'Indo-European mythologies structure in social-historical aspect'.
- After consideration of the structural nucleus offered in the present
research formed by mythological types, it is represented expedient to
look after to updating of each of components of this circuit in all
cultural worlds of Barbarous Europe (Celt, German-Scandinavian,
Thracian-Dacian, Scythian-Sarmatian, Balt, Slavic mythological
pantheons and related (Greek, Italic, Etruscan, Indian, Iranian,
The god of the Sky, who authentic name descends from pro-Indo-
European -deiuo- 'clear sky', is the most ancient male divinity of
the Indo-Europeans. He was a chief of pantheon at the beginning, and
he possessed the legislative and warrior function. After that the God
of Sky gave the primary power up other gods. This process initiates
by means of special explanation plots (for instance: Indian myth
about fall of Dyaus; Celtic-Germans ones about Nuadha/Tyr lost their
hands). However among Mediterranean peoples (Greeks, Etruscan and
Roman) the God of Sky's image merged with the God of Thunder's one (
The God of Sky has got some united features of iconography. His
special weapon is sword. His sacral warrior animal is boar - Teutat
(at least as for the Celts and Germans).
The God of Thunder like the God of Clear Sky does not into separate
characters. This name descends to pro-Indo-European -perk- or -tar-
and means 'thunder'. Probably the God of Thunder was a protector of
professional warriors who replaced tribal collective during period of
great Indo-European campaign (2 thousand b. c.). Then formed
iconography of this type: his weapon - an axe or a hammer, his
warrior chariot. A sacral animal of the God of Thunder was an eagle
(and sometimes beasts like wolf or lion), a sacral tree was an oak.
In keeping with complication of society the God of thunder's power
decreased. Celt, Indian, Persian, Balts priests became strong and
promoted to first place other gods. But even there, where barbarian
kings ruled (Scythian, Thracian, Vendel Scandinavian peoples) the God
of Thunder ceded his power the Cultural Hero. However interesting
phenomena is an eminence of the God of thunder at the Viking Age. May
betrayed estate of Vikings. Perhaps reason of an idea of Kiev prince
Vladimir to establish Perun as chief of pagan pantheon is influence
of the Vikings and East Balts.
The important plot connected with the God of Thunder is a battle
against the Serpent: Thor and Jormungand , Indra and Vritra , Tarhunt
and Illuyanka or against giants. There the god of Thunder is defender
of world against the powers of chaos. Other significant plot is
opposite between the God of Thunder and the God of Earth Powers
(latter can is replaced by the Cultural Hero in this opposite). The
reasons of this collisy can be various. At first we see opposite
between thundercloud and earth. At second it can be ancient subject
of torment bull by lion. At third there was a conflict between tribal
aristocrats (they venerated the God of Thunder) and the priests (they
devoted to the God of Earth Powers). Possibly, there was choice for
different way of development. For instance: the Celts and the Romans.
When druids became super power, they devoted to Cernunnos/Esus and
lived in irrational magic world. As to the Romans, that they promoted
to first place Jupiter (who was the god of Sky but merged with the
God of Thunder) and created strong warrior-political system.
Compromise between mystic and rationalism was not available. It is
not surprising that one of point of religious reform by professional
priest Zaratustra was overthrow of the God of Thunder.
Two other male gods are more complicated problems. The God of Earth
Powers was correlated with ground as area of growth and dying,
circulation of life and dead. He was diverged into many lines of
development. On the one hand we can see the gods, who names descended
to pro-Indo-European -uel-, connected with world of death (Slav
Veles, Balt Veles, Indian Vala , Etruscan Veltha ). I think this is a
main trunk of development of type. On the second hand there are local
god personified an element of forests (Greek Pan, Indian Pushan, Balt
Puskait). Many gods who should be belonging to type of the God of
earth powers have got special names. I suggest that this variety
connected with tendency to use not main (sacral) names but ephitets.
Besides, some features of this god have begun to seem not appropriate
and turned into independent images (for example: beside Indian god
Rudra we see demon Vala ).
Inspite of G. Dumezil I suppose that the priests stand up for the God
of Earth Powers. Just this personage was connected with magy (Celt
Cernunnos, Scandinavian Freyr, Balt Vels). Dahghda - resent
embodiment of Cernunnos was named 'the god of druids'. Indian Varuna,
Balt Vels, Slav Veles were the protectors of singers. Lastly if we
will agree with Dumezil that Varuna corresponds Ahuramazda , it
should be to say that first monotheistic religion was created by
Zaratustra in terms of character who descend to the God of Earth
As one of functions the God of Earth Powers was protection for animal
kingship, he has got zoomorphic symbols. His sacral animal (and
perhaps embodiment) was a bull. Therefore Rudra, Dyonisos, Veles have
got horns. The horns are features sexual and warrior power. In
ancient times these attributes were considered as good symbols, but
Christians rejected them (probably as feature the main pagan
divinity). However during the Middle Ages the horns were liked with
some groups connected with heritage of European barbarians. I mean
ritters who decorated with the horns their helmet and insignias. So
the feature of the priest's divinity became warrior symbol.
Sometimes the God of Earth Powers identified with a stag or a ram
(although these symbols of the Cultural Hero but these types were not
The mythology of the God of Earth Powers includes some plots what
could be form successive chain: the marriage with the Great goddess
that embodied an alliance of two origins of fertility; the conflict
with the God of Thunder (the subject of stealing of sacral cows in
Balt, Slav , Indian , Greek mythologies); the torment of the God of
The origin of the Cultural Hero's type is a primary ancestor of
peoples. Indo-European peoples have got two tendencies of this type
development: first one embodied 'cultural' aspect of character,
second one showed heroic aspect. First tendency created image of king
of legendary Golden Age, demiurg and protector of people (Persian
Yima); than - first dead and the king of ancestors (Indian Yama);
than psichopomp and mediator (Balt Sovius, Greek Hermes , Roman
Mercury, Scandinavian Odin, Celt Lugh).
Other significant images have appeared in 'heroic' tendency. In the
area of Mediterranean mythology of Heracles influenced on iconography
of Hero (Etruscan Hercle, Roman Hercules, Thracian Hero). But
divinity whom name has got root '-Trit-' (Persian Traetaona, Indian
Thrita, Russian Ivan Tretyak). We can see there an orient rider
feature. The main plot of Hero's mythology is a victory over three-
headed monster .
As for socium, that Hero as legislative, physician and protector
become an embodiment of sacral king power. Roman emperors were
pictured with attributes of Hercules. Many Greek dynasties believed
that Heracles was their ancestor. Like picture we see in Scandinavian
countries for Odin.
The character of hero-rider had got a great future. Christian Europe
identified him with Saint George - the rider on white horse, the
winner over dragon. The appearance of Hero is connected with
eschatology, messian ideas. The character of Hero have penetrated
into Buddhism, mitraism. Important significance it has got for
Hinduism. Tenth avatar of Visine is a horseman with a flaming sword.
This is Kalki who will appear at the final of world to punish of
evil. It is not accidentally, that Hegel has imagined 'the finish of
history' at the moment when he has seen Napoleon on the white horse.
The Great Goddess is probably sole women divinity in this supposed
scheme. Her image has got origin from the Neolithic Age. In the
patriarchal Indo-European society the great goddess lost her sky
function. This process initiates by means of special explanation plot
that talked about she was unfaithful to the God of Thunder and was
turned into chthonic goddess (Balt mythology). At the process of
evolution the image of the great Goddess diverged into numerous
personages. These are:
The goddess of Earth (Greek Gaia , Indian Prthivi, Scandinavian Erd,
Balt Zemes mate).
The goddess-protector of fertility (Greek Demeter , Roman Ceres,
The goddesses-mother (Ireland Danu , Hittite Hannahanna).
The goddess of loves (Greek Aphrodite, Scandinavian Freyja).
The goddess of marriage (Greek Hera, Roman Juno, Scandinavian Frigg,
Slav Lada , Indian Laksmi).
The goddess of destiny (These divinities usually were gathered for
triads: Greek Moirae; Scandinavian Nornir ; Balt Laima, Dekla,
The goddess of war (Ireland Morrighan - see: ' Cuchulainn against
Morrighan ' , Scandinavian Freyja).
The goddess-herald of death (Greek erinies, Etruscan Vanth ,
Scandinavian Valkyrie Valkyrie , Balt vele).
The goddess of women skill (Greek Athena , Roman Minerva, Celt
Naturally the most of worshippers of the Great Goddess were women.
The Great Goddess had got various animal symbols: birds (owl, cuckoo,
and dove); snakes; fishes, insects (butterfly, bee, and scorpion). As
the cult of Goddess was connected with magic rituals, people believed
in magic abilities of the women. At the Middle Ages her dark side
became origin for image of witch. At the same time some attributes of
the Great goddess were spread for many image of Christian religion.
Thus, it is possible to approve that data of this structural nucleus
were in closed connections with social-cultural changes in life of
ancient peoples of Europe. Thus its elements appeared are extremely
steady. Having gone through wreck of pagan religions, they in many
respects were alloyed with images of Christian tradition, and then
have come as the important components of culture of Europe of New
Time when have gone through some kind of "rebirth".
ATLAS OF MYTHS.