
                                              > for countering Carter.) Of more recent books on Tolkien's religious
                                              > dimension that consider the posthumous writings, I'd say the best ones which
                                              > still focus mostly on LOTR are _The Battle for Middle-earth_ by Fleming
                                              > Rutledge and _Following Gandalf_ by Matthew Dickerson. (The Birzer and
                                              > Caldecott books mentioned by others are OK, but these are much better.)
                                              >
                                              > So the answer to Carter is that he's framed his question wrongly - what
                                              > Tolkien lacks is not religion, it's colorful religious trappings - and even
                                              > taken as Carter frames it, his charge is not entirely true. But
                                              > nevertheless, his observations are not entirely hallucinatory, so we can
                                              > also raise the questions of whether what he sees is, as he claims, "simply
                                              > incredible," and of why Tolkien writes it this way. But these are further
                                              > observations on the topic, not directly answers to Carter, because they
                                              > attempt only to explain the case; they don't answer it.
                                              >
                                              > From an external, author-based perspective, we can say that Tolkien couldn't
                                              > have his pre-Christian characters be Christians, for obvious chronological
                                              > reasons, but he didn't want to have them worshipping false gods, so he made
                                              > them the virtuous pagans of (mostly hypothetical) Christian theology. Some
                                              > of the authors on religion in Tolkien go into this point.
                                              >
                                              > From an internal, character-based perspective, though, there's an answer so
                                              > breath-taking that, again, it is not dreamt of in Carter's philosophy. The
                                              > reason his pagan warriors don't worship false gods is that, through the
                                              > Elves, and they through the Valar, have unfiltered access to the truth about
                                              > the spiritual universe. (The truth as Tolkien sees it, of course, but as an
                                              > author he has the right to make his Catholic theology the unfettered truth
                                              > within his own fiction.) They don't need false gods; they have the real
                                              > God. They don't need priests and rituals and so on; they have a closeness
                                              > to the divine that few today are fortunate enough to experience. That
                                              > palpable sense is part of what makes LOTR such an inspiring book.
                                              >
                                              > That's what I would say if I were on Ellen's panel, and I hope it helps.
                                              >
                                              > David Bratman
                                              >
                                            • Ellen
                                              Belated thanks to David, Sarah, William, John, and anyone else I ve missed who helped put my question in perspective for my upcoming panel on Tolkien at World
                                              Message 22 of 22 , Oct 26, 2010
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                                                Belated thanks to David, Sarah, William, John, and anyone else I've missed who helped put my question in perspective for my upcoming panel on Tolkien at World Fantasy.  Between your suggestions and what I've read in Tolkien's letters I feel like I'm (hopefully) armed to say some relevant things.

                                                Ellen Denham


                                                On 10/14/10 11:24 PM, David Bratman wrote:
                                                 

                                                If we're going to respond to Lin Carter - which I am about to do at
                                                considerable length - we need to have at hand what he actually said.

                                                Carter's contentious comments on religion in Tolkien appeared only briefly
                                                in his 1969 book on Tolkien, which was focused on placing LOTR in the
                                                context of the history of fantasy literature, rather than on evaluating
                                                Tolkien's work. But his 1973 book _Imaginary Worlds_ was a history of
                                                fantasy, and its view of Tolkien was focused on evaluating his achievement
                                                in that context. LOTR had been so widely praised that Carter felt there was
                                                room to emphasize what he saw as the book's flaws, and one of the things he
                                                said was this: When he writes that "Tolkien's world has no religion in it,"
                                                Iluvatar and the Valar don't count.

                                                "That is not what I am talking about," he writes. "A religion is much more
                                                than just the presence of an actual god, or gods; it is also an established
                                                canon of inspired writings and an organized priesthood, a system of temples
                                                and shrines, and so on." Medieval societies of the kind Tolkien used as
                                                models had such an organized religion, he says, and other fantasies inspired
                                                by them have had them to. Then he gives a long list of examples, from Conan
                                                the Barbarian on up. "But there is no religion at all in _The Lord of the
                                                Rings_ - no temples, shrines, priests, prayers, amulets, scriptures, ikons,
                                                idols - _nothing!_ None of the many characters, not even the heroic
                                                warriors, so much as swears by his gods. Obviously because they _have_ no
                                                gods. Which is simply incredible in a primitive world of wizards and
                                                warriors and walled stone cities." (Imaginary Worlds, p. 122-24)

                                                The first thing that occurs to me to say in response to this is, "By
                                                Elbereth and Luthien the Fair, you shall have neither the Ring nor me!"
                                                which is what Frodo says to the Nazgul at the Ford of Bruinen. Luthien, or
                                                even Elbereth, may not technically be gods, but from a Catholic author they
                                                are definitely serving the function of angels or saints in this context.
                                                Anyway, so much for characters not swearing by them. There are other
                                                examples; this one is particularly memorable.

                                                Secondly, Carter has a rather limited idea of what an organized religion
                                                requires. The medieval Norse, for instance, did not have any canon of
                                                inspired writings that we know of. Their legends and poems about the gods
                                                and heroes were neither canonized nor considered sacred texts the way we
                                                consider the Bible. The Jews, after the fall of the Temple, simply
                                                abandoned the heriditary priesthood that had served them before that; even
                                                today, rabbis are not really "clergy" in the sense that Christians use that
                                                word; a rabbi is a learned man, not a priest. Some Asian religions, I
                                                believe, do without temples and shrines, and the diaspora Jews also rank low
                                                on that scale.

                                                The peoples of Middle-earth, however, do have some of the "and so on" which
                                                Carter doesn't enumerate. If they don't have a canonized scripture, they do
                                                have the kind of stories of the gods and heroes of the past that customarily
                                                appear in scriptures, even a creation myth (though Carter didn't have access
                                                to this one, as it first appeared in _The Silmarillion_ which hadn't been
                                                published when he wrote). They have some rituals, notably the moment of
                                                silence before eating that Faramir and his men perform at Henneth Annun.
                                                This, Faramir explains, is a gesture of respect towards Eldamar and Valinor,
                                                so they also have a holy place. They have funerary customs and respect the
                                                dead, a common religious practice. And, as Carter would say, so on.

                                                What they have more than any of this, however, are aspects of religion that
                                                are not dreamt of in Carter's philosophy. These are the moral and spiritual
                                                content of religious belief, which underlie every action the admirable
                                                characters take, and indeed drive the whole plot, because it is a spiritual
                                                concern to rid the world of an evil menace, and not a practical
                                                consideration to defeat the bad guy in the black hat, that inspires the
                                                decision to destroy the Ring, rather than - as practical men like Boromir
                                                would prefer - use it. I hardly need to go into this here, as so many
                                                authors have done so brilliantly. The best source for this purpose is
                                                Richard Purtill's _Lord of the Elves and Eldils_, because like Carter he was
                                                writing before _The Silmarillion_ and proves his case, rather dazzlingly,
                                                from LOTR alone. (Ellwood's _Good News from Middle-earth_, the other
                                                pre-Silmarillion religious study of Tolkien, is a hunt for Christ figures
                                                and new-age woo-woo, and even if you want such things, would not be suitable
                                                for countering Carter.) Of more recent books on Tolkien's religious
                                                dimension that consider the posthumous writings, I'd say the best ones which
                                                still focus mostly on LOTR are _The Battle for Middle-earth_ by Fleming
                                                Rutledge and _Following Gandalf_ by Matthew Dickerson. (The Birzer and
                                                Caldecott books mentioned by others are OK, but these are much better.)

                                                So the answer to Carter is that he's framed his question wrongly - what
                                                Tolkien lacks is not religion, it's colorful religious trappings - and even
                                                taken as Carter frames it, his charge is not entirely true. But
                                                nevertheless, his observations are not entirely hallucinatory, so we can
                                                also raise the questions of whether what he sees is, as he claims, "simply
                                                incredible," and of why Tolkien writes it this way. But these are further
                                                observations on the topic, not directly answers to Carter, because they
                                                attempt only to explain the case; they don't answer it.

                                                >From an external, author-based perspective, we can say that Tolkien couldn't
                                                have his pre-Christian characters be Christians, for obvious chronological
                                                reasons, but he didn't want to have them worshipping false gods, so he made
                                                them the virtuous pagans of (mostly hypothetical) Christian theology. Some
                                                of the authors on religion in Tolkien go into this point.

                                                >From an internal, character-based perspective, though, there's an answer so
                                                breath-taking that, again, it is not dreamt of in Carter's philosophy. The
                                                reason his pagan warriors don't worship false gods is that, through the
                                                Elves, and they through the Valar, have unfiltered access to the truth about
                                                the spiritual universe. (The truth as Tolkien sees it, of course, but as an
                                                author he has the right to make his Catholic theology the unfettered truth
                                                within his own fiction.) They don't need false gods; they have the real
                                                God. They don't need priests and rituals and so on; they have a closeness
                                                to the divine that few today are fortunate enough to experience. That
                                                palpable sense is part of what makes LOTR such an inspiring book.

                                                That's what I would say if I were on Ellen's panel, and I hope it helps.

                                                David Bratman

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