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Re: [multimachine] Need some chemical knowledge

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  • mika ugbo
    Hi Shannon, Thanks for all the information. Right now I just want to start small. The kind of company you mentioned may not want this kind of movement to
    Message 1 of 27 , Jul 1, 2012
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      Hi Shannon,
      Thanks for all the information. Right now I just want to start small. The kind of company you mentioned may not want this kind of movement to succeed.
       
      Most of these schools you listed are filled with expensive machines with no manpower to run them.
       
      "You will need at least one, and hopefully more, machinists that are
      willing to donate time and effort to train young people across the
      country. The machinists must also be willing to work with the concrete
      lathe idea -- I think you will find some people who do not take the idea
      seriously. In order to do that, you have to acquire some basic machine
      skills and you must also build a concrete lathe when you go home to
      prove that it can be done, it is reasonably accurate, and it can be used
      to build "proper" machines when castings are available''
      ------This is the way I wish to take.
       
      Thanks alot.
       
      Kind Regards,
      Michael Ugbo
    • Local
      1. Metallurgical charcoal making. 2. Iron melting cupola furnace construction and operation. I know Steve Chastain has book customers in Africa who ve built
      Message 2 of 27 , Jul 1, 2012
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        1. Metallurgical charcoal making.

        2. Iron melting cupola furnace construction and operation. I know Steve Chastain has book customers in Africa who've built and operate cupola furnaces. One (I think in Kenya) has done so well he mentioned adding employees solely to break up scrap iron.

        3. Hand scraping tools.

        Scrap aluminum will likely be too expensive. The far lower average incomes and the world price for Al ingot means it will be far more valuable as a % of the salvager's income.

        Suitable silica sand and high alumina clays for making refractories and casting sands are available almost everywhere on Earth on land. One just needs to consult local geologists to find out where the closest deposits are. A silicon dioxide / alumina phase diagram shows the possibilities with these two materials. These include mullite phase crucibles and foundry ware.

        The same charcoal fueled cupola furnaces can also fuel hi-temperature kilns to fire ceramics.

        This will allow use of more abundant, cheaper and locally available scrap iron and steel.

        This would also likely lead to a spin off ceramics and pottery trade. This trade could also make other items such as sinks, toilets and kitchenware.

        If the idea is real community economic development then I think this is the direction to go.


        --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, "Pat" <rigmatch@...> wrote:
        >
        > Guys, what can you add to this?
        >
        > Suggestions for starting a metal shop/small factory/trade school in Africa
        >
        > You will need the occasional use of a small truck.
        >
        > Skills needed to start:
        > Basic metal machining, grinding cutting tools skills, basic stick welding. Parhaps you can be taught these skills in return for shop cleaning etc while you are in Canada. If your project is sucessful, you will eventually need someone with good machining and engineering skills.
        > Aluminum alloy casting (is there a local cooking pan re-caster?)
        >
        > Tools
        > If you have access to good junk, a concrete screw cutting can be built at a very low cost. Only basic mechanic's and carpenters tools are needed.
        >
        > Other possible sources of income as the project develops:
        >
        > Sales of our penetrating oil formula.
        > Parts for a Cole drill, sale of drill bits or complete drills (the drill was developed at the request of an engineering professor in Kenya).
        > A treadle powered wooden wood turning lathe. Wood should be acquired with drying time in mind.
        > The Genny cell phone charger, charging and sales (developed at the request of a Peace Corps worker)
        > Machining clutches and brakes, especially for trucks (suggested by a missionaries in Kenya and Mexico)
        > Production of small concrete machine tools for schools and small shops.
        > Production of a general purpose/truck brake lathe.
        >
        > Additional funding
        > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowd_funding You will have to have a good start first so people will take you seriously. The Nigerian 911 scam has made people wary.
        >
        > Business plan
        > Show people that you are serious by working hard (and doccumenting it)to learn the basic skills that are needed.
        >
        > Accumulate the basic tools needed.
        >
        > By the time that you do this, I think several lathes will have been built and doccumented.
        >
        > Start with your own clutch and brake lathe then build a very accurate lathe that can be used to make more lathes and milling machines.
        >
        >
        >
        > --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, mika ugbo <iyinbor@> wrote:
        > >
        > > Hi Pat,
        > > May the good Lord bless your efforts and those of others in this forum for all your works to bring industrial revolution to developing countries. I happen to be from rural/agricultural areas of Nigeria although I presently live in Canada.
        > >  
        > > Please, how can I build a sustainable rural Technical school/business on these works of yours. Can anyone in the group help me with the technical/business plan? The concrete multimachine is really detail enough but had any body build one yet?
        > >  
        > > I am serious. I saved every message I received from this forum. Is there any member of our group that lives in Alberta,Canada? Pls. contact me.
        > >  
        > > You are one of those people that should be ruling my country's men. Africa need practical ideals that work not just aids.
        > >  
        > > Thanks.
        > >  
        > > Sincerely yours,
        > > Michael Ugbo
        > > Fort Mcmurray, Alberta
        > > Tel: 780-531-1993
        > >
        > > --- On Fri, 3/30/12, Pat <rigmatch@> wrote:
        > >
        > >
        > > From: Pat <rigmatch@>
        > > Subject: [multimachine] Need some chemical knowledge
        > > To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
        > > Received: Friday, March 30, 2012, 4:52 PM
        > >
        > >
        > >
        > >  
        > >
        > >
        > >
        > > Drexel University is going to list 7 of our projects as engineering class projects. A real honor! I need suggestions about project 7.
        > >
        > > This is what I sent to a professor there:
        > >
        > > A series of steps (projects) that could be be used to finance and build the equipment for a large metal-working shop or small factory in the developing world.
        > >
        > > Projects 1 and 2 are for simple, badly needed products that could be made and sold to get the few hundred dollars needed to buy the materials needed to build an accurate screw cutting lathe. This lathe (Project 3) would be central to the making of dedicated milling machines, drills and rolling and bending machines.
        > >
        > > Project 1
        > > A very inexpensive tool that can drill holes the hardest steel. The 140 year old drill that we have modeled on can easily drill 1" holes, using a masonry bit, in something as hard as a file. We designed ours to drill holes, without using electricity, in steel plate that is to be used in making farm implements. These holes allow a steel tip attached to a wooden plow making it much more efficient than a plow that is entirely made of wood.
        > > From the 1870's to the 1930's blacksmiths used a now almost forgotten technique that was often called "racheting" a hole. Instead of turning the bit at high speed,they turned the bit with a ratcheted crank while 500 to 1000 pounds of downward pressure was applied. An example is the "Cole" drill (link below). A Cole type drill is now too expensive for low income artizens because it's frame is a steel forging that has been internally threaded with a large, fine thread. This project involves replacing this forged and threaded device with a simple lever that can be used exert the needed high pressure on the bit while still alowing it to be turned easily. Design problems include a simple method to attach the bit, a simple thrust bearing design and a way to steady the spindle. Crude but succesful experiments are here (http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Cole+drill+project)
        > >
        > > Project 2
        > > A WD 40 like penetrating oil for the developing world. If there any constant in metal work in many developing countries, it is rust. Heavily rusted parts often hold a otherwise unavailable treasure trove of vital but unavailable fasteners. A project starting point could be used (filtered) automatic transmission oil that could be mixed with some kind of a locally available solvent. Acetone is claimed to work well in practice (but seemingly not in theory!).
        > >
        > > Project 3, An accurate screw cutting metal lathe.
        > > The MultiMachine concrete lathe project is a design for building the essential tools of a basic machine shop -- a screw cutting metal lathe, drill press and milling machine -- out of inexpensive materials easily available anywhere. Metalworking lathes in particular are necessary for the production of almost all tools and other manufactured goods but are often too expensive to be widely available.
        > > In 1915, special lathes made from concrete were developed to quickly and cheaply produce millions of cannon shells needed for World War I. Lucien Yeomans, the inventor, won America's highest engineering award for this invention, but sadly the technique was almost forgotten after the war. We re-discovered it and recognized it as a way to quickly make inexpensive but accurate machine tools for use in developing countries and in trade schools and shops everywhere. Besides concrete, the MultiMachine lathe requires only a steel bar, used pipe and a few discarded engine pistons that are used as a source of metal used in simple castings. The machine can be built by anyone with good mechanical skills, common mechanic's tools and a hand or powered drill. The machines can be built in sizes that will fit on a desktop or can be scaled up many times. Some Yeomans lathes weighed 10 tons and were able to accurately machine 3200 pound cannon projectiles.
        > >
        > > NOTE:
        > > The Multimachine project needs to have a lathe built and it's construction documented so that we improve the existing plans and design.
        > >
        > > The latest version of the plans are at: http://makeprojects.com/Project/The-Multimachine-150-12-Inch-swing-metal-lathe-and-mill/1751/1
        > >
        > > Important upporting files are at:
        > > http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Current+Design+Drawings
        > >
        > > Project 4
        > > An easily built and affordable lathe will be of little use if it is too difficult to train workers to machine the poor quality steel that is commonly available in developing countries. Needed is a machinist training method that could replace the normally long machining apprenticeship with training that takes much less time. We suggest a method of using conventional metal turning to only rough out a slightly oversized workpiece followed by grinding to a proper fit and finish. Turning steel to an exact size and finish can be quite difficult while roughing out is easily taught. Grinding is usually discouraged on a lathe because the grit can cause excessive wear but our concrete lathe has been expressly designed to be easily repaired or upgraded.
        > > Teaching the "old" skills of shaping and grinding cutting tools is a needed way to replace the use of the carbide tipped tools which are commonly used in the Western world. These are often too expensive to use, or even unavailable in many areas.
        > > The use of 3-D graphics to show otherwise difficult to explain tool shapes should be carefully explored. 3-D PDFs would be a great improvement over the older types of drawings that are often used for instruction in this critical skill.
        > >
        > > Project 5
        > > Coolant/lubricants are necessary for metal machining but normally used chemicals are unaffordable or unavailable in many parts of the world. A project to develop a coolant for machining steel that can be made from locally available ingredients could have great value. A starting point for such a project could be an "old-timers" trick of using 90% water, 10% motor oil (used and filtered?) and enough dishwasher detergent to mix them together. A device for testing effectiveness of different mixtures should be made.
        > >
        > > Project 6
        > > Welding rods are very expensive in many parts of the world. Developing a welding rod that could be made in rural areas is an important project. Welding rods made from concrete re-inforcing wire coated with lime and using commercial wallpaper paste as an adhesive is one possible answer.(I can put project members in touch with a Latin American blacksmith who has done this)
        > >
        > > Project 7
        > > Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more effective welders eye protection and can cause permanent eye damage after a just a few years. The development of a welding lens that would be cheap enough to include in boxes of welding rods could be an answer to the problem.
        > > It is hard to imagine economic development with welding.
        > >
        > > My question is: Someone here (I hope I can find his name!) suggested using the thin aluminum foil that is used to line packages of chips. I really tried but I can't peel the foil off. Can someone suggest a way of separating the foil from the plastic with a solvent?
        > >
        > > Pat
        > >
        >
      • Larry Bentley
        The Engineering For Change website has a list of 10 web based sources for free technical education:
        Message 3 of 27 , Jul 1, 2012
        • 0 Attachment
          The Engineering For Change website has a list of 10 web based sources for
          free technical education:

          https://www.engineeringforchange.org/news/2012/06/27/ten_best_sites_for_free_online_education.html

          Welding Glasses:

          Welders often have fairly short careers due to eye damage when they weld
          without proper eye protection.
          I think Pat was trying to find a university group to try the aluminized
          mylar as a welding lens, space blankets, or liners of snack food bags.

          The aluminized mylar, it may not be enough by itself, but it needs
          protection from hot sparks anyway so put it behind locally available
          sunglasses, as protection. Possibly you may need to double it, not sure,
          thats what we need lab tests to tell. They often sell aluminized mylar in
          cardboard frames as eclipse viewing glasses whenever there is an eclipse.
          Bet right afterward the wholesaler would cut a deal on hundreds of them
          rather than wait for the next eclipse.

          http://www.rainbowsymphonystore.com/eclipseshades.html

          At $0.85 U.S. there are already pretty affordable to anyone working as a
          welder, even in the developing world, just need to get the two together with
          a distribution channel. The overruns at $0.40 in quanities of 100 are even
          cheaper, glue one or two onto a locally made face shield, behind a piece of
          window glass to protect from splatter and you should be good to go, may
          still want or need sunglasses under that. But anyone working as a welder
          can afford the low cost of this.


          Larry Bentley

          ----- Original Message -----
          From: "Local" <>
          To: <multimachine@yahoogroups.com>
          Sent: Sunday, July 01, 2012 7:46 AM
          Subject: [multimachine] Re: To Michael Ugbo


          1. Metallurgical charcoal making.

          2. Iron melting cupola furnace construction and operation. I know Steve
          Chastain has book customers in Africa who've built and operate cupola
          furnaces. One (I think in Kenya) has done so well he mentioned adding
          employees solely to break up scrap iron.

          3. Hand scraping tools.

          Scrap aluminum will likely be too expensive. The far lower average incomes
          and the world price for Al ingot means it will be far more valuable as a %
          of the salvager's income.

          Suitable silica sand and high alumina clays for making refractories and
          casting sands are available almost everywhere on Earth on land. One just
          needs to consult local geologists to find out where the closest deposits
          are. A silicon dioxide / alumina phase diagram shows the possibilities with
          these two materials. These include mullite phase crucibles and foundry
          ware.

          The same charcoal fueled cupola furnaces can also fuel hi-temperature kilns
          to fire ceramics.

          This will allow use of more abundant, cheaper and locally available scrap
          iron and steel.

          This would also likely lead to a spin off ceramics and pottery trade. This
          trade could also make other items such as sinks, toilets and kitchenware.

          If the idea is real community economic development then I think this is the
          direction to go.


          --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, "Pat" <rigmatch@...> wrote:
          >
          > Guys, what can you add to this?
          >
          > Suggestions for starting a metal shop/small factory/trade school in Africa
          >
          > You will need the occasional use of a small truck.
          >
          > Skills needed to start:
          > Basic metal machining, grinding cutting tools skills, basic stick welding.
          > Parhaps you can be taught these skills in return for shop cleaning etc
          > while you are in Canada. If your project is sucessful, you will eventually
          > need someone with good machining and engineering skills.
          > Aluminum alloy casting (is there a local cooking pan re-caster?)
          >
          > Tools
          > If you have access to good junk, a concrete screw cutting can be built at
          > a very low cost. Only basic mechanic's and carpenters tools are needed.
          >
          > Other possible sources of income as the project develops:
          >
          > Sales of our penetrating oil formula.
          > Parts for a Cole drill, sale of drill bits or complete drills (the drill
          > was developed at the request of an engineering professor in Kenya).
          > A treadle powered wooden wood turning lathe. Wood should be acquired with
          > drying time in mind.
          > The Genny cell phone charger, charging and sales (developed at the request
          > of a Peace Corps worker)
          > Machining clutches and brakes, especially for trucks (suggested by a
          > missionaries in Kenya and Mexico)
          > Production of small concrete machine tools for schools and small shops.
          > Production of a general purpose/truck brake lathe.
          >
          > Additional funding
          > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowd_funding You will have to have a good
          > start first so people will take you seriously. The Nigerian 911 scam has
          > made people wary.
          >
          > Business plan
          > Show people that you are serious by working hard (and doccumenting it)to
          > learn the basic skills that are needed.
          >
          > Accumulate the basic tools needed.
          >
          > By the time that you do this, I think several lathes will have been built
          > and doccumented.
          >
          > Start with your own clutch and brake lathe then build a very accurate
          > lathe that can be used to make more lathes and milling machines.
          >
          >
          >
          > --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, mika ugbo <iyinbor@> wrote:
          > >
          > > Hi Pat,
          > > May the good Lord bless your efforts and those of others in this forum
          > > for all your works to bring industrial revolution to developing
          > > countries. I happen to be from rural/agricultural areas of Nigeria
          > > although I presently live in Canada.
          > > Â
          > > Please, how can I build a sustainable rural Technical school/business on
          > > these works of yours. Can anyone in the group help me with the
          > > technical/business plan? The concrete multimachine is really detail
          > > enough but had any body build one yet?
          > > Â
          > > I am serious. I saved every message I received from this forum. Is there
          > > any member of our group that lives in Alberta,Canada? Pls. contact me.
          > > Â
          > > You are one of those people that should be ruling my country's men.
          > > Africa need practical ideals that work not just aids.
          > > Â
          > > Thanks.
          > > Â
          > > Sincerely yours,
          > > Michael Ugbo
          > > Fort Mcmurray, Alberta
          > > Tel: 780-531-1993
          > >
          > > --- On Fri, 3/30/12, Pat <rigmatch@> wrote:
          > >
          > >
          > > From: Pat <rigmatch@>
          > > Subject: [multimachine] Need some chemical knowledge
          > > To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
          > > Received: Friday, March 30, 2012, 4:52 PM
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > > Â
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > > Drexel University is going to list 7 of our projects as engineering
          > > class projects. A real honor! I need suggestions about project 7.
          > >
          > > This is what I sent to a professor there:
          > >
          > > A series of steps (projects) that could be be used to finance and build
          > > the equipment for a large metal-working shop or small factory in the
          > > developing world.
          > >
          > > Projects 1 and 2 are for simple, badly needed products that could be
          > > made and sold to get the few hundred dollars needed to buy the materials
          > > needed to build an accurate screw cutting lathe. This lathe (Project 3)
          > > would be central to the making of dedicated milling machines, drills and
          > > rolling and bending machines.
          > >
          > > Project 1
          > > A very inexpensive tool that can drill holes the hardest steel. The 140
          > > year old drill that we have modeled on can easily drill 1" holes, using
          > > a masonry bit, in something as hard as a file. We designed ours to drill
          > > holes, without using electricity, in steel plate that is to be used in
          > > making farm implements. These holes allow a steel tip attached to a
          > > wooden plow making it much more efficient than a plow that is entirely
          > > made of wood.
          > > From the 1870's to the 1930's blacksmiths used a now almost forgotten
          > > technique that was often called "racheting" a hole. Instead of turning
          > > the bit at high speed,they turned the bit with a ratcheted crank while
          > > 500 to 1000 pounds of downward pressure was applied. An example is the
          > > "Cole" drill (link below). A Cole type drill is now too expensive for
          > > low income artizens because it's frame is a steel forging that has been
          > > internally threaded with a large, fine thread. This project involves
          > > replacing this forged and threaded device with a simple lever that can
          > > be used exert the needed high pressure on the bit while still alowing it
          > > to be turned easily. Design problems include a simple method to attach
          > > the bit, a simple thrust bearing design and a way to steady the spindle.
          > > Crude but succesful experiments are here
          > > (http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Cole+drill+project)
          > >
          > > Project 2
          > > A WD 40 like penetrating oil for the developing world. If there any
          > > constant in metal work in many developing countries, it is rust. Heavily
          > > rusted parts often hold a otherwise unavailable treasure trove of vital
          > > but unavailable fasteners. A project starting point could be used
          > > (filtered) automatic transmission oil that could be mixed with some kind
          > > of a locally available solvent. Acetone is claimed to work well in
          > > practice (but seemingly not in theory!).
          > >
          > > Project 3, An accurate screw cutting metal lathe.
          > > The MultiMachine concrete lathe project is a design for building the
          > > essential tools of a basic machine shop -- a screw cutting metal lathe,
          > > drill press and milling machine -- out of inexpensive materials easily
          > > available anywhere. Metalworking lathes in particular are necessary for
          > > the production of almost all tools and other manufactured goods but are
          > > often too expensive to be widely available.
          > > In 1915, special lathes made from concrete were developed to quickly and
          > > cheaply produce millions of cannon shells needed for World War I. Lucien
          > > Yeomans, the inventor, won America's highest engineering award for this
          > > invention, but sadly the technique was almost forgotten after the war.
          > > We re-discovered it and recognized it as a way to quickly make
          > > inexpensive but accurate machine tools for use in developing countries
          > > and in trade schools and shops everywhere. Besides concrete, the
          > > MultiMachine lathe requires only a steel bar, used pipe and a few
          > > discarded engine pistons that are used as a source of metal used in
          > > simple castings. The machine can be built by anyone with good mechanical
          > > skills, common mechanic's tools and a hand or powered drill. The
          > > machines can be built in sizes that will fit on a desktop or can be
          > > scaled up many times. Some Yeomans lathes weighed 10 tons and were able
          > > to accurately machine 3200 pound cannon projectiles.
          > >
          > > NOTE:
          > > The Multimachine project needs to have a lathe built and it's
          > > construction documented so that we improve the existing plans and
          > > design.
          > >
          > > The latest version of the plans are at:
          > > http://makeprojects.com/Project/The-Multimachine-150-12-Inch-swing-metal-lathe-and-mill/1751/1
          > >
          > > Important upporting files are at:
          > > http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Current+Design+Drawings
          > >
          > > Project 4
          > > An easily built and affordable lathe will be of little use if it is too
          > > difficult to train workers to machine the poor quality steel that is
          > > commonly available in developing countries. Needed is a machinist
          > > training method that could replace the normally long machining
          > > apprenticeship with training that takes much less time. We suggest a
          > > method of using conventional metal turning to only rough out a slightly
          > > oversized workpiece followed by grinding to a proper fit and finish.
          > > Turning steel to an exact size and finish can be quite difficult while
          > > roughing out is easily taught. Grinding is usually discouraged on a
          > > lathe because the grit can cause excessive wear but our concrete lathe
          > > has been expressly designed to be easily repaired or upgraded.
          > > Teaching the "old" skills of shaping and grinding cutting tools is a
          > > needed way to replace the use of the carbide tipped tools which are
          > > commonly used in the Western world. These are often too expensive to
          > > use, or even unavailable in many areas.
          > > The use of 3-D graphics to show otherwise difficult to explain tool
          > > shapes should be carefully explored. 3-D PDFs would be a great
          > > improvement over the older types of drawings that are often used for
          > > instruction in this critical skill.
          > >
          > > Project 5
          > > Coolant/lubricants are necessary for metal machining but normally used
          > > chemicals are unaffordable or unavailable in many parts of the world. A
          > > project to develop a coolant for machining steel that can be made from
          > > locally available ingredients could have great value. A starting point
          > > for such a project could be an "old-timers" trick of using 90% water,
          > > 10% motor oil (used and filtered?) and enough dishwasher detergent to
          > > mix them together. A device for testing effectiveness of different
          > > mixtures should be made.
          > >
          > > Project 6
          > > Welding rods are very expensive in many parts of the world. Developing a
          > > welding rod that could be made in rural areas is an important project.
          > > Welding rods made from concrete re-inforcing wire coated with lime and
          > > using commercial wallpaper paste as an adhesive is one possible
          > > answer.(I can put project members in touch with a Latin American
          > > blacksmith who has done this)
          > >
          > > Project 7
          > > Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical
          > > problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more
          > > effective welders eye protection and can cause permanent eye damage
          > > after a just a few years. The development of a welding lens that would
          > > be cheap enough to include in boxes of welding rods could be an answer
          > > to the problem.
          > > It is hard to imagine economic development with welding.
          > >
          > > My question is: Someone here (I hope I can find his name!) suggested
          > > using the thin aluminum foil that is used to line packages of chips. I
          > > really tried but I can't peel the foil off. Can someone suggest a way of
          > > separating the foil from the plastic with a solvent?
          > >
          > > Pat
          > >
          >




          ------------------------------------

          -------------
          We have a sister site for files and pictures dedicated to concrete machine
          framed machine tools. You will find a great deal of information about
          concrete based machines and the inventor of the concrete frame lathe, Lucian
          Ingraham Yeomans. Go to
          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Multimachine-Concrete-Machine-Tools/

          Also visit the Joseph V. Romig group for even more concrete tool
          construction, shop notes, stories, and wisdom from the early 20th Century.
          http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/romig_designs/
          -------------Yahoo! Groups Links
        • David G. LeVine
          Larry Bentley is right, eye damage is not the friend of welders. Another old trick that was used by the Eskimos, was to make opaque glasses (out of wood or
          Message 4 of 27 , Jul 1, 2012
          • 0 Attachment
            Larry Bentley is right, eye damage is not the friend of welders.

            Another old trick that was used by the Eskimos, was to make opaque glasses (out of wood or bone), and cut a small slit or bore a small hole, winding up with a pinhole lens.  This does two good things:  It reduces the light coming in (protecting the retina), and reduces the risk of a spark damaging the cornea.  If the slit/pinhole is small enough, the risk is minimal, but I don't have a clue about how to make that small a pinhole (a few thousandths in diameter.) 

            The only thing I have seen is a thin sheet of metal and a pointed pick, put the metal on a steel plate and gently tap the pick until a small hole is formed in the sheet (often of brass.)  As a plus, the hole should plug with any spark big enough to damage the cornea, but it still may be too big when welding.

            Dave  8{)

            --
            "Political Correctness is a doctrine, fostered by a delusional, illogical minority and rabidly promoted by an unscrupulous mainstream media, which holds forth the proposition that it is entirely possible to pick up a turd by the clean end."
            (quoted from http://www.wattflyer.com/forums/showthread.php?t=30060)

            NOTE TO ALL:

            When forwarding emails, please use only "Blind Carbon Copy" or "Bcc" for all recipients. Please "delete" or "highlight & cut" any forwarding history which includes my email address! It is a courtesy to me and others who may not wish to have their email addresses sent all over the world! Erasing the history helps prevent Spammers from mining addresses and viruses from being propagated.

            THANK YOU!
          • louis richardson
            here in USA new welers are sold wth cheap flat welding eye sheild that nobody uses, they can be gathered up and shipped  africa ,in stead of gathering dust
            Message 5 of 27 , Jul 1, 2012
            • 0 Attachment
              here in USA new welers are sold wth cheap flat welding eye sheild that nobody uses, they can be gathered up and shipped  africa ,in stead of gathering dust here on a shelf..  

              --- On Sun, 7/1/12, David G. LeVine <dlevine@...> wrote:

              From: David G. LeVine <dlevine@...>
              Subject: [multimachine] Re: To Michael Ugbo
              To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
              Date: Sunday, July 1, 2012, 9:16 AM

               
              Larry Bentley is right, eye damage is not the friend of welders.

              Another old trick that was used by the Eskimos, was to make opaque glasses (out of wood or bone), and cut a small slit or bore a small hole, winding up with a pinhole lens.  This does two good things:  It reduces the light coming in (protecting the retina), and reduces the risk of a spark damaging the cornea.  If the slit/pinhole is small enough, the risk is minimal, but I don't have a clue about how to make that small a pinhole (a few thousandths in diameter.) 

              The only thing I have seen is a thin sheet of metal and a pointed pick, put the metal on a steel plate and gently tap the pick until a small hole is formed in the sheet (often of brass.)  As a plus, the hole should plug with any spark big enough to damage the cornea, but it still may be too big when welding.

              Dave  8{)

              --
              "Political Correctness is a doctrine, fostered by a delusional, illogical minority and rabidly promoted by an unscrupulous mainstream media, which holds forth the proposition that it is entirely possible to pick up a turd by the clean end."
              (quoted from http://www.wattflyer.com/forums/showthread.php?t=30060)

              NOTE TO ALL:

              When forwarding emails, please use only "Blind Carbon Copy" or "Bcc" for all recipients. Please "delete" or "highlight & cut" any forwarding history which includes my email address! It is a courtesy to me and others who may not wish to have their email addresses sent all over the world! Erasing the history helps prevent Spammers from mining addresses and viruses from being propagated.

              THANK YOU!
            • HB
                    Pat wrote: Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more
              Message 6 of 27 , Jul 1, 2012
              • 0 Attachment

                 
                 
                 
                Pat wrote:
                "Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more effective welders eye protection and can cause permanent eye damage after a just a few years. The development of a welding lens that would be cheap enough to include in boxes of welding rods could be an answer to the problem.
                It is hard to imagine economic development with welding.

                My question is: Someone here (I hope I can find his name!) suggested using the thin aluminum foil that is used to line packages of chips. I really tried but I can't peel the foil off. Can someone suggest a way of separating the foil from the plastic with a solvent?"
                 
                 
                Instead of going through the trouble of peeling off the foil from packages why not just use several layers window tints? There are even one-way viewing types of tints ( similar to those employed on security windows) for vehicles and household use.
                Those are available for tinting car window glasses to reduce UVA and UBV lights that produce heat.
                An experiment using several layers should determine the proper number of layers required for an acceptable safe eye protection in welding.
                 
                Another very cheap alternative is to use the middle sandwiched shinny material layer used on DVD optical disks as a filter medium. Just split the disk in half with a razor blade to get to it. Use as many layers as appropriate.
                 
                 
                 
                 

                  
                                                                
                  
              • mika ugbo
                Hi Local, Who is  Steve Chastain? Please give me more information about his work. Thanks for your wonderful contributions.   Michael Ugbo ... From: Local
                Message 7 of 27 , Jul 1, 2012
                • 0 Attachment
                  Hi Local,
                  Who is  Steve Chastain? Please give me more information about his work.
                  Thanks for your wonderful contributions.
                   
                  Michael Ugbo
                  --- On Sun, 7/1/12, Local <charcad2006@...> wrote:

                  From: Local <charcad2006@...>
                  Subject: [multimachine] Re: To Michael Ugbo
                  To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                  Received: Sunday, July 1, 2012, 8:46 AM

                   
                  1. Metallurgical charcoal making.

                  2. Iron melting cupola furnace construction and operation. I know Steve Chastain has book customers in Africa who've built and operate cupola furnaces. One (I think in Kenya) has done so well he mentioned adding employees solely to break up scrap iron.

                  3. Hand scraping tools.

                  Scrap aluminum will likely be too expensive. The far lower average incomes and the world price for Al ingot means it will be far more valuable as a % of the salvager's income.

                  Suitable silica sand and high alumina clays for making refractories and casting sands are available almost everywhere on Earth on land. One just needs to consult local geologists to find out where the closest deposits are. A silicon dioxide / alumina phase diagram shows the possibilities with these two materials. These include mullite phase crucibles and foundry ware.

                  The same charcoal fueled cupola furnaces can also fuel hi-temperature kilns to fire ceramics.

                  This will allow use of more abundant, cheaper and locally available scrap iron and steel.

                  This would also likely lead to a spin off ceramics and pottery trade. This trade could also make other items such as sinks, toilets and kitchenware.

                  If the idea is real community economic development then I think this is the direction to go.

                  --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, "Pat" <rigmatch@...> wrote:
                  >
                  > Guys, what can you add to this?
                  >
                  > Suggestions for starting a metal shop/small factory/trade school in Africa
                  >
                  > You will need the occasional use of a small truck.
                  >
                  > Skills needed to start:
                  > Basic metal machining, grinding cutting tools skills, basic stick welding. Parhaps you can be taught these skills in return for shop cleaning etc while you are in Canada. If your project is sucessful, you will eventually need someone with good machining and engineering skills.
                  > Aluminum alloy casting (is there a local cooking pan re-caster?)
                  >
                  > Tools
                  > If you have access to good junk, a concrete screw cutting can be built at a very low cost. Only basic mechanic's and carpenters tools are needed.
                  >
                  > Other possible sources of income as the project develops:
                  >
                  > Sales of our penetrating oil formula.
                  > Parts for a Cole drill, sale of drill bits or complete drills (the drill was developed at the request of an engineering professor in Kenya).
                  > A treadle powered wooden wood turning lathe. Wood should be acquired with drying time in mind.
                  > The Genny cell phone charger, charging and sales (developed at the request of a Peace Corps worker)
                  > Machining clutches and brakes, especially for trucks (suggested by a missionaries in Kenya and Mexico)
                  > Production of small concrete machine tools for schools and small shops.
                  > Production of a general purpose/truck brake lathe.
                  >
                  > Additional funding
                  > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowd_funding You will have to have a good start first so people will take you seriously. The Nigerian 911 scam has made people wary.
                  >
                  > Business plan
                  > Show people that you are serious by working hard (and doccumenting it)to learn the basic skills that are needed.
                  >
                  > Accumulate the basic tools needed.
                  >
                  > By the time that you do this, I think several lathes will have been built and doccumented.
                  >
                  > Start with your own clutch and brake lathe then build a very accurate lathe that can be used to make more lathes and milling machines.
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, mika ugbo <iyinbor@> wrote:
                  > >
                  > > Hi Pat,
                  > > May the good Lord bless your efforts and those of others in this forum for all your works to bring industrial revolution to developing countries. I happen to be from rural/agricultural areas of Nigeria although I presently live in Canada.
                  > >  
                  > > Please, how can I build a sustainable rural Technical school/business on these works of yours. Can anyone in the group help me with the technical/business plan? The concrete multimachine is really detail enough but had any body build one yet?
                  > >  
                  > > I am serious. I saved every message I received from this forum. Is there any member of our group that lives in Alberta,Canada? Pls. contact me.
                  > >  
                  > > You are one of those people that should be ruling my country's men. Africa need practical ideals that work not just aids.
                  > >  
                  > > Thanks.
                  > >  
                  > > Sincerely yours,
                  > > Michael Ugbo
                  > > Fort Mcmurray, Alberta
                  > > Tel: 780-531-1993
                  > >
                  > > --- On Fri, 3/30/12, Pat <rigmatch@> wrote:
                  > >
                  > >
                  > > From: Pat <rigmatch@>
                  > > Subject: [multimachine] Need some chemical knowledge
                  > > To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                  > > Received: Friday, March 30, 2012, 4:52 PM
                  > >
                  > >
                  > >
                  > >  
                  > >
                  > >
                  > >
                  > > Drexel University is going to list 7 of our projects as engineering class projects. A real honor! I need suggestions about project 7.
                  > >
                  > > This is what I sent to a professor there:
                  > >
                  > > A series of steps (projects) that could be be used to finance and build the equipment for a large metal-working shop or small factory in the developing world.
                  > >
                  > > Projects 1 and 2 are for simple, badly needed products that could be made and sold to get the few hundred dollars needed to buy the materials needed to build an accurate screw cutting lathe. This lathe (Project 3) would be central to the making of dedicated milling machines, drills and rolling and bending machines.
                  > >
                  > > Project 1
                  > > A very inexpensive tool that can drill holes the hardest steel. The 140 year old drill that we have modeled on can easily drill 1" holes, using a masonry bit, in something as hard as a file. We designed ours to drill holes, without using electricity, in steel plate that is to be used in making farm implements. These holes allow a steel tip attached to a wooden plow making it much more efficient than a plow that is entirely made of wood.
                  > > From the 1870's to the 1930's blacksmiths used a now almost forgotten technique that was often called "racheting" a hole. Instead of turning the bit at high speed,they turned the bit with a ratcheted crank while 500 to 1000 pounds of downward pressure was applied. An example is the "Cole" drill (link below). A Cole type drill is now too expensive for low income artizens because it's frame is a steel forging that has been internally threaded with a large, fine thread. This project involves replacing this forged and threaded device with a simple lever that can be used exert the needed high pressure on the bit while still alowing it to be turned easily. Design problems include a simple method to attach the bit, a simple thrust bearing design and a way to steady the spindle. Crude but succesful experiments are here (http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Cole+drill+project)
                  > >
                  > > Project 2
                  > > A WD 40 like penetrating oil for the developing world. If there any constant in metal work in many developing countries, it is rust. Heavily rusted parts often hold a otherwise unavailable treasure trove of vital but unavailable fasteners. A project starting point could be used (filtered) automatic transmission oil that could be mixed with some kind of a locally available solvent. Acetone is claimed to work well in practice (but seemingly not in theory!).
                  > >
                  > > Project 3, An accurate screw cutting metal lathe.
                  > > The MultiMachine concrete lathe project is a design for building the essential tools of a basic machine shop -- a screw cutting metal lathe, drill press and milling machine -- out of inexpensive materials easily available anywhere. Metalworking lathes in particular are necessary for the production of almost all tools and other manufactured goods but are often too expensive to be widely available.
                  > > In 1915, special lathes made from concrete were developed to quickly and cheaply produce millions of cannon shells needed for World War I. Lucien Yeomans, the inventor, won America's highest engineering award for this invention, but sadly the technique was almost forgotten after the war. We re-discovered it and recognized it as a way to quickly make inexpensive but accurate machine tools for use in developing countries and in trade schools and shops everywhere. Besides concrete, the MultiMachine lathe requires only a steel bar, used pipe and a few discarded engine pistons that are used as a source of metal used in simple castings. The machine can be built by anyone with good mechanical skills, common mechanic's tools and a hand or powered drill. The machines can be built in sizes that will fit on a desktop or can be scaled up many times. Some Yeomans lathes weighed 10 tons and were able to accurately machine 3200 pound cannon projectiles.
                  > >
                  > > NOTE:
                  > > The Multimachine project needs to have a lathe built and it's construction documented so that we improve the existing plans and design.
                  > >
                  > > The latest version of the plans are at: http://makeprojects.com/Project/The-Multimachine-150-12-Inch-swing-metal-lathe-and-mill/1751/1
                  > >
                  > > Important upporting files are at:
                  > > http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Current+Design+Drawings
                  > >
                  > > Project 4
                  > > An easily built and affordable lathe will be of little use if it is too difficult to train workers to machine the poor quality steel that is commonly available in developing countries. Needed is a machinist training method that could replace the normally long machining apprenticeship with training that takes much less time. We suggest a method of using conventional metal turning to only rough out a slightly oversized workpiece followed by grinding to a proper fit and finish. Turning steel to an exact size and finish can be quite difficult while roughing out is easily taught. Grinding is usually discouraged on a lathe because the grit can cause excessive wear but our concrete lathe has been expressly designed to be easily repaired or upgraded.
                  > > Teaching the "old" skills of shaping and grinding cutting tools is a needed way to replace the use of the carbide tipped tools which are commonly used in the Western world. These are often too expensive to use, or even unavailable in many areas.
                  > > The use of 3-D graphics to show otherwise difficult to explain tool shapes should be carefully explored. 3-D PDFs would be a great improvement over the older types of drawings that are often used for instruction in this critical skill.
                  > >
                  > > Project 5
                  > > Coolant/lubricants are necessary for metal machining but normally used chemicals are unaffordable or unavailable in many parts of the world. A project to develop a coolant for machining steel that can be made from locally available ingredients could have great value. A starting point for such a project could be an "old-timers" trick of using 90% water, 10% motor oil (used and filtered?) and enough dishwasher detergent to mix them together. A device for testing effectiveness of different mixtures should be made.
                  > >
                  > > Project 6
                  > > Welding rods are very expensive in many parts of the world. Developing a welding rod that could be made in rural areas is an important project. Welding rods made from concrete re-inforcing wire coated with lime and using commercial wallpaper paste as an adhesive is one possible answer.(I can put project members in touch with a Latin American blacksmith who has done this)
                  > >
                  > > Project 7
                  > > Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more effective welders eye protection and can cause permanent eye damage after a just a few years. The development of a welding lens that would be cheap enough to include in boxes of welding rods could be an answer to the problem.
                  > > It is hard to imagine economic development with welding.
                  > >
                  > > My question is: Someone here (I hope I can find his name!) suggested using the thin aluminum foil that is used to line packages of chips. I really tried but I can't peel the foil off. Can someone suggest a way of separating the foil from the plastic with a solvent?
                  > >
                  > > Pat
                  > >
                  >

                • Jose Manuel Luis
                  http://stephenchastain.com/store/ I must say I ve never heard of him before, but now I got my eye on most of his books. José. From: mika ugbo Sent: Monday,
                  Message 8 of 27 , Jul 2, 2012
                  • 0 Attachment
                     
                    I must say I've never heard of him before, but now I got my eye on most of his books.
                     
                     
                    José.

                    From: mika ugbo
                    Sent: Monday, July 02, 2012 2:56 AM
                    Subject: Re: [multimachine] Re: To Michael Ugbo

                     

                    Hi Local,
                    Who is  Steve Chastain? Please give me more information about his work.
                    Thanks for your wonderful contributions.
                     
                    Michael Ugbo
                    --- On Sun, 7/1/12, Local <charcad2006@...> wrote:

                    From: Local <charcad2006@...>
                    Subject: [multimachine] Re: To Michael Ugbo
                    To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                    Received: Sunday, July 1, 2012, 8:46 AM

                     
                    1. Metallurgical charcoal making.

                    2. Iron melting cupola furnace construction and operation. I know Steve Chastain has book customers in Africa who've built and operate cupola furnaces. One (I think in Kenya) has done so well he mentioned adding employees solely to break up scrap iron.

                    3. Hand scraping tools.

                    Scrap aluminum will likely be too expensive. The far lower average incomes and the world price for Al ingot means it will be far more valuable as a % of the salvager's income.

                    Suitable silica sand and high alumina clays for making refractories and casting sands are available almost everywhere on Earth on land. One just needs to consult local geologists to find out where the closest deposits are. A silicon dioxide / alumina phase diagram shows the possibilities with these two materials. These include mullite phase crucibles and foundry ware.

                    The same charcoal fueled cupola furnaces can also fuel hi-temperature kilns to fire ceramics.

                    This will allow use of more abundant, cheaper and locally available scrap iron and steel.

                    This would also likely lead to a spin off ceramics and pottery trade. This trade could also make other items such as sinks, toilets and kitchenware.

                    If the idea is real community economic development then I think this is the direction to go.

                    --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, "Pat" <rigmatch@...> wrote:
                    >
                    > Guys, what can you add to this?
                    >
                    > Suggestions for starting a metal shop/small factory/trade school in Africa
                    >
                    > You will need the occasional use of a small truck.
                    >
                    > Skills needed to start:
                    > Basic metal machining, grinding cutting tools skills, basic stick welding. Parhaps you can be taught these skills in return for shop cleaning etc while you are in Canada. If your project is sucessful, you will eventually need someone with good machining and engineering skills.
                    > Aluminum alloy casting (is there a local cooking pan re-caster?)
                    >
                    > Tools
                    > If you have access to good junk, a concrete screw cutting can be built at a very low cost. Only basic mechanic's and carpenters tools are needed.
                    >
                    > Other possible sources of income as the project develops:
                    >
                    > Sales of our penetrating oil formula.
                    > Parts for a Cole drill, sale of drill bits or complete drills (the drill was developed at the request of an engineering professor in Kenya).
                    > A treadle powered wooden wood turning lathe. Wood should be acquired with drying time in mind.
                    > The Genny cell phone charger, charging and sales (developed at the request of a Peace Corps worker)
                    > Machining clutches and brakes, especially for trucks (suggested by a missionaries in Kenya and Mexico)
                    > Production of small concrete machine tools for schools and small shops.
                    > Production of a general purpose/truck brake lathe.
                    >
                    > Additional funding
                    > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowd_funding You will have to have a good start first so people will take you seriously. The Nigerian 911 scam has made people wary.
                    >
                    > Business plan
                    > Show people that you are serious by working hard (and doccumenting it)to learn the basic skills that are needed.
                    >
                    > Accumulate the basic tools needed.
                    >
                    > By the time that you do this, I think several lathes will have been built and doccumented.
                    >
                    > Start with your own clutch and brake lathe then build a very accurate lathe that can be used to make more lathes and milling machines.
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, mika ugbo <iyinbor@> wrote:
                    > >
                    > > Hi Pat,
                    > > May the good Lord bless your efforts and those of others in this forum for all your works to bring industrial revolution to developing countries. I happen to be from rural/agricultural areas of Nigeria although I presently live in Canada.
                    > >  
                    > > Please, how can I build a sustainable rural Technical school/business on these works of yours. Can anyone in the group help me with the technical/business plan? The concrete multimachine is really detail enough but had any body build one yet?
                    > >  
                    > > I am serious. I saved every message I received from this forum. Is there any member of our group that lives in Alberta,Canada? Pls. contact me.
                    > >  
                    > > You are one of those people that should be ruling my country's men. Africa need practical ideals that work not just aids.
                    > >  
                    > > Thanks.
                    > >  
                    > > Sincerely yours,
                    > > Michael Ugbo
                    > > Fort Mcmurray, Alberta
                    > > Tel: 780-531-1993
                    > >
                    > > --- On Fri, 3/30/12, Pat <rigmatch@> wrote:
                    > >
                    > >
                    > > From: Pat <rigmatch@>
                    > > Subject: [multimachine] Need some chemical knowledge
                    > > To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                    > > Received: Friday, March 30, 2012, 4:52 PM
                    > >
                    > >
                    > >
                    > >  
                    > >
                    > >
                    > >
                    > > Drexel University is going to list 7 of our projects as engineering class projects. A real honor! I need suggestions about project 7.
                    > >
                    > > This is what I sent to a professor there:
                    > >
                    > > A series of steps (projects) that could be be used to finance and build the equipment for a large metal-working shop or small factory in the developing world.
                    > >
                    > > Projects 1 and 2 are for simple, badly needed products that could be made and sold to get the few hundred dollars needed to buy the materials needed to build an accurate screw cutting lathe. This lathe (Project 3) would be central to the making of dedicated milling machines, drills and rolling and bending machines.
                    > >
                    > > Project 1
                    > > A very inexpensive tool that can drill holes the hardest steel. The 140 year old drill that we have modeled on can easily drill 1" holes, using a masonry bit, in something as hard as a file. We designed ours to drill holes, without using electricity, in steel plate that is to be used in making farm implements. These holes allow a steel tip attached to a wooden plow making it much more efficient than a plow that is entirely made of wood.
                    > > From the 1870's to the 1930's blacksmiths used a now almost forgotten technique that was often called "racheting" a hole. Instead of turning the bit at high speed,they turned the bit with a ratcheted crank while 500 to 1000 pounds of downward pressure was applied. An example is the "Cole" drill (link below). A Cole type drill is now too expensive for low income artizens because it's frame is a steel forging that has been internally threaded with a large, fine thread. This project involves replacing this forged and threaded device with a simple lever that can be used exert the needed high pressure on the bit while still alowing it to be turned easily. Design problems include a simple method to attach the bit, a simple thrust bearing design and a way to steady the spindle. Crude but succesful experiments are here (http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Cole+drill+project)
                    > >
                    > > Project 2
                    > > A WD 40 like penetrating oil for the developing world. If there any constant in metal work in many developing countries, it is rust. Heavily rusted parts often hold a otherwise unavailable treasure trove of vital but unavailable fasteners. A project starting point could be used (filtered) automatic transmission oil that could be mixed with some kind of a locally available solvent. Acetone is claimed to work well in practice (but seemingly not in theory!).
                    > >
                    > > Project 3, An accurate screw cutting metal lathe.
                    > > The MultiMachine concrete lathe project is a design for building the essential tools of a basic machine shop -- a screw cutting metal lathe, drill press and milling machine -- out of inexpensive materials easily available anywhere. Metalworking lathes in particular are necessary for the production of almost all tools and other manufactured goods but are often too expensive to be widely available.
                    > > In 1915, special lathes made from concrete were developed to quickly and cheaply produce millions of cannon shells needed for World War I. Lucien Yeomans, the inventor, won America's highest engineering award for this invention, but sadly the technique was almost forgotten after the war. We re-discovered it and recognized it as a way to quickly make inexpensive but accurate machine tools for use in developing countries and in trade schools and shops everywhere. Besides concrete, the MultiMachine lathe requires only a steel bar, used pipe and a few discarded engine pistons that are used as a source of metal used in simple castings. The machine can be built by anyone with good mechanical skills, common mechanic's tools and a hand or powered drill. The machines can be built in sizes that will fit on a desktop or can be scaled up many times. Some Yeomans lathes weighed 10 tons and were able to accurately machine 3200 pound cannon projectiles.
                    > >
                    > > NOTE:
                    > > The Multimachine project needs to have a lathe built and it's construction documented so that we improve the existing plans and design.
                    > >
                    > > The latest version of the plans are at: http://makeprojects.com/Project/The-Multimachine-150-12-Inch-swing-metal-lathe-and-mill/1751/1
                    > >
                    > > Important upporting files are at:
                    > > http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Current+Design+Drawings
                    > >
                    > > Project 4
                    > > An easily built and affordable lathe will be of little use if it is too difficult to train workers to machine the poor quality steel that is commonly available in developing countries. Needed is a machinist training method that could replace the normally long machining apprenticeship with training that takes much less time. We suggest a method of using conventional metal turning to only rough out a slightly oversized workpiece followed by grinding to a proper fit and finish. Turning steel to an exact size and finish can be quite difficult while roughing out is easily taught. Grinding is usually discouraged on a lathe because the grit can cause excessive wear but our concrete lathe has been expressly designed to be easily repaired or upgraded.
                    > > Teaching the "old" skills of shaping and grinding cutting tools is a needed way to replace the use of the carbide tipped tools which are commonly used in the Western world. These are often too expensive to use, or even unavailable in many areas.
                    > > The use of 3-D graphics to show otherwise difficult to explain tool shapes should be carefully explored. 3-D PDFs would be a great improvement over the older types of drawings that are often used for instruction in this critical skill.
                    > >
                    > > Project 5
                    > > Coolant/lubricants are necessary for metal machining but normally used chemicals are unaffordable or unavailable in many parts of the world. A project to develop a coolant for machining steel that can be made from locally available ingredients could have great value. A starting point for such a project could be an "old-timers" trick of using 90% water, 10% motor oil (used and filtered?) and enough dishwasher detergent to mix them together. A device for testing effectiveness of different mixtures should be made.
                    > >
                    > > Project 6
                    > > Welding rods are very expensive in many parts of the world. Developing a welding rod that could be made in rural areas is an important project. Welding rods made from concrete re-inforcing wire coated with lime and using commercial wallpaper paste as an adhesive is one possible answer.(I can put project members in touch with a Latin American blacksmith who has done this)
                    > >
                    > > Project 7
                    > > Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more effective welders eye protection and can cause permanent eye damage after a just a few years. The development of a welding lens that would be cheap enough to include in boxes of welding rods could be an answer to the problem.
                    > > It is hard to imagine economic development with welding.
                    > >
                    > > My question is: Someone here (I hope I can find his name!) suggested using the thin aluminum foil that is used to line packages of chips. I really tried but I can't peel the foil off. Can someone suggest a way of separating the foil from the plastic with a solvent?
                    > >
                    > > Pat
                    > >
                    >

                  • mika ugbo
                    Hi Jose, Thanks Jose. I did googled the name which took me to his website. Mike Ugbo ... From: Jose Manuel Luis Subject: Re: [multimachine]
                    Message 9 of 27 , Jul 2, 2012
                    • 0 Attachment
                      Hi Jose,
                      Thanks Jose. I did googled the name which took me to his website.
                      Mike Ugbo


                      --- On Mon, 7/2/12, Jose Manuel Luis <zmdluis@...> wrote:

                      From: Jose Manuel Luis <zmdluis@...>
                      Subject: Re: [multimachine] Re: To Michael Ugbo
                      To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                      Received: Monday, July 2, 2012, 3:59 AM

                       
                       
                      I must say I've never heard of him before, but now I got my eye on most of his books.
                       
                       
                      José.

                      From: mika ugbo
                      Sent: Monday, July 02, 2012 2:56 AM
                      Subject: Re: [multimachine] Re: To Michael Ugbo

                       
                      Hi Local,
                      Who is  Steve Chastain? Please give me more information about his work.
                      Thanks for your wonderful contributions.
                       
                      Michael Ugbo
                      --- On Sun, 7/1/12, Local <charcad2006@...> wrote:

                      From: Local <charcad2006@...>
                      Subject: [multimachine] Re: To Michael Ugbo
                      To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                      Received: Sunday, July 1, 2012, 8:46 AM

                       
                      1. Metallurgical charcoal making.

                      2. Iron melting cupola furnace construction and operation. I know Steve Chastain has book customers in Africa who've built and operate cupola furnaces. One (I think in Kenya) has done so well he mentioned adding employees solely to break up scrap iron.

                      3. Hand scraping tools.

                      Scrap aluminum will likely be too expensive. The far lower average incomes and the world price for Al ingot means it will be far more valuable as a % of the salvager's income.

                      Suitable silica sand and high alumina clays for making refractories and casting sands are available almost everywhere on Earth on land. One just needs to consult local geologists to find out where the closest deposits are. A silicon dioxide / alumina phase diagram shows the possibilities with these two materials. These include mullite phase crucibles and foundry ware.

                      The same charcoal fueled cupola furnaces can also fuel hi-temperature kilns to fire ceramics.

                      This will allow use of more abundant, cheaper and locally available scrap iron and steel.

                      This would also likely lead to a spin off ceramics and pottery trade. This trade could also make other items such as sinks, toilets and kitchenware.

                      If the idea is real community economic development then I think this is the direction to go.

                      --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, "Pat" <rigmatch@...> wrote:
                      >
                      > Guys, what can you add to this?
                      >
                      > Suggestions for starting a metal shop/small factory/trade school in Africa
                      >
                      > You will need the occasional use of a small truck.
                      >
                      > Skills needed to start:
                      > Basic metal machining, grinding cutting tools skills, basic stick welding. Parhaps you can be taught these skills in return for shop cleaning etc while you are in Canada. If your project is sucessful, you will eventually need someone with good machining and engineering skills.
                      > Aluminum alloy casting (is there a local cooking pan re-caster?)
                      >
                      > Tools
                      > If you have access to good junk, a concrete screw cutting can be built at a very low cost. Only basic mechanic's and carpenters tools are needed.
                      >
                      > Other possible sources of income as the project develops:
                      >
                      > Sales of our penetrating oil formula.
                      > Parts for a Cole drill, sale of drill bits or complete drills (the drill was developed at the request of an engineering professor in Kenya).
                      > A treadle powered wooden wood turning lathe. Wood should be acquired with drying time in mind.
                      > The Genny cell phone charger, charging and sales (developed at the request of a Peace Corps worker)
                      > Machining clutches and brakes, especially for trucks (suggested by a missionaries in Kenya and Mexico)
                      > Production of small concrete machine tools for schools and small shops.
                      > Production of a general purpose/truck brake lathe.
                      >
                      > Additional funding
                      > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowd_funding You will have to have a good start first so people will take you seriously. The Nigerian 911 scam has made people wary.
                      >
                      > Business plan
                      > Show people that you are serious by working hard (and doccumenting it)to learn the basic skills that are needed.
                      >
                      > Accumulate the basic tools needed.
                      >
                      > By the time that you do this, I think several lathes will have been built and doccumented.
                      >
                      > Start with your own clutch and brake lathe then build a very accurate lathe that can be used to make more lathes and milling machines.
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, mika ugbo <iyinbor@> wrote:
                      > >
                      > > Hi Pat,
                      > > May the good Lord bless your efforts and those of others in this forum for all your works to bring industrial revolution to developing countries. I happen to be from rural/agricultural areas of Nigeria although I presently live in Canada.
                      > >  
                      > > Please, how can I build a sustainable rural Technical school/business on these works of yours. Can anyone in the group help me with the technical/business plan? The concrete multimachine is really detail enough but had any body build one yet?
                      > >  
                      > > I am serious. I saved every message I received from this forum. Is there any member of our group that lives in Alberta,Canada? Pls. contact me.
                      > >  
                      > > You are one of those people that should be ruling my country's men. Africa need practical ideals that work not just aids.
                      > >  
                      > > Thanks.
                      > >  
                      > > Sincerely yours,
                      > > Michael Ugbo
                      > > Fort Mcmurray, Alberta
                      > > Tel: 780-531-1993
                      > >
                      > > --- On Fri, 3/30/12, Pat <rigmatch@> wrote:
                      > >
                      > >
                      > > From: Pat <rigmatch@>
                      > > Subject: [multimachine] Need some chemical knowledge
                      > > To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                      > > Received: Friday, March 30, 2012, 4:52 PM
                      > >
                      > >
                      > >
                      > >  
                      > >
                      > >
                      > >
                      > > Drexel University is going to list 7 of our projects as engineering class projects. A real honor! I need suggestions about project 7.
                      > >
                      > > This is what I sent to a professor there:
                      > >
                      > > A series of steps (projects) that could be be used to finance and build the equipment for a large metal-working shop or small factory in the developing world.
                      > >
                      > > Projects 1 and 2 are for simple, badly needed products that could be made and sold to get the few hundred dollars needed to buy the materials needed to build an accurate screw cutting lathe. This lathe (Project 3) would be central to the making of dedicated milling machines, drills and rolling and bending machines.
                      > >
                      > > Project 1
                      > > A very inexpensive tool that can drill holes the hardest steel. The 140 year old drill that we have modeled on can easily drill 1" holes, using a masonry bit, in something as hard as a file. We designed ours to drill holes, without using electricity, in steel plate that is to be used in making farm implements. These holes allow a steel tip attached to a wooden plow making it much more efficient than a plow that is entirely made of wood.
                      > > From the 1870's to the 1930's blacksmiths used a now almost forgotten technique that was often called "racheting" a hole. Instead of turning the bit at high speed,they turned the bit with a ratcheted crank while 500 to 1000 pounds of downward pressure was applied. An example is the "Cole" drill (link below). A Cole type drill is now too expensive for low income artizens because it's frame is a steel forging that has been internally threaded with a large, fine thread. This project involves replacing this forged and threaded device with a simple lever that can be used exert the needed high pressure on the bit while still alowing it to be turned easily. Design problems include a simple method to attach the bit, a simple thrust bearing design and a way to steady the spindle. Crude but succesful experiments are here (http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Cole+drill+project)
                      > >
                      > > Project 2
                      > > A WD 40 like penetrating oil for the developing world. If there any constant in metal work in many developing countries, it is rust. Heavily rusted parts often hold a otherwise unavailable treasure trove of vital but unavailable fasteners. A project starting point could be used (filtered) automatic transmission oil that could be mixed with some kind of a locally available solvent. Acetone is claimed to work well in practice (but seemingly not in theory!).
                      > >
                      > > Project 3, An accurate screw cutting metal lathe.
                      > > The MultiMachine concrete lathe project is a design for building the essential tools of a basic machine shop -- a screw cutting metal lathe, drill press and milling machine -- out of inexpensive materials easily available anywhere. Metalworking lathes in particular are necessary for the production of almost all tools and other manufactured goods but are often too expensive to be widely available.
                      > > In 1915, special lathes made from concrete were developed to quickly and cheaply produce millions of cannon shells needed for World War I. Lucien Yeomans, the inventor, won America's highest engineering award for this invention, but sadly the technique was almost forgotten after the war. We re-discovered it and recognized it as a way to quickly make inexpensive but accurate machine tools for use in developing countries and in trade schools and shops everywhere. Besides concrete, the MultiMachine lathe requires only a steel bar, used pipe and a few discarded engine pistons that are used as a source of metal used in simple castings. The machine can be built by anyone with good mechanical skills, common mechanic's tools and a hand or powered drill. The machines can be built in sizes that will fit on a desktop or can be scaled up many times. Some Yeomans lathes weighed 10 tons and were able to accurately machine 3200 pound cannon projectiles.
                      > >
                      > > NOTE:
                      > > The Multimachine project needs to have a lathe built and it's construction documented so that we improve the existing plans and design.
                      > >
                      > > The latest version of the plans are at: http://makeprojects.com/Project/The-Multimachine-150-12-Inch-swing-metal-lathe-and-mill/1751/1
                      > >
                      > > Important upporting files are at:
                      > > http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Current+Design+Drawings
                      > >
                      > > Project 4
                      > > An easily built and affordable lathe will be of little use if it is too difficult to train workers to machine the poor quality steel that is commonly available in developing countries. Needed is a machinist training method that could replace the normally long machining apprenticeship with training that takes much less time. We suggest a method of using conventional metal turning to only rough out a slightly oversized workpiece followed by grinding to a proper fit and finish. Turning steel to an exact size and finish can be quite difficult while roughing out is easily taught. Grinding is usually discouraged on a lathe because the grit can cause excessive wear but our concrete lathe has been expressly designed to be easily repaired or upgraded.
                      > > Teaching the "old" skills of shaping and grinding cutting tools is a needed way to replace the use of the carbide tipped tools which are commonly used in the Western world. These are often too expensive to use, or even unavailable in many areas.
                      > > The use of 3-D graphics to show otherwise difficult to explain tool shapes should be carefully explored. 3-D PDFs would be a great improvement over the older types of drawings that are often used for instruction in this critical skill.
                      > >
                      > > Project 5
                      > > Coolant/lubricants are necessary for metal machining but normally used chemicals are unaffordable or unavailable in many parts of the world. A project to develop a coolant for machining steel that can be made from locally available ingredients could have great value. A starting point for such a project could be an "old-timers" trick of using 90% water, 10% motor oil (used and filtered?) and enough dishwasher detergent to mix them together. A device for testing effectiveness of different mixtures should be made.
                      > >
                      > > Project 6
                      > > Welding rods are very expensive in many parts of the world. Developing a welding rod that could be made in rural areas is an important project. Welding rods made from concrete re-inforcing wire coated with lime and using commercial wallpaper paste as an adhesive is one possible answer.(I can put project members in touch with a Latin American blacksmith who has done this)
                      > >
                      > > Project 7
                      > > Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more effective welders eye protection and can cause permanent eye damage after a just a few years. The development of a welding lens that would be cheap enough to include in boxes of welding rods could be an answer to the problem.
                      > > It is hard to imagine economic development with welding.
                      > >
                      > > My question is: Someone here (I hope I can find his name!) suggested using the thin aluminum foil that is used to line packages of chips. I really tried but I can't peel the foil off. Can someone suggest a way of separating the foil from the plastic with a solvent?
                      > >
                      > > Pat
                      > >
                      >

                    • Local
                      Hello Michael, Steve is a mechanical engineer. He s published a number of books documenting his work with small scale foundries. He s also designed and
                      Message 10 of 27 , Jul 6, 2012
                      • 0 Attachment
                        Hello Michael,

                        Steve is a mechanical engineer. He's published a number of books documenting his work with small scale foundries. He's also designed and published on small generators and converting waste oil to diesel fuel.

                        I have most of his foundry books. The three books probably of most interest to you are:


                        1. Metal Casting Vol. 1

                        2. Metal Casting Vol. 2

                        3. Iron Melting Cupola Furnaces

                        These cover sand casting and related areas. All are written from the viewpoint of the small foundry and shop.

                        Notice that Steve uses coal coke to fuel his cupola furnace. You (and almost everyone else) likely don't have coal coke available.

                        Metallurgical grade charcoal can be used instead to fuel iron melting cupolas:

                        See this UN FAO paper on charcoal making:

                        Simple technologies for charcoal making
                        http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5328e/X5328e00.htm

                        Metallurgical char was used to fuel cupolas before coal coke was developed.

                        Mark



                        --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, mika ugbo <iyinbor@...> wrote:
                        >
                        > Hi Local,
                        > Who is  Steve Chastain? Please give me more information about his work.
                        > Thanks for your wonderful contributions.
                        >  
                        > Michael Ugbo
                        > --- On Sun, 7/1/12, Local <charcad2006@...> wrote:
                        >
                        >
                        > From: Local <charcad2006@...>
                        > Subject: [multimachine] Re: To Michael Ugbo
                        > To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                        > Received: Sunday, July 1, 2012, 8:46 AM
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        >  
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        > 1. Metallurgical charcoal making.
                        >
                        > 2. Iron melting cupola furnace construction and operation. I know Steve Chastain has book customers in Africa who've built and operate cupola furnaces. One (I think in Kenya) has done so well he mentioned adding employees solely to break up scrap iron.
                        >
                        > 3. Hand scraping tools.
                        >
                        > Scrap aluminum will likely be too expensive. The far lower average incomes and the world price for Al ingot means it will be far more valuable as a % of the salvager's income.
                        >
                        > Suitable silica sand and high alumina clays for making refractories and casting sands are available almost everywhere on Earth on land. One just needs to consult local geologists to find out where the closest deposits are. A silicon dioxide / alumina phase diagram shows the possibilities with these two materials. These include mullite phase crucibles and foundry ware.
                        >
                        > The same charcoal fueled cupola furnaces can also fuel hi-temperature kilns to fire ceramics.
                        >
                        > This will allow use of more abundant, cheaper and locally available scrap iron and steel.
                        >
                        > This would also likely lead to a spin off ceramics and pottery trade. This trade could also make other items such as sinks, toilets and kitchenware.
                        >
                        > If the idea is real community economic development then I think this is the direction to go.
                        >
                        > --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, "Pat" <rigmatch@> wrote:
                        > >
                        > > Guys, what can you add to this?
                        > >
                        > > Suggestions for starting a metal shop/small factory/trade school in Africa
                        > >
                        > > You will need the occasional use of a small truck.
                        > >
                        > > Skills needed to start:
                        > > Basic metal machining, grinding cutting tools skills, basic stick welding. Parhaps you can be taught these skills in return for shop cleaning etc while you are in Canada. If your project is sucessful, you will eventually need someone with good machining and engineering skills.
                        > > Aluminum alloy casting (is there a local cooking pan re-caster?)
                        > >
                        > > Tools
                        > > If you have access to good junk, a concrete screw cutting can be built at a very low cost. Only basic mechanic's and carpenters tools are needed.
                        > >
                        > > Other possible sources of income as the project develops:
                        > >
                        > > Sales of our penetrating oil formula.
                        > > Parts for a Cole drill, sale of drill bits or complete drills (the drill was developed at the request of an engineering professor in Kenya).
                        > > A treadle powered wooden wood turning lathe. Wood should be acquired with drying time in mind.
                        > > The Genny cell phone charger, charging and sales (developed at the request of a Peace Corps worker)
                        > > Machining clutches and brakes, especially for trucks (suggested by a missionaries in Kenya and Mexico)
                        > > Production of small concrete machine tools for schools and small shops.
                        > > Production of a general purpose/truck brake lathe.
                        > >
                        > > Additional funding
                        > > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowd_funding You will have to have a good start first so people will take you seriously. The Nigerian 911 scam has made people wary.
                        > >
                        > > Business plan
                        > > Show people that you are serious by working hard (and doccumenting it)to learn the basic skills that are needed.
                        > >
                        > > Accumulate the basic tools needed.
                        > >
                        > > By the time that you do this, I think several lathes will have been built and doccumented.
                        > >
                        > > Start with your own clutch and brake lathe then build a very accurate lathe that can be used to make more lathes and milling machines.
                        > >
                        > >
                        > >
                        > > --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, mika ugbo <iyinbor@> wrote:
                        > > >
                        > > > Hi Pat,
                        > > > May the good Lord bless your efforts and those of others in this forum for all your works to bring industrial revolution to developing countries. I happen to be from rural/agricultural areas of Nigeria although I presently live in Canada.
                        > > >  
                        > > > Please, how can I build a sustainable rural Technical school/business on these works of yours. Can anyone in the group help me with the technical/business plan? The concrete multimachine is really detail enough but had any body build one yet?
                        > > >  
                        > > > I am serious. I saved every message I received from this forum. Is there any member of our group that lives in Alberta,Canada? Pls. contact me.
                        > > >  
                        > > > You are one of those people that should be ruling my country's men. Africa need practical ideals that work not just aids.
                        > > >  
                        > > > Thanks.
                        > > >  
                        > > > Sincerely yours,
                        > > > Michael Ugbo
                        > > > Fort Mcmurray, Alberta
                        > > > Tel: 780-531-1993
                        > > >
                        > > > --- On Fri, 3/30/12, Pat <rigmatch@> wrote:
                        > > >
                        > > >
                        > > > From: Pat <rigmatch@>
                        > > > Subject: [multimachine] Need some chemical knowledge
                        > > > To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                        > > > Received: Friday, March 30, 2012, 4:52 PM
                        > > >
                        > > >
                        > > >
                        > > >  
                        > > >
                        > > >
                        > > >
                        > > > Drexel University is going to list 7 of our projects as engineering class projects. A real honor! I need suggestions about project 7.
                        > > >
                        > > > This is what I sent to a professor there:
                        > > >
                        > > > A series of steps (projects) that could be be used to finance and build the equipment for a large metal-working shop or small factory in the developing world.
                        > > >
                        > > > Projects 1 and 2 are for simple, badly needed products that could be made and sold to get the few hundred dollars needed to buy the materials needed to build an accurate screw cutting lathe. This lathe (Project 3) would be central to the making of dedicated milling machines, drills and rolling and bending machines.
                        > > >
                        > > > Project 1
                        > > > A very inexpensive tool that can drill holes the hardest steel. The 140 year old drill that we have modeled on can easily drill 1" holes, using a masonry bit, in something as hard as a file. We designed ours to drill holes, without using electricity, in steel plate that is to be used in making farm implements. These holes allow a steel tip attached to a wooden plow making it much more efficient than a plow that is entirely made of wood.
                        > > > From the 1870's to the 1930's blacksmiths used a now almost forgotten technique that was often called "racheting" a hole. Instead of turning the bit at high speed,they turned the bit with a ratcheted crank while 500 to 1000 pounds of downward pressure was applied. An example is the "Cole" drill (link below). A Cole type drill is now too expensive for low income artizens because it's frame is a steel forging that has been internally threaded with a large, fine thread. This project involves replacing this forged and threaded device with a simple lever that can be used exert the needed high pressure on the bit while still alowing it to be turned easily. Design problems include a simple method to attach the bit, a simple thrust bearing design and a way to steady the spindle. Crude but succesful experiments are here (http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Cole+drill+project)
                        > > >
                        > > > Project 2
                        > > > A WD 40 like penetrating oil for the developing world. If there any constant in metal work in many developing countries, it is rust. Heavily rusted parts often hold a otherwise unavailable treasure trove of vital but unavailable fasteners. A project starting point could be used (filtered) automatic transmission oil that could be mixed with some kind of a locally available solvent. Acetone is claimed to work well in practice (but seemingly not in theory!).
                        > > >
                        > > > Project 3, An accurate screw cutting metal lathe.
                        > > > The MultiMachine concrete lathe project is a design for building the essential tools of a basic machine shop -- a screw cutting metal lathe, drill press and milling machine -- out of inexpensive materials easily available anywhere. Metalworking lathes in particular are necessary for the production of almost all tools and other manufactured goods but are often too expensive to be widely available.
                        > > > In 1915, special lathes made from concrete were developed to quickly and cheaply produce millions of cannon shells needed for World War I. Lucien Yeomans, the inventor, won America's highest engineering award for this invention, but sadly the technique was almost forgotten after the war. We re-discovered it and recognized it as a way to quickly make inexpensive but accurate machine tools for use in developing countries and in trade schools and shops everywhere. Besides concrete, the MultiMachine lathe requires only a steel bar, used pipe and a few discarded engine pistons that are used as a source of metal used in simple castings. The machine can be built by anyone with good mechanical skills, common mechanic's tools and a hand or powered drill. The machines can be built in sizes that will fit on a desktop or can be scaled up many times. Some Yeomans lathes weighed 10 tons and were able to accurately machine 3200 pound cannon projectiles.
                        > > >
                        > > > NOTE:
                        > > > The Multimachine project needs to have a lathe built and it's construction documented so that we improve the existing plans and design.
                        > > >
                        > > > The latest version of the plans are at: http://makeprojects.com/Project/The-Multimachine-150-12-Inch-swing-metal-lathe-and-mill/1751/1
                        > > >
                        > > > Important upporting files are at:
                        > > > http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Current+Design+Drawings
                        > > >
                        > > > Project 4
                        > > > An easily built and affordable lathe will be of little use if it is too difficult to train workers to machine the poor quality steel that is commonly available in developing countries. Needed is a machinist training method that could replace the normally long machining apprenticeship with training that takes much less time. We suggest a method of using conventional metal turning to only rough out a slightly oversized workpiece followed by grinding to a proper fit and finish. Turning steel to an exact size and finish can be quite difficult while roughing out is easily taught. Grinding is usually discouraged on a lathe because the grit can cause excessive wear but our concrete lathe has been expressly designed to be easily repaired or upgraded.
                        > > > Teaching the "old" skills of shaping and grinding cutting tools is a needed way to replace the use of the carbide tipped tools which are commonly used in the Western world. These are often too expensive to use, or even unavailable in many areas.
                        > > > The use of 3-D graphics to show otherwise difficult to explain tool shapes should be carefully explored. 3-D PDFs would be a great improvement over the older types of drawings that are often used for instruction in this critical skill.
                        > > >
                        > > > Project 5
                        > > > Coolant/lubricants are necessary for metal machining but normally used chemicals are unaffordable or unavailable in many parts of the world. A project to develop a coolant for machining steel that can be made from locally available ingredients could have great value. A starting point for such a project could be an "old-timers" trick of using 90% water, 10% motor oil (used and filtered?) and enough dishwasher detergent to mix them together. A device for testing effectiveness of different mixtures should be made.
                        > > >
                        > > > Project 6
                        > > > Welding rods are very expensive in many parts of the world. Developing a welding rod that could be made in rural areas is an important project. Welding rods made from concrete re-inforcing wire coated with lime and using commercial wallpaper paste as an adhesive is one possible answer.(I can put project members in touch with a Latin American blacksmith who has done this)
                        > > >
                        > > > Project 7
                        > > > Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more effective welders eye protection and can cause permanent eye damage after a just a few years. The development of a welding lens that would be cheap enough to include in boxes of welding rods could be an answer to the problem.
                        > > > It is hard to imagine economic development with welding.
                        > > >
                        > > > My question is: Someone here (I hope I can find his name!) suggested using the thin aluminum foil that is used to line packages of chips. I really tried but I can't peel the foil off. Can someone suggest a way of separating the foil from the plastic with a solvent?
                        > > >
                        > > > Pat
                        > > >
                        > >
                        >
                      • Local
                        p.s. to Michael Ugbo The 1958 US Navy Foundry manual is also a first class source of how-to information on small foundry operations. It s now free online
                        Message 11 of 27 , Jul 6, 2012
                        • 0 Attachment
                          p.s. to Michael Ugbo

                          The 1958 US Navy Foundry manual is also a first class source of how-to information on small foundry operations. It's now free online here:

                          http://www.hnsa.org/doc/foundry/index.htm

                          --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, "Local" <charcad2006@...> wrote:
                          >
                          > Hello Michael,
                          >
                          > Steve is a mechanical engineer. He's published a number of books documenting his work with small scale foundries. He's also designed and published on small generators and converting waste oil to diesel fuel.
                          >
                          > I have most of his foundry books. The three books probably of most interest to you are:
                          >
                          >
                          > 1. Metal Casting Vol. 1
                          >
                          > 2. Metal Casting Vol. 2
                          >
                          > 3. Iron Melting Cupola Furnaces
                          >
                          > These cover sand casting and related areas. All are written from the viewpoint of the small foundry and shop.
                          >
                          > Notice that Steve uses coal coke to fuel his cupola furnace. You (and almost everyone else) likely don't have coal coke available.
                          >
                          > Metallurgical grade charcoal can be used instead to fuel iron melting cupolas:
                          >
                          > See this UN FAO paper on charcoal making:
                          >
                          > Simple technologies for charcoal making
                          > http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5328e/X5328e00.htm
                          >
                          > Metallurgical char was used to fuel cupolas before coal coke was developed.
                          >
                          > Mark
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          > --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, mika ugbo <iyinbor@> wrote:
                          > >
                          > > Hi Local,
                          > > Who is  Steve Chastain? Please give me more information about his work.
                          > > Thanks for your wonderful contributions.
                          > >  
                          > > Michael Ugbo
                          > > --- On Sun, 7/1/12, Local <charcad2006@> wrote:
                          > >
                          > >
                          > > From: Local <charcad2006@>
                          > > Subject: [multimachine] Re: To Michael Ugbo
                          > > To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                          > > Received: Sunday, July 1, 2012, 8:46 AM
                          > >
                          > >
                          > >
                          > >  
                          > >
                          > >
                          > >
                          > > 1. Metallurgical charcoal making.
                          > >
                          > > 2. Iron melting cupola furnace construction and operation. I know Steve Chastain has book customers in Africa who've built and operate cupola furnaces. One (I think in Kenya) has done so well he mentioned adding employees solely to break up scrap iron.
                          > >
                          > > 3. Hand scraping tools.
                          > >
                          > > Scrap aluminum will likely be too expensive. The far lower average incomes and the world price for Al ingot means it will be far more valuable as a % of the salvager's income.
                          > >
                          > > Suitable silica sand and high alumina clays for making refractories and casting sands are available almost everywhere on Earth on land. One just needs to consult local geologists to find out where the closest deposits are. A silicon dioxide / alumina phase diagram shows the possibilities with these two materials. These include mullite phase crucibles and foundry ware.
                          > >
                          > > The same charcoal fueled cupola furnaces can also fuel hi-temperature kilns to fire ceramics.
                          > >
                          > > This will allow use of more abundant, cheaper and locally available scrap iron and steel.
                          > >
                          > > This would also likely lead to a spin off ceramics and pottery trade. This trade could also make other items such as sinks, toilets and kitchenware.
                          > >
                          > > If the idea is real community economic development then I think this is the direction to go.
                          > >
                          > > --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, "Pat" <rigmatch@> wrote:
                          > > >
                          > > > Guys, what can you add to this?
                          > > >
                          > > > Suggestions for starting a metal shop/small factory/trade school in Africa
                          > > >
                          > > > You will need the occasional use of a small truck.
                          > > >
                          > > > Skills needed to start:
                          > > > Basic metal machining, grinding cutting tools skills, basic stick welding. Parhaps you can be taught these skills in return for shop cleaning etc while you are in Canada. If your project is sucessful, you will eventually need someone with good machining and engineering skills.
                          > > > Aluminum alloy casting (is there a local cooking pan re-caster?)
                          > > >
                          > > > Tools
                          > > > If you have access to good junk, a concrete screw cutting can be built at a very low cost. Only basic mechanic's and carpenters tools are needed.
                          > > >
                          > > > Other possible sources of income as the project develops:
                          > > >
                          > > > Sales of our penetrating oil formula.
                          > > > Parts for a Cole drill, sale of drill bits or complete drills (the drill was developed at the request of an engineering professor in Kenya).
                          > > > A treadle powered wooden wood turning lathe. Wood should be acquired with drying time in mind.
                          > > > The Genny cell phone charger, charging and sales (developed at the request of a Peace Corps worker)
                          > > > Machining clutches and brakes, especially for trucks (suggested by a missionaries in Kenya and Mexico)
                          > > > Production of small concrete machine tools for schools and small shops.
                          > > > Production of a general purpose/truck brake lathe.
                          > > >
                          > > > Additional funding
                          > > > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowd_funding You will have to have a good start first so people will take you seriously. The Nigerian 911 scam has made people wary.
                          > > >
                          > > > Business plan
                          > > > Show people that you are serious by working hard (and doccumenting it)to learn the basic skills that are needed.
                          > > >
                          > > > Accumulate the basic tools needed.
                          > > >
                          > > > By the time that you do this, I think several lathes will have been built and doccumented.
                          > > >
                          > > > Start with your own clutch and brake lathe then build a very accurate lathe that can be used to make more lathes and milling machines.
                          > > >
                          > > >
                          > > >
                          > > > --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, mika ugbo <iyinbor@> wrote:
                          > > > >
                          > > > > Hi Pat,
                          > > > > May the good Lord bless your efforts and those of others in this forum for all your works to bring industrial revolution to developing countries. I happen to be from rural/agricultural areas of Nigeria although I presently live in Canada.
                          > > > >  
                          > > > > Please, how can I build a sustainable rural Technical school/business on these works of yours. Can anyone in the group help me with the technical/business plan? The concrete multimachine is really detail enough but had any body build one yet?
                          > > > >  
                          > > > > I am serious. I saved every message I received from this forum. Is there any member of our group that lives in Alberta,Canada? Pls. contact me.
                          > > > >  
                          > > > > You are one of those people that should be ruling my country's men. Africa need practical ideals that work not just aids.
                          > > > >  
                          > > > > Thanks.
                          > > > >  
                          > > > > Sincerely yours,
                          > > > > Michael Ugbo
                          > > > > Fort Mcmurray, Alberta
                          > > > > Tel: 780-531-1993
                          > > > >
                          > > > > --- On Fri, 3/30/12, Pat <rigmatch@> wrote:
                          > > > >
                          > > > >
                          > > > > From: Pat <rigmatch@>
                          > > > > Subject: [multimachine] Need some chemical knowledge
                          > > > > To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                          > > > > Received: Friday, March 30, 2012, 4:52 PM
                          > > > >
                          > > > >
                          > > > >
                          > > > >  
                          > > > >
                          > > > >
                          > > > >
                          > > > > Drexel University is going to list 7 of our projects as engineering class projects. A real honor! I need suggestions about project 7.
                          > > > >
                          > > > > This is what I sent to a professor there:
                          > > > >
                          > > > > A series of steps (projects) that could be be used to finance and build the equipment for a large metal-working shop or small factory in the developing world.
                          > > > >
                          > > > > Projects 1 and 2 are for simple, badly needed products that could be made and sold to get the few hundred dollars needed to buy the materials needed to build an accurate screw cutting lathe. This lathe (Project 3) would be central to the making of dedicated milling machines, drills and rolling and bending machines.
                          > > > >
                          > > > > Project 1
                          > > > > A very inexpensive tool that can drill holes the hardest steel. The 140 year old drill that we have modeled on can easily drill 1" holes, using a masonry bit, in something as hard as a file. We designed ours to drill holes, without using electricity, in steel plate that is to be used in making farm implements. These holes allow a steel tip attached to a wooden plow making it much more efficient than a plow that is entirely made of wood.
                          > > > > From the 1870's to the 1930's blacksmiths used a now almost forgotten technique that was often called "racheting" a hole. Instead of turning the bit at high speed,they turned the bit with a ratcheted crank while 500 to 1000 pounds of downward pressure was applied. An example is the "Cole" drill (link below). A Cole type drill is now too expensive for low income artizens because it's frame is a steel forging that has been internally threaded with a large, fine thread. This project involves replacing this forged and threaded device with a simple lever that can be used exert the needed high pressure on the bit while still alowing it to be turned easily. Design problems include a simple method to attach the bit, a simple thrust bearing design and a way to steady the spindle. Crude but succesful experiments are here (http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Cole+drill+project)
                          > > > >
                          > > > > Project 2
                          > > > > A WD 40 like penetrating oil for the developing world. If there any constant in metal work in many developing countries, it is rust. Heavily rusted parts often hold a otherwise unavailable treasure trove of vital but unavailable fasteners. A project starting point could be used (filtered) automatic transmission oil that could be mixed with some kind of a locally available solvent. Acetone is claimed to work well in practice (but seemingly not in theory!).
                          > > > >
                          > > > > Project 3, An accurate screw cutting metal lathe.
                          > > > > The MultiMachine concrete lathe project is a design for building the essential tools of a basic machine shop -- a screw cutting metal lathe, drill press and milling machine -- out of inexpensive materials easily available anywhere. Metalworking lathes in particular are necessary for the production of almost all tools and other manufactured goods but are often too expensive to be widely available.
                          > > > > In 1915, special lathes made from concrete were developed to quickly and cheaply produce millions of cannon shells needed for World War I. Lucien Yeomans, the inventor, won America's highest engineering award for this invention, but sadly the technique was almost forgotten after the war. We re-discovered it and recognized it as a way to quickly make inexpensive but accurate machine tools for use in developing countries and in trade schools and shops everywhere. Besides concrete, the MultiMachine lathe requires only a steel bar, used pipe and a few discarded engine pistons that are used as a source of metal used in simple castings. The machine can be built by anyone with good mechanical skills, common mechanic's tools and a hand or powered drill. The machines can be built in sizes that will fit on a desktop or can be scaled up many times. Some Yeomans lathes weighed 10 tons and were able to accurately machine 3200 pound cannon projectiles.
                          > > > >
                          > > > > NOTE:
                          > > > > The Multimachine project needs to have a lathe built and it's construction documented so that we improve the existing plans and design.
                          > > > >
                          > > > > The latest version of the plans are at: http://makeprojects.com/Project/The-Multimachine-150-12-Inch-swing-metal-lathe-and-mill/1751/1
                          > > > >
                          > > > > Important upporting files are at:
                          > > > > http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Current+Design+Drawings
                          > > > >
                          > > > > Project 4
                          > > > > An easily built and affordable lathe will be of little use if it is too difficult to train workers to machine the poor quality steel that is commonly available in developing countries. Needed is a machinist training method that could replace the normally long machining apprenticeship with training that takes much less time. We suggest a method of using conventional metal turning to only rough out a slightly oversized workpiece followed by grinding to a proper fit and finish. Turning steel to an exact size and finish can be quite difficult while roughing out is easily taught. Grinding is usually discouraged on a lathe because the grit can cause excessive wear but our concrete lathe has been expressly designed to be easily repaired or upgraded.
                          > > > > Teaching the "old" skills of shaping and grinding cutting tools is a needed way to replace the use of the carbide tipped tools which are commonly used in the Western world. These are often too expensive to use, or even unavailable in many areas.
                          > > > > The use of 3-D graphics to show otherwise difficult to explain tool shapes should be carefully explored. 3-D PDFs would be a great improvement over the older types of drawings that are often used for instruction in this critical skill.
                          > > > >
                          > > > > Project 5
                          > > > > Coolant/lubricants are necessary for metal machining but normally used chemicals are unaffordable or unavailable in many parts of the world. A project to develop a coolant for machining steel that can be made from locally available ingredients could have great value. A starting point for such a project could be an "old-timers" trick of using 90% water, 10% motor oil (used and filtered?) and enough dishwasher detergent to mix them together. A device for testing effectiveness of different mixtures should be made.
                          > > > >
                          > > > > Project 6
                          > > > > Welding rods are very expensive in many parts of the world. Developing a welding rod that could be made in rural areas is an important project. Welding rods made from concrete re-inforcing wire coated with lime and using commercial wallpaper paste as an adhesive is one possible answer.(I can put project members in touch with a Latin American blacksmith who has done this)
                          > > > >
                          > > > > Project 7
                          > > > > Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more effective welders eye protection and can cause permanent eye damage after a just a few years. The development of a welding lens that would be cheap enough to include in boxes of welding rods could be an answer to the problem.
                          > > > > It is hard to imagine economic development with welding.
                          > > > >
                          > > > > My question is: Someone here (I hope I can find his name!) suggested using the thin aluminum foil that is used to line packages of chips. I really tried but I can't peel the foil off. Can someone suggest a way of separating the foil from the plastic with a solvent?
                          > > > >
                          > > > > Pat
                          > > > >
                          > > >
                          > >
                          >
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