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don't try to make a multimachine out of this

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  • Pat
    March 8, 2013 Packing 123 Horsepower Into 3 Cylinders By LINDSAY BROOKE DETROIT — Craig Daitch needed to fly to Los Angeles on short notice, and he had more
    Message 1 of 12 , Mar 8, 2013
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      March 8, 2013
      Packing 123 Horsepower Into 3 Cylinders
      By LINDSAY BROOKE
      DETROIT — Craig Daitch needed to fly to Los Angeles on short notice, and he had more than the usual amount of baggage.

      In addition to a laptop and extra clothes, Mr. Daitch, manager for car communications at Ford Motor, was bringing an item for display at last fall's auto show: the largest part of a new Ford engine.

      Typically, that cylinder block would be crated and shipped as cargo, with loading handled by forklift drivers. But this time Mr. Daitch stuffed the engine block into his suitcase and checked it onto the flight after passing through airport security.

      At 52 pounds, the cast-iron block of Ford's new 1-liter EcoBoost engine is a bantamweight among automobile power plants. (Mr. Daitch didn't even incur an overweight bag fee.) With the total capacity of its three cylinders equal to the volume of a large soft-drink bottle, it's also tiny: placed upright on a desk, the block fits easily within the edges of a file folder.

      The compact dimensions of 3-cylinder engines, together with fuel efficiency and reasonably good performance, have pushed Ford and a growing list of competitors — including Audi, BMW, Citroën, Mini, Peugeot and Volkswagen — to introduce a new generation of triples, as they are often called.

      "Turbocharged 3s are now replacing nonturbo 4-cylinder engines, just as fours have been replacing 6s," said Eric Fedewa, an IHS Automotive analyst who tracks powertrain trends. He explained that in the new 3-cylinder engines, the combination of a turbocharger and features like direct fuel injection and variable cam timing "effectively serves as a fourth cylinder."

      The overall effect is to transform the 3-cylinder Davids into aspiring Goliaths. Ford's diminutive and technically sophisticated triple will be offered in the 2014 Fiesta in the United States. Its performance — 123 horsepower and 148 pound-feet of torque — is the highest power output for its displacement of any Ford production engine, the company says.

      While offering the triple in the 2,600-pound Fiesta subcompact was a logical move, Ford surprised the industry by announcing it would make the engine available next year in the 3,350-pound Mondeo, the European version of the Fusion. (It is already offered in the European C-Max.)

      In the five-passenger Mondeo sedan, the 1-liter triple stretches the limits of how small an engine will adequately power a vehicle. The combination works, Ford engineers say, because the EcoBoost engine produces 90 percent of its maximum torque at a relatively low 1,500 r.p.m.

      Of course, small engines in larger cars are more common in Europe, where a gallon of gasoline costs up to $8 and Fiat even sells a 2-cylinder version of its 500 model. Ford aims to achieve best-in-class fuel economy, the equivalent of about 43.5 miles per gallon, when the Mondeo equipped with the 1-liter triple and a 6-speed manual transmission goes on sale, probably next year.

      Ford's success with the Mondeo could help influence similarly radical combinations across the industry, Mr. Fedewa said, even in the United States.

      Worldwide, 3-cylinder engines are best known from their wide use in motorcycles since the late 1960s by BMW, Honda, Kawasaki, Suzuki and Triumph, among others. In bikes, the triples fit neatly between 2- and 4-cylinder models.

      Their revered performance in the bike world contrasts with the buzzy, underwhelming triples that soured many buyers of econoboxes sold by Daihatsu, Subaru and Suzuki in the 1980s.

      Indeed, as automakers downsize their engines and coax more power from fewer cylinders, they're also challenged with making them run as smoothly and quietly as the engines they are replacing. The natural up-and-down shaking forces are more pronounced in engines with fewer cylinders.

      Another problem is so-called second-order vibration, according to Joe Bakaj, Ford's vice president for powertrain engineering, caused by the constantly changing angle of the connecting rods as the crankshaft rotates.

      The trick for designers is to minimize the natural vibrations occurring at different engine speeds by achieving balance, as much as possible, among the rotating and reciprocating parts.

      The task of making a triple with a high level of refinement is not simple, Mr. Bakaj said.

      "We calculated that to replace the 1.6-liter engine required just 1 liter with the EcoBoost, but to do a 1-liter with 4 cylinders meant 250 cc per cylinder," he said. "With that size, the ratio of cylinder volume to surface area is too big, so we'd lose much of the combustion energy to heat. We'd lose efficiency."

      Ford engineers settled on 300 cc for each cylinder, with a long piston stroke, which helps to minimize the engine's overall length. The short cylinder block helps to reduce what engineers call a rocking couple, which Mr. Bakaj described as the engine's tendency to rock end-to-end along its longitudinal axis as the crankshaft rotates.

      Ford's clever use of an unbalanced flywheel and pulley at opposite ends of the crankshaft smooth out shaking, so it does not require a balance shaft, a solution often used in small automotive engines. BMW's new 1.5-liter triple has a balance shaft, which consumes power and adds weight.

      The rise of smaller turbocharged engines does not necessarily mean that meeting future fuel-economy standards will be a simple matter for automakers.

      In February, Consumer Reports said that its tests of a number of recent models, including the 2013 Ford Fusion equipped with the 1.6-liter EcoBoost 4-cylinder, failed to deliver better mileage and performance than the same models with larger, nonturbocharged engines.

      Ford engineers pledge that won't be the case when the 1-liter Fiesta arrives next year. In a test drive of that engine installed in a Focus at the company's Dearborn, Mich., proving grounds, I felt barely any vibration through the steering wheel or pedals when the car idled. There was still no objectionable buzz when I accelerated hard through the gears to 70 m.p.h.

      The limited peak power may raise questions about how the 3-cylinder will perform in the much heftier Mondeo, but its noise and vibration levels are, subjectively, equal to or perhaps slightly better than those of the 1.6-liter it replaces.

      And the 4-cylinder engine block will not so easily fit in a suitcase.




      MORE IN AUTOMOBILES (3 OF 17 ARTICLES)
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    • Pierre Coueffin
      I don t know, in a small shop, a little multimachine made from one of those I3 blocks would look really cool... It d be perfect beside my sherline lathe. It
      Message 2 of 12 , Mar 9, 2013
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        I don't know, in a small shop, a little multimachine made from one of those I3 blocks would look really cool...  It'd be perfect beside my sherline lathe.

        It might also make a pretty nice basis for a Versa Mill type device.  You could put a cartridge spindle into one of the bores, bolt it to an X-Y vice mounted to an angle plate, and use an endmill to carve out features on a part in the spindle...

        If you put an overarm into another bore, you could hog pretty deeply with horizontal milling cutters...  Nice for cutting gear blanks or keyways.

        You would not even really need an X-Y vice.  Something like the palmgren milling attachment, but beefier would be nice.  Would double as a sturdy, adjustable toolpost.

        If this does not make any sense, I take no responsibility... I've been into the Whiskey tonight....  I'll fix it in the morning.
      • pokerbacken
        Hmm, I am not so certain it would be such a bad thing, as a machine for some smaller tasks it would be just the ting. what springs to mind is a machine
        Message 3 of 12 , Mar 9, 2013
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          Hmm, I am not so certain it would be such a bad thing, as a machine for some smaller tasks it would be just the ting.
          what springs to mind is a machine drilling/threading small holes or hobbing small gears... it should doe great at those tasks AND be small enough to "put under the bed" when not needed.

          look at this story for one example, not a multimachine but...
          http://machineshop.olin.edu/resources/documents/Prison Camp Lathe.pdf
        • Pierre Coueffin
          Thank you for posting that. It is a really inspiring read.
          Message 4 of 12 , Mar 9, 2013
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            Thank you for posting that.  It is a really inspiring read.

          • kbs2244
            Geos came with a 3 cyl. I have seen whole, running, though rusted out, cars go for under $200.00 at metro auctions. They were never on the road. Just used to
            Message 5 of 12 , Mar 9, 2013
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              Geos came with a 3 cyl.
              I have seen whole, running, though rusted out, cars go for under $200.00 at metro auctions.
              They were never on the road.
              Just used to run around sewer plants and such.

              They are pretty small.

              I have never checked a junk yard for one.
            • jgmrequel
              Is there any tips for finding small engine blocks for homemade horizontal mills? I guess I m spoiled with craigslist, but not sure where to look.
              Message 6 of 12 , Mar 11, 2013
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                Is there any tips for finding small engine blocks for homemade horizontal mills? I guess I'm spoiled with craigslist, but not sure where to look.

                --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, Pierre Coueffin <pcoueffin@...> wrote:
                >
                > I don't know, in a small shop, a little multimachine made from one of those
                > I3 blocks would look really cool... It'd be perfect beside my sherline
                > lathe.
              • David Hair
                Go to a auto salvage yard and ask about core engines. These will be the exchange engines and may have a busted rod, burn oil, broken crank and such. All you
                Message 7 of 12 , Mar 12, 2013
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                  Go to a auto salvage yard and ask about core engines. These will be the
                  exchange engines and may have a busted rod, burn oil, broken crank and such.
                  All you have to do is strip it down and sell the metal you can't use to a
                  metal salvage dealer.

                  D.Hair
                  ----- Original Message -----
                  From: "jgmrequel" <jgm.requel@...>
                  To: <multimachine@yahoogroups.com>
                  Sent: Monday, March 11, 2013 10:49 PM
                  Subject: [multimachine] Re: don't try to make a multimachine out of this


                  > Is there any tips for finding small engine blocks for homemade horizontal
                  > mills? I guess I'm spoiled with craigslist, but not sure where to look.
                  >
                  > --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, Pierre Coueffin <pcoueffin@...>
                  > wrote:
                  >>
                  >> I don't know, in a small shop, a little multimachine made from one of
                  >> those
                  >> I3 blocks would look really cool... It'd be perfect beside my sherline
                  >> lathe.
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > ------------------------------------
                  >
                  > -------------
                  > We have a sister site for files and pictures dedicated to concrete machine
                  > framed machine tools. You will find a great deal of information about
                  > concrete based machines and the inventor of the concrete frame lathe,
                  > Lucian Ingraham Yeomans. Go to
                  > http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Multimachine-Concrete-Machine-Tools/
                  >
                  > Also visit the Joseph V. Romig group for even more concrete tool
                  > construction, shop notes, stories, and wisdom from the early 20th Century.
                  > http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/romig_designs/
                  > -------------Yahoo! Groups Links
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > -----
                  > No virus found in this message.
                  > Checked by AVG - www.avg.com
                  > Version: 2012.0.2240 / Virus Database: 2641/5664 - Release Date: 03/11/13
                  >
                • Shannon DeWolfe
                  You just have to be persistent and patient. I found two Mazda Miata blocks already stripped for $50. A bit later, I found a complete Volvo engine and
                  Message 8 of 12 , Mar 12, 2013
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                    You just have to be persistent and patient. I found two Mazda Miata
                    blocks already stripped for $50. A bit later, I found a complete Volvo
                    engine and transmission with all accessories, including the shifter for
                    $60. Stick to the auto parts section, check it regularly. If you check
                    it once a day, after the first search, you will only have to go through
                    the things posted that day. Also, check the towns within driving distance.

                    Another possibility are the many forums devoted to a specific model.
                    Take the Miata for instance. It is a very popular hot rod, racer,
                    drifter, etc. I will wager you could get damaged blocks for the cost of
                    pickup. If you do that, consider the cost of the round trip to get the
                    block before you commit; the closer the better.

                    Regards,

                    Mr. Shannon DeWolfe
                    --I've taken to using Mr. because my name misleads folks on the WWW. I am a 57 year old fat man.

                    On 3/11/2013 9:49 PM, jgmrequel wrote:
                    > Is there any tips for finding small engine blocks for homemade
                    > horizontal mills? I guess I'm spoiled with craigslist, but not sure
                    > where to look.
                  • BRIAN GLACKIN
                    I could get dead engines (volvo s) from an Indy that specializes in repairing them. Since he buys sells and repairs them, he usually has 1-2 engines every
                    Message 9 of 12 , Mar 12, 2013
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                      I could get dead engines (volvo's) from an Indy that specializes in repairing them.  Since he buys sells and repairs them, he usually has 1-2 engines every couple of months that he has to get rid of.  He usually just loads up a junk car that he traded in, loads it up with old rotors, mufflers, and other engine parts that he accumulates then flatbeds the whole shooting match to a scrap yard.  I know I could probably just get one for the taking if I pursued this.  Just too many other project and piles of rebuilds to do already.

                      On Tue, Mar 12, 2013 at 6:56 AM, Shannon DeWolfe <sdewolfe@...> wrote:
                       

                      You just have to be persistent and patient. I found two Mazda Miata
                      blocks already stripped for $50. A bit later, I found a complete Volvo
                      engine and transmission with all accessories, including the shifter for
                      $60. Stick to the auto parts section, check it regularly. If you check
                      it once a day, after the first search, you will only have to go through
                      the things posted that day. Also, check the towns within driving distance.

                      Another possibility are the many forums devoted to a specific model.
                      Take the Miata for instance. It is a very popular hot rod, racer,
                      drifter, etc. I will wager you could get damaged blocks for the cost of
                      pickup. If you do that, consider the cost of the round trip to get the
                      block before you commit; the closer the better.

                      Regards,

                      Mr. Shannon DeWolfe
                      --I've taken to using Mr. because my name misleads folks on the WWW. I am a 57 year old fat man.



                      On 3/11/2013 9:49 PM, jgmrequel wrote:
                      > Is there any tips for finding small engine blocks for homemade
                      > horizontal mills? I guess I'm spoiled with craigslist, but not sure
                      > where to look.


                    • BRIAN GLACKIN
                      Point of this was ( forgot to add). Check a local your mechanic especially if he specializes in a particular brand of vehicle.
                      Message 10 of 12 , Mar 12, 2013
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                        Point of this was ( forgot to add).  Check a local your mechanic especially if he specializes in a particular brand of vehicle.

                        On Tue, Mar 12, 2013 at 11:04 AM, BRIAN GLACKIN <glackin.brian@...> wrote:
                        I could get dead engines (volvo's) from an Indy that specializes in repairing them.  Since he buys sells and repairs them, he usually has 1-2 engines every couple of months that he has to get rid of.  He usually just loads up a junk car that he traded in, loads it up with old rotors, mufflers, and other engine parts that he accumulates then flatbeds the whole shooting match to a scrap yard.  I know I could probably just get one for the taking if I pursued this.  Just too many other project and piles of rebuilds to do already.


                        On Tue, Mar 12, 2013 at 6:56 AM, Shannon DeWolfe <sdewolfe@...> wrote:
                         

                        You just have to be persistent and patient. I found two Mazda Miata
                        blocks already stripped for $50. A bit later, I found a complete Volvo
                        engine and transmission with all accessories, including the shifter for
                        $60. Stick to the auto parts section, check it regularly. If you check
                        it once a day, after the first search, you will only have to go through
                        the things posted that day. Also, check the towns within driving distance.

                        Another possibility are the many forums devoted to a specific model.
                        Take the Miata for instance. It is a very popular hot rod, racer,
                        drifter, etc. I will wager you could get damaged blocks for the cost of
                        pickup. If you do that, consider the cost of the round trip to get the
                        block before you commit; the closer the better.

                        Regards,

                        Mr. Shannon DeWolfe
                        --I've taken to using Mr. because my name misleads folks on the WWW. I am a 57 year old fat man.



                        On 3/11/2013 9:49 PM, jgmrequel wrote:
                        > Is there any tips for finding small engine blocks for homemade
                        > horizontal mills? I guess I'm spoiled with craigslist, but not sure
                        > where to look.



                      • David G. LeVine
                        ... Or you may find there is a LOT you can use. Most modern engines use an aluminum alloy for pistons. It can be cast into bearings with little effort and
                        Message 11 of 12 , Mar 15, 2013
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                          On 03/12/2013 05:42 AM, David Hair wrote:
                          Go to a auto salvage yard and ask about core engines. These will be the 
                          exchange engines and may have a busted rod, burn oil, broken crank and such. 
                          All you have to do is strip it down and sell the metal you can't use to a 
                          metal salvage dealer.
                          
                          D.Hair

                          Or you may find there is a LOT you can use.  Most modern engines use an aluminum alloy for pistons.  It can be cast into bearings with little effort and good success.

                          Most modern engines have gears and timing belts or chains.  A timing belt can drive a spindle without slippage and the gears can make an external "back gear" mechanism.

                          Dave  8{)

                          --


                          "Among the many misdeeds of British rule in India, history will look upon the Act of depriving a whole nation of arms as the blackest."

                          Mohandus Ghandi, An Autobiography, Page 446.
                        • David G. LeVine
                          ... Start with rebuilders, machine shops and scrap yards. A common engine with a rod through the side is probably not very valuable for rebuilding, it can
                          Message 12 of 12 , Mar 15, 2013
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                            On 03/11/2013 10:49 PM, jgmrequel wrote:
                            Is there any tips for finding small engine blocks for homemade horizontal mills? I guess I'm spoiled with craigslist, but not sure where to look. 

                            Start with rebuilders, machine shops and scrap yards.  A common engine with a rod through the side is probably not very valuable for rebuilding, it can still make a good multimachine.  An old straight 8 or 6 may be a good candidate, there were LOTS of 4.0 Liter Jeeps.

                            Dave  8{)

                            --


                            "Among the many misdeeds of British rule in India, history will look upon the Act of depriving a whole nation of arms as the blackest."

                            Mohandus Ghandi, An Autobiography, Page 446.
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