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Re: [mythsoc] Who is Shift?

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  • Carl F. Hostetter
    ... That is an accepted translation of the text of the Bull ( _Declaratio quod subesse Romano Pontifici est omni humanae creaturae de necessitate salutis_ ),
    Message 1 of 6 , Jul 12, 2005
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      On Jul 12, 2005, at 8:15 AM, Patrick Wynne wrote:

      > In 1302 AD, Pope Boniface VIII wrote the following _ex cathedra_
      > (i.e. infallible) statement in the bull _Unam Sanctam_:
      > "Furthermore we declare, state, define, and pronounce that it is
      > altogether necessary to salvation for every human creature to be
      > subject to the Roman pontiff."

      That is an accepted translation of the text of the Bull ("_Declaratio
      quod subesse Romano Pontifici est omni humanae creaturae de
      necessitate salutis_"), but is itself open to interpretation: namely,
      as to whether the Bull is stating that 1) every individual human
      being is _de facto_ subject to the authority of the Pope with respect
      to and for the purposes of achieving salvation through Christ's
      Church; or 2) that every individual human being must submit himself,
      knowingly, to the authority of the Pope, in order to achieve his own
      salvation, and without doing so he will of a certainty not be saved?

      The latter interpretation would seem to forbid even an appeal to
      "invincible ignorance" as hope for salvation for any non-Catholic but
      otherwise righteous person. But that would itself contradict the
      constant teaching of the Church (see <http://www.catholicculture.org/
      docs/doc_view.cfm?recnum=1203>) that those who are invincibly
      ignorant _may_ be saved; and so it would seem to me to not be the
      correct interpretation (if it were, it would "prove too much", as
      they say: namely, that invincible ignorance is no excuse of
      culpability, which is contrary to Catholic teaching).
      To my eyes, a plain reading of the text of the Bull in question in
      its entirety and in its context of a time of looming schism, and of
      revolt by King Philip IV, make it clear that the subject of the Bull
      is the primacy of the Church, and thus of its head the Pope, over
      every other worldly authority; in particular, over that of kings,
      princes, and soldiers. From both the text and the context of the
      whole Bull, what I see is a restatement and definition of what the
      Catholic Church has always taught: that to it and to it alone has
      been given supreme worldly authority (through the Keys of Peter and
      Apostolic Succession), that this authority was granted and guaranteed
      to the Pope and the Church by Christ for the purpose of securing the
      salvation of all mankind, and that the Pope and the Church are not
      subject or subordinate to any other worldly authority:

      "Both, therefore, are in the power of the Church, that is to say, the
      spiritual and the material sword, but the former is to be
      administered for the Church but the latter by the Church; the former
      in the hands of the priest; the latter by the hands of kings and
      soldiers, but at the will and sufferance of the priest.

      "However, one sword ought to be subordinated to the other and
      temporal authority, subjected to spiritual power. For since the
      Apostle said: "There is no power except from God and the things that
      are, are ordained of God" [Rom 13:1-2], but they would not be
      ordained if one sword were not subordinated to the other and if the
      inferior one, as it were, were not led upwards by the other."

      "Hence we must recognize the more clearly that spiritual power
      surpasses in dignity and in nobility any temporal power whatever, as
      spiritual things surpass the temporal. This we see very clearly also
      by the payment, benediction, and consecration of the tithes, but the
      acceptance of power itself and by the government even of things. For
      with truth as our witness, it belongs to spiritual power to establish
      the terrestrial power and to pass judgement if it has not been good."

      "Therefore, if the terrestrial power err, it will be judged by the
      spiritual power; but if a minor spiritual power err, it will be
      judged by a superior spiritual power; but if the highest power of all
      err, it can be judged only by God, and not by man, according to the
      testimony of the Apostle: "The spiritual man judgeth of all things
      and he himself is judged by no man" [1 Cor 2:15]. This authority,
      however, (though it has been given to man and is exercised by man),
      is not human but rather divine, granted to Peter by a divine word and
      reaffirmed to him (Peter) and his successors by the One Whom Peter
      confessed, the Lord saying to Peter himself, "Whatsoever you shall
      bind on earth, shall be bound also in Heaven" etc., [Mt 16:19].
      Therefore whoever resists this power thus ordained by God, resists
      the ordinance of God [Rom 13:2], unless he invent like Manicheus two
      beginnings, which is false and judged by us heretical....
      Furthermore, we declare, we proclaim, we define that it is absolutely
      necessary for salvation that every human creature be subject to the
      Roman Pontiff."

      (Note the prominent "therefore" underpinning both the negative and
      the positive statements, both of which must be understood in light of
      all the preceding indicated by that "therefore".)

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