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Re: About dwarves and their connection with nordic myth ...

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  • Anglin Turcam
    As for the Problem of Balin , I ve come to the conclusion that ... like Dear Mr John, I have read now the Dronke s pages you ve gave me to read on your
    Message 1 of 23 , Dec 1, 2006
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      As for 'the Problem of Balin', I've come to the conclusion that
      > this represents a deliberate alteration by Tolkien of a name which
      > does appear in the EDDA, but the argument is too complicated for
      > quick explication in an e-mail; drop me a line off-list if you'd
      like

      Dear Mr John,
      I have read now the Dronke's pages you've gave me to read on your
      previous message ...
      She take some interresting choices to translate or traduce each of
      the dwarfs-names occuring in the Dvergatal (roster of dwarves in the
      Völuspá)but I've also mine whish are coming from some very acute
      french translators (Lecouteux, Dillmann, Boyer) including also Zoegä
      and Cleasby-Vigfusson Old Icelandic / English dictionnaries.

      A point is to made to the problem of Balin you speak previously :
      Curiously the names of Balin and Gloin are present also after the
      Azanulbizar Battle between Orcs and Dwarves and the burning of the
      Dwarven corpses (only one time in all the orcs/dwarfs war they burst
      upon the text !) and when we take a look closely to these two dwarfs-
      names we learned that :

      bál, n. (1) fire ; slá b. = drepa eld ;
      (2) flame, blaze ; gera b., to make a blaze ;
      (3) pyre, funeral pile ; bera e-n à b., to carry to the pyre ; stíga
      á b., to mount the pyre.
      [ZoëgaCDOI], p. 45A

      Balin may be from bál 'fire', and mean 'Burning-one'. (The -inn
      terminaison in these names indicates a past participle form.)
      [AllanGivingofNames], p. 223 (pp. 223-4 for other possible sources)

      and for Gloin :
      Glóinn The glowing one. Cp. glóa, 'to glow'.
      [GouldPMLA], p. 948

      Glóinn 'the glowing one'
      [MotzFrümittelalterliche], p. 104

      Glói Vsp. 15,4 R, Glóinn H; SnE I 66 GloiN rTW, gloni U; þul 5,2 d.c.
      gloinn ; glóa, v. 'to glow'_'the glowing one'.
      [MotzFrümittelalterliche], p. 114

      glóa (að, or óða, -ót), v. (1) to shine, glitter (2) to glow with
      heat.
      [ZoëgaCDOI], p. 167B

      Gloïnn Glowing-one
      [AllanGivingofNames], p. 222

      -----------------------------------------
      Bibliography :

      [GouldPMLA], C.-N. Gould, Dwarf-names : a study in old icelandic
      religion, in PMLA (Publications of the Modern Language Association of
      America),n°44, 1929, p939-967.

      [MotzFrümittelalterliche], Motz Lotte., New thoughts on Dwarfs-Names
      in Old Icelandic, Frümittelalterliche Studien 7, 1973, P.100-117

      [ZoëgaCDOI], Geir T. Zoëga, A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic,
      Dover Publication, INC. Mineola, New York 2004 (unabridged
      republication of 1910), 551p.

      [AllanGivingofNames], Allan Jim (éd) et al. An Introduction to Elvish
      and to other Tongues and Proper Names and Writing Systems of the
      Third Age of the Western Lands of Middle-Earth as set forth in the
      Published Writings of Professor John Ronald Reuel Tolkien. Hayes
      (Royaume Uni) Bran's Head Books, 1978, 303p.

      --------------------------------------
      If this dwarf-name (balin) could so mean the-one-who-carry-to-the-
      pyre, or funeral pyre, why no one who speaks about these Balin
      Problem said something like that ?
      (The Gloin name reveals also a relation between these two names and
      the funeral pyre and the burning of the dwarves !)

      Everybody known also that Balin occurs a second time in the Lord of
      the ring as a runic inscription on a tomb in Moria ?

      Did this names as to be taken all the time as a simple coincidence ?
      Or Text and rhymes shemes to fit with the other dwarfs-names ?
    • William Cloud Hicklin
      ... after the ... burning of the ... they burst ... two dwarfs- ... names and ... M. Turcam: I m afraid that this is most likely a coincidence. Tolkien wrote
      Message 2 of 23 , Dec 1, 2006
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        --- In mythsoc@yahoogroups.com, "Anglin
        Turcam" <courrier_chroniques@...> wrote:

        > A point is to made to the problem of Balin you speak
        previously :
        > Curiously the names of Balin and Gloin are present also
        after the
        > Azanulbizar Battle between Orcs and Dwarves and the
        burning of the
        > Dwarven corpses (only one time in all the orcs/dwarfs war
        they burst
        > upon the text !) and when we take a look closely to these
        two dwarfs-
        > names we learned that :
        >
        > bál, n. (1) fire ; [snip]

        > (The Gloin name reveals also a relation between these two
        names and
        > the funeral pyre and the burning of the dwarves !)
        >
        M. Turcam:

        I'm afraid that this is most likely a coincidence. Tolkien
        wrote his account of Nanduhirion for the Appendices, some
        two decades after he created his "rabble of Eddaic-named
        Dwarves." The more probable explanation for Balin and Glóin
        being specifically named is simply that these two were the
        most "important" of Thorin's companions to the later story:
        Balin as the Dwarf friendliest to Bilbo, and who later led
        the failed Moria expedition; Glóin of course because he was
        at the Council of Elrond, and was Gimli's father.
      • Jason Fisher
        ... This is basically just what I was going to say as well. But I m curious to hear about some of your other findings / theories, Anglin. I sort of got the
        Message 3 of 23 , Dec 1, 2006
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          > I'm afraid that this is most likely a coincidence.

          This is basically just what I was going to say as well. But I'm curious to hear about some of your other findings / theories, Anglin. I sort of got the feeling we were joining a conversation already in progress, but I'm doing work in this area myself, so I'd be curious to hear more about your work off-list (as you suggested it was too complicated for the list). Drop me a line if you'd like to chat more about this ...

          Jason Fisher

          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • Vincent Ferré
          Dear Anglin, And what about the suggestion I made (the conference at the ENS Ulm you attended, in May 05) that Tolkien might have found names in re-writings
          Message 4 of 23 , Dec 1, 2006
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            Dear Anglin,

            And what about the suggestion I made (the conference at the ENS Ulm you attended, in May '05) that Tolkien might have found names in re-writings of Chrétien de Troyes's romances ? I remember well a Belin and a Meliadoc in his Erec and Enid. Did you have a look at Malory ?

            best wishes
            Vincent

            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • Larry Swain
            ... I d actually be interested in this too, I m preparing lecture notes on Tolkien s dwarves for a Tolkien class I m teaching next semester. --
            Message 5 of 23 , Dec 1, 2006
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              >
              >
              > > I'm afraid that this is most likely a coincidence.
              >
              > This is basically just what I was going to say as well. But I'm
              > curious to hear about some of your other findings / theories,
              > Anglin. I sort of got the feeling we were joining a conversation
              > already in progress, but I'm doing work in this area myself, so I'd
              > be curious to hear more about your work off-list (as you suggested
              > it was too complicated for the list). Drop me a line if you'd like
              > to chat more about this ...

              I'd actually be interested in this too, I'm preparing lecture notes on Tolkien's dwarves for a Tolkien class I'm teaching next semester.

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            • Larry Swain
              ... You know, I kind of doubt it. Possible of course. But Chretien s names are derived either through French from English/Norse or through French from
              Message 6 of 23 , Dec 1, 2006
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                >
                >
                > Dear Anglin,
                >
                > And what about the suggestion I made (the conference at the ENS Ulm
                > you attended, in May '05) that Tolkien might have found names in
                > re-writings of Chrétien de Troyes's romances ? I remember well a
                > Belin and a Meliadoc in his Erec and Enid. Did you have a look at
                > Malory ?

                You know, I kind of doubt it. Possible of course. But Chretien's names are derived either through French from English/Norse or through French from Brittonic...more likely to my mind that Tolkien derived the names from the original languages than from the intermediary sources....though certainly he was familiar enough with the Arthurian tradition.

                ljs

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              • William Cloud Hicklin
                Hmmm. Is it remotely possible, I wonder, that the names suggested a story to Tolkien as he was writing App.A: Of the Dwarves? After all, the process of
                Message 7 of 23 , Dec 1, 2006
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                  Hmmm. Is it remotely possible, I wonder, that the names
                  "suggested a story" to Tolkien as he was writing App.A: Of
                  the Dwarves? After all, the process of writing the history
                  and the family tree implies that he was once again sifting
                  through Voluspa (in bound form or from memory). Balin and
                  Glóin are, for reasons stated, the two non-royal dwarves
                  mentioned in connection with the battle. Could it be that
                  you're right: these names in fact did inspire the Great Pyre?


                  --- In mythsoc@yahoogroups.com, "Larry Swain" <theswain@...>
                  wrote:
                  >
                  >
                  > >
                  > >
                  > > > I'm afraid that this is most likely a coincidence.
                  > >
                  > > This is basically just what I was going to say as well.
                  But I'm
                  > > curious to hear about some of your other findings /
                  theories,
                  > > Anglin. I sort of got the feeling we were joining a
                  conversation
                  > > already in progress, but I'm doing work in this area
                  myself, so I'd
                  > > be curious to hear more about your work off-list (as you
                  suggested
                  > > it was too complicated for the list). Drop me a line if
                  you'd like
                  > > to chat more about this ...
                  >
                  > I'd actually be interested in this too, I'm preparing
                  lecture notes on Tolkien's dwarves for a Tolkien class I'm
                  teaching next semester.
                  >
                  > --
                  > _______________________________________________
                  > Surf the Web in a faster, safer and easier way:
                  > Download Opera 9 at http://www.opera.com
                  >
                  > Powered by Outblaze
                  >
                • Jason Fisher
                  ... Yes, I agree with Larry. It s not beyond the realm of possibility, but I think it far more likely that Tolkien got the names directly from the Old Norse
                  Message 8 of 23 , Dec 1, 2006
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                    >> Dear Anglin,
                    >>
                    >> And what about the suggestion I made (the conference at the ENS Ulm
                    >> you attended, in May '05) that Tolkien might have found names in
                    >> re-writings of Chrétien de Troyes's romances ? I remember well a
                    >> Belin and a Meliadoc in his Erec and Enid. Did you have a look at
                    >> Malory ?

                    > You know, I kind of doubt it. Possible of course. But Chretien's names are
                    > derived either through French from English/Norse or through French from
                    > Brittonic... more likely to my mind that Tolkien derived the names from the
                    > original languages than from the intermediary sources....though certainly he
                    > was familiar enough with the Arthurian tradition.

                    Yes, I agree with Larry. It's not beyond the realm of possibility, but I think it far more likely that Tolkien got the names directly from the Old Norse than through a French intermediary. Many of the hobbit names seem to have come from the Continent, but the dwarves' names almost certainly didn't.

                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  • Jason Fisher
                    ... It could be. Tolkien tended to start with a name, puzzling over its meaning, and a story often developed out of those linguistic musings. The fact that he
                    Message 9 of 23 , Dec 1, 2006
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                      > Hmmm. Is it remotely possible, I wonder, that the names
                      > "suggested a story" to Tolkien as he was writing App.A: Of
                      > the Dwarves? After all, the process of writing the history
                      > and the family tree implies that he was once again sifting
                      > through Voluspa (in bound form or from memory). Balin and
                      > Glóin are, for reasons stated, the two non-royal dwarves
                      > mentioned in connection with the battle. Could it be that
                      > you're right: these names in fact did inspire the Great Pyre?

                      It could be. Tolkien tended to start with a name, puzzling over its meaning, and a story often developed out of those linguistic musings. The fact that he chose Balin as a name for a dwarf in The Hobbit, of course, would have had nothing to do with this (being many years earlier), but the etymology of the name could indeed have brought this particular dwarf back into the forefront of his story-making later.

                      Jason Fisher

                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    • Larry Swain
                      ... Just enquiring about the last statement....The hobbit names came from the Continent? Bracegirdles, Proudfoot, Baggins are Continental names? I ve done
                      Message 10 of 23 , Dec 1, 2006
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                        Jason wrote:

                        >
                        > Yes, I agree with Larry. It's not beyond the realm of possibility,
                        > but I think it far more likely that Tolkien got the names directly
                        > from the Old Norse than through a French intermediary. Many of the
                        > hobbit names seem to have come from the Continent,

                        Just enquiring about the last statement....The hobbit names came from the Continent? Bracegirdles, Proudfoot, Baggins are Continental names? I've done any sort of name-study, esp of the hobbits, so I'm curious.

                        ljs

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                      • William Cloud Hicklin
                        ... possibility, ... names directly ... Many of the ... names came from the Continent? Bracegirdles, Proudfoot, Baggins are Continental names? I ve done any
                        Message 11 of 23 , Dec 1, 2006
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                          --- In mythsoc@yahoogroups.com, "Larry Swain" <theswain@...>
                          wrote:
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          > Jason wrote:
                          >
                          > >
                          > > Yes, I agree with Larry. It's not beyond the realm of
                          possibility,
                          > > but I think it far more likely that Tolkien got the
                          names directly
                          > > from the Old Norse than through a French intermediary.
                          Many of the
                          > > hobbit names seem to have come from the Continent,
                          >
                          > Just enquiring about the last statement....The hobbit
                          names came from the Continent? Bracegirdles, Proudfoot,
                          Baggins are Continental names? I've done any sort of name-
                          study, esp of the hobbits, so I'm curious.


                          Not the surnames, the rather pretentious given names of the
                          Great Holes: Fredegar, Isengrim, Odavacar etc. Although I
                          believe he cribbed the Brandybucks' names (Meriadoc,
                          Gorbadoc, Saradoc) from Medieval Welsh.
                          >
                          > ljs
                          >
                          > --
                          > _______________________________________________
                          > Surf the Web in a faster, safer and easier way:
                          > Download Opera 9 at http://www.opera.com
                          >
                          > Powered by Outblaze
                          >
                        • Jason Fisher
                          ... Right. And the source I think I was remembering (though there may have been other places I ve read about thism too) is Jim Allan s chapter, The Giving of
                          Message 12 of 23 , Dec 1, 2006
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                            > Not the surnames, the rather pretentious given names of the
                            > Great Holes: Fredegar, Isengrim, Odavacar etc. Although I
                            > believe he cribbed the Brandybucks' names (Meriadoc,
                            > Gorbadoc, Saradoc) from Medieval Welsh.

                            Right. And the source I think I was remembering (though there may have been other places I've read about thism too) is Jim Allan's chapter, "The Giving of Names", in An Introduction to Elvish. The section on Hobbits' names is pp. 190-212 and contains lots of interesting details.

                            Jason Fisher

                            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                          • Jason Fisher
                            ... I just confirmed the dim recollection that the topic Carolingians in the Tolkien Encyclopedia comments on this as well. One of Mr. Lobdell s many
                            Message 13 of 23 , Dec 1, 2006
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                              > Right. And the source I think I was remembering (though there
                              > may have been other places I've read about thism too) is Jim
                              > Allan's chapter, "The Giving of Names", in An Introduction to
                              > Elvish. The section on Hobbits' names is pp. 190-212 and
                              > contains lots of interesting details.

                              I just confirmed the dim recollection that the topic "Carolingians" in the Tolkien Encyclopedia comments on this as well. One of Mr. Lobdell's many entries.

                              Jason

                              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                            • not_thou
                              I m out of my depth here, but can suggest some sources to check: Regarding Hobbit first names, Arden Smith, citing Tolkien himself (in LotR s Appendix F?),
                              Message 14 of 23 , Dec 1, 2006
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                                I'm out of my depth here, but can suggest some sources to check:

                                Regarding Hobbit first names, Arden Smith, citing Tolkien himself (in
                                LotR's Appendix F?), talks a little about derivation of Took/Bolger
                                personal names from ?Lombardic and Gothic in his paper in the
                                Blackwelder collection, "Tolkienian Gothic".

                                Regarding Hobbit last names, David Bratman presented a very
                                entertaining paper at Birmingham in 2005 called "Hobbit Names Aren't
                                from Kentucky", noting the last names were generally English but
                                sometimes used more for sound than for sense, if I recall correctly.
                                Has / will that paper be published?

                                Regarding the dwarves' names... well, I was about to misremember a
                                passage from Tolkien's letters, but I see that John Rateliff and
                                Anglin Turkam thoroughly covered that subject earlier in this thread
                                ("rabble of Eddaic-named Dwarves", etc. -- *Must remember to read
                                backwards in the threads.*) As noted by others, this doesn't negate
                                the possiblity of Tolkien folding in motifs from other sources when
                                he returned to the dwarves for Appendix A, III -- but has anyone
                                checked HoMe XII on this point? Also, noting Turkam's speculation of
                                possible meanings for some dwarf names, is it true, as the (groan)
                                Encyclopedia of Arda says, that "Dwalin" could mean "dawdler" in Old
                                Norse? And could that explain the exceptionally long life of the
                                first dwarf to appear in The Hobbit?

                                Side-note: I'm not very familiar with message etiquette in group-
                                lists: what's the preferred procedure for retaining or changing
                                subject lines as the conversation drifts away from the original
                                topic? Would it have been more or less helpful to readers for me to
                                have changed the subject line of this message from "About dwarves and
                                their connection with Nordic myth" to something like "Dwarf and
                                hobbit names"?

                                -Merlin DeTardo


                                >--- "William Cloud Hicklin" <solicitr@...> wrote:
                                >>--- "Larry Swain" <theswain@> wrote:
                                >>>--- Jason wrote:
                                >>> Yes, I agree with Larry. It's not beyond the realm of
                                possibility, but I think it far more likely that Tolkien got the
                                names directly from the Old Norse than through a French
                                intermediary. Many of the hobbit names seem to have come from the
                                Continent,
                                >>Just enquiring about the last statement....The hobbit names came
                                from the Continent? Bracegirdles, Proudfoot, Baggins are Continental
                                names? I've done any sort of name-study, esp of the hobbits, so I'm
                                curious.
                                >Not the surnames, the rather pretentious given names of the Great
                                Holes: Fredegar, Isengrim, Odavacar etc. Although I believe he
                                cribbed the Brandybucks' names (Meriadoc, Gorbadoc, Saradoc) from
                                Medieval Welsh.
                              • Jason Fisher
                                ... That may be true, yes. Zoëga has: dvala, v. to delay, put off dvalan, f. prolongation And other similar words. I ve also seen the meaning torpid but
                                Message 15 of 23 , Dec 1, 2006
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                                  > Also, noting Turkam's speculation of possible meanings for
                                  > some dwarf names, is it true, as the (groan) Encyclopedia of
                                  > Arda says, that "Dwalin" could mean "dawdler" in Old Norse?
                                  > And could that explain the exceptionally long life of the first
                                  > dwarf to appear in The Hobbit?

                                  That may be true, yes. Zoëga has:

                                  dvala, v. to delay, put off
                                  dvalan, f. prolongation

                                  And other similar words. I've also seen the meaning "torpid" but haven't tried to track that down yet. As I mentioned earlier in the thread, I'm currently doing work on this stuff.

                                  Jason Fisher

                                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                • John D Rateliff
                                  ... I doubt it; Dvalin is one of the most famous of all dwarves in the Old Norse material, famed (among other things) as a great craftsman, and not notable for
                                  Message 16 of 23 , Dec 1, 2006
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                                    On Dec 1, 2006, at 5:26 PM, not_thou wrote:
                                    > Encyclopedia of Arda says, that "Dwalin" could mean "dawdler" in Old
                                    > Norse? And could that explain the exceptionally long life of the
                                    > first dwarf to appear in The Hobbit?

                                    I doubt it; Dvalin is one of the most famous of all dwarves in the
                                    Old Norse material, famed (among other things) as a great craftsman,
                                    and not notable for any "dawdling". In any case, the apparent
                                    "exceptionally long life" of Tolkien's character is I think the
                                    result of an error in the reckoning, not any intent on Tolkien's part
                                    to make him the Old Took of dwarves (that distinction belonging
                                    instead to Durin the First). Although, that said, it is very like
                                    Tolkien to add things to characters based on subsequent research that
                                    were not part of his initial inspiration; I just doubt that is the
                                    case in this instance.

                                    > Side-note: are my messages too long? I have noticed several
                                    > references on this list to matters deemed too complicated for this
                                    > format.

                                    There are no rules for length, so far as I know, but short posts are
                                    more likely to get responded to that long, complex ones. Changing
                                    headers to reflect changing focus of a post is always welcome. And
                                    trimming texts being responded to down to the relevant sections is
                                    definitely good form.

                                    Re. 'Tolkien Studies' vs. 'Middle-earth Studies', I think it's a
                                    false dichotomy to divide them. Some things I'm interested in might
                                    fall in one category, some in the other, and some cut across both.
                                    It's like trying to divide Lit from Lang; it's better to consider
                                    both aspects together.

                                    As for Brooke-Rose, it's been too long since I read her for me to
                                    respond in detail, but I thought at the time that her chief
                                    shortcoming was that she was writing a book about fantasy without any
                                    clear idea of what fantasy was, which made her comments seem random
                                    and unfocused.

                                    --JDR

                                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                  • Anglin Turcam
                                    ... Great Pyre? Thank s, it s perhaps after Mr John D Ratelif the only positive opinion about this fact. I m very sad to not write as goodly as I want to speak
                                    Message 17 of 23 , Dec 2, 2006
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                                      To William Cloud Hicklin :
                                      >> Could it be that you're right: these names in fact did inspire the
                                      Great Pyre?
                                      Thank's, it's perhaps after Mr John D Ratelif the only positive opinion
                                      about this fact. I'm very sad to not write as goodly as I want to speak
                                      about my point of view of my 'paradox' for the 'editorial concession'
                                      conceded by Pr Tolkien about his dwarves and their possible relation
                                      with Old norse ones. I'm afraid that I have to say that I'm not agree
                                      with that fact commonly accepted by all the Tolkien Community ... there
                                      are too much things to much details to much words that make me think
                                      that Tolkien did really take a lot of things from Norse Dwarves (
                                      perhaps even to Norse Cosmogology about them ) to speak about a
                                      simple 'concession'. I want to go farther than Mr Shippey did realy
                                      goood about them, farther than the lots of ones that speak only about
                                      the Names occuring in Völuspá ...


                                      To Jason :
                                      >> so I'd be curious to hear more about your work off-list (as you
                                      suggested it was too complicated for the list). Drop me a line if you'd
                                      like ...

                                      Check your MailBox Jason ;)

                                      >> I'd actually be interested in this too, I'm preparing lecture notes
                                      on Tolkien's dwarves for a Tolkien class I'm teaching next semester.

                                      I work also about other interrestings things about Tolkien's dwarves
                                      like death/size/women/magical object (in fact in Letters Tolkien
                                      says 'Magic is Art' and the dwarves are Aulë childrens ....). Did you
                                      read french freely ?
                                      I can tell you that your lecture notes can be very interresting to me
                                      if you can send them to my mailbox ?

                                      Anglin.
                                    • alexeik@aol.com
                                      ... From: solicitr@mindspring.com To: mythsoc@yahoogroups.com Sent: Fri, 1 Dec 2006 7:02 PM Subject: [mythsoc] Re: About dwarves and their connection with
                                      Message 18 of 23 , Dec 2, 2006
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                                        -----Original Message-----
                                        From: solicitr@...
                                        To: mythsoc@yahoogroups.com
                                        Sent: Fri, 1 Dec 2006 7:02 PM
                                        Subject: [mythsoc] Re: About dwarves and their connection with nordic myth ...

                                        Although I
                                        believe he cribbed the Brandybucks' names (Meriadoc,
                                        Gorbadoc, Saradoc) from Medieval Welsh. <<

                                        That, and even more from mediaeval Cornish and Breton. Alexei >
                                        .
                                        AActuaActua
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                                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                      • Larry Swain
                                        ... Anglin, I ll be happy to send them along when I ve finished them, pretty basic though. And yes, I read French. ljs --
                                        Message 19 of 23 , Dec 4, 2006
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                                          >
                                          > I work also about other interrestings things about Tolkien's dwarves
                                          > like death/size/women/magical object (in fact in Letters Tolkien
                                          > says 'Magic is Art' and the dwarves are Aulë childrens ....). Did you
                                          > read french freely ?
                                          > I can tell you that your lecture notes can be very interresting to me
                                          > if you can send them to my mailbox ?
                                          >
                                          > Anglin.
                                          >

                                          Anglin,

                                          I'll be happy to send them along when I've finished them, pretty basic though. And yes, I read French.

                                          ljs

                                          --
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