Re: [mythsoc] Who is Shift?
- On Jul 12, 2005, at 8:15 AM, Patrick Wynne wrote:
> In 1302 AD, Pope Boniface VIII wrote the following _ex cathedra_That is an accepted translation of the text of the Bull ("_Declaratio
> (i.e. infallible) statement in the bull _Unam Sanctam_:
> "Furthermore we declare, state, define, and pronounce that it is
> altogether necessary to salvation for every human creature to be
> subject to the Roman pontiff."
quod subesse Romano Pontifici est omni humanae creaturae de
necessitate salutis_"), but is itself open to interpretation: namely,
as to whether the Bull is stating that 1) every individual human
being is _de facto_ subject to the authority of the Pope with respect
to and for the purposes of achieving salvation through Christ's
Church; or 2) that every individual human being must submit himself,
knowingly, to the authority of the Pope, in order to achieve his own
salvation, and without doing so he will of a certainty not be saved?
The latter interpretation would seem to forbid even an appeal to
"invincible ignorance" as hope for salvation for any non-Catholic but
otherwise righteous person. But that would itself contradict the
constant teaching of the Church (see <http://www.catholicculture.org/
docs/doc_view.cfm?recnum=1203>) that those who are invincibly
ignorant _may_ be saved; and so it would seem to me to not be the
correct interpretation (if it were, it would "prove too much", as
they say: namely, that invincible ignorance is no excuse of
culpability, which is contrary to Catholic teaching).
To my eyes, a plain reading of the text of the Bull in question in
its entirety and in its context of a time of looming schism, and of
revolt by King Philip IV, make it clear that the subject of the Bull
is the primacy of the Church, and thus of its head the Pope, over
every other worldly authority; in particular, over that of kings,
princes, and soldiers. From both the text and the context of the
whole Bull, what I see is a restatement and definition of what the
Catholic Church has always taught: that to it and to it alone has
been given supreme worldly authority (through the Keys of Peter and
Apostolic Succession), that this authority was granted and guaranteed
to the Pope and the Church by Christ for the purpose of securing the
salvation of all mankind, and that the Pope and the Church are not
subject or subordinate to any other worldly authority:
"Both, therefore, are in the power of the Church, that is to say, the
spiritual and the material sword, but the former is to be
administered for the Church but the latter by the Church; the former
in the hands of the priest; the latter by the hands of kings and
soldiers, but at the will and sufferance of the priest.
"However, one sword ought to be subordinated to the other and
temporal authority, subjected to spiritual power. For since the
Apostle said: "There is no power except from God and the things that
are, are ordained of God" [Rom 13:1-2], but they would not be
ordained if one sword were not subordinated to the other and if the
inferior one, as it were, were not led upwards by the other."
"Hence we must recognize the more clearly that spiritual power
surpasses in dignity and in nobility any temporal power whatever, as
spiritual things surpass the temporal. This we see very clearly also
by the payment, benediction, and consecration of the tithes, but the
acceptance of power itself and by the government even of things. For
with truth as our witness, it belongs to spiritual power to establish
the terrestrial power and to pass judgement if it has not been good."
"Therefore, if the terrestrial power err, it will be judged by the
spiritual power; but if a minor spiritual power err, it will be
judged by a superior spiritual power; but if the highest power of all
err, it can be judged only by God, and not by man, according to the
testimony of the Apostle: "The spiritual man judgeth of all things
and he himself is judged by no man" [1 Cor 2:15]. This authority,
however, (though it has been given to man and is exercised by man),
is not human but rather divine, granted to Peter by a divine word and
reaffirmed to him (Peter) and his successors by the One Whom Peter
confessed, the Lord saying to Peter himself, "Whatsoever you shall
bind on earth, shall be bound also in Heaven" etc., [Mt 16:19].
Therefore whoever resists this power thus ordained by God, resists
the ordinance of God [Rom 13:2], unless he invent like Manicheus two
beginnings, which is false and judged by us heretical....
Furthermore, we declare, we proclaim, we define that it is absolutely
necessary for salvation that every human creature be subject to the
(Note the prominent "therefore" underpinning both the negative and
the positive statements, both of which must be understood in light of
all the preceding indicated by that "therefore".)