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Re: [multimachine] Need some chemical knowledge

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  • Shannon DeWolfe
    Pat, Add to Project 2: Coconut oil has been used successfully as a rust inhibitor and lubricant for metal working in Indonesia, and presumably other locales
    Message 1 of 27 , Mar 30, 2012
      Pat,

      Add to Project 2:

      Coconut oil has been used successfully as a rust inhibitor and lubricant for metal working in Indonesia, and presumably other locales where coconuts are common. Likewise, unprocessed lard, tallow, and pig fat sourced from local farmers were in common usage in blacksmith shops for hundreds of years before petroleum products became readily available.

      In the early days of steam power several natural sources of oil were used; sperm oil, olive oil, lard oil, rape oil, neatsfoot oil, tallow oil, and "engine" tallow were all tested and used with relative success.

      The advent of higher pressure steam and ever faster turning engines and machines of the 20th century required more robust oils than plant and animal sources were capable of producing. Luckily for the maturing Industrial Revolution, petroleum provided an inexpensive alternative. The use of plant and animal sourced oils and greases was sensibly abandoned by industry simply because the petroleum based oils and greases performed better. That does not make the natural sources any less effective for a plain bearing machine today. In fact, it is preferable to increasingly expensive petroleum based lubricants in a poor man's shop.

      Refer to "Henley's Encyclopaedia of Practical Engineering and Allied Trades" for test results on natural lubricants published in the late 1880's.

      Wax from various sources has a centuries old history of rust prevention and should not be overlooked in areas where natural sources (bees, carnauba, candelilla, and so on) can be processed.

      One thing all natural sources of oil and wax have in common is they must be extracted from the source and packaged for storage and distribution. An enterprising fellow could secure a lucrative business trade supplying machine shops with oil and wax from local sources.

      Add to Project 7:

      Photographic film exposed to natural light and then processed can be an inexpensive source of eye protection. Medical x-ray film that has been damaged or is too old to produce diagnostic images can be a free source of film. A single 14 x 17 inch sheet of film that would have been thrown away can make several eye protectors. With controlled exposure techniques, several different filter values can be obtained from the same film base. Once developed, the density of the film is stable for years.

      Simple cardboard glasses, similar to 3D glasses passed out at movie theaters, could be made with a slit to hold the film. Better, the film could be glued to a metal UV shield to protect the welder's face from the weld light. Film for x-ray is being phased out in the US. But, laser imager film has the same potential; laser imagers will be around for decades to come.

      Even the once common 35mm film can be used. The Digital Revolution has all but marked the demise of this source. It will become ever more expensive as time goes by. Still, expired film is useless to everyone but the MultiMachine Shop welder.

      The key is getting the film from where it is thrown away to where it can be used. I will talk to the managers of the x-ray department at St. Luke's to see if there is some way we can legally procure the "bad" film stock. (They no longer use x-ray film but I have seen barrels full of laser film sent off for "recycling".) This source of film is already exposed; we would not be able to control the filter value. But it is free. If I can get the film, then others can too. It would be a virtually inexhaustible supply of welder's glasses. Then it will be a matter of packing and shipping to where it is needed. Contacts?

      And finally, a note about why you cannot peel away the aluminum on chip bags. It is vapor deposited onto the plastic substrate. It has a molecular bond with it. I do not know of any conventional method to part the two. Besides, the plastic is clear. If it makes a good filter when you hold it up to intense light, it will work without separating the aluminum from the plastic.
      Regards,
      
      Mr. Shannon DeWolfe
      --I've taken to using Mr. because my name misleads folks on the WWW. I am a 56 year old fat man.
      

      On 3/30/2012 3:52 PM, Pat wrote:
       

      Drexel University is going to list 7 of our projects as engineering class projects. A real honor! I need suggestions about project 7.

    • David G. LeVine
      Pat: A couple of ideas for consideration: * A metal brake (three pieces of angle, a couple of clamps, some bolts and nuts, two handles), probably not much more
      Message 2 of 27 , Apr 2 9:58 PM
        Pat:

        A couple of ideas for consideration:
        • A metal brake (three pieces of angle, a couple of clamps, some bolts and nuts, two handles), probably not much more than 20 gauge and welding would make it easier.
        • A metal former (makes round shapes), two lally columns and a base, probably wants to be welded, unfortunately, but bolted might work.  Light sheet metal (20 gauge probably is good, 1/4" (6mm) is probably a no-go.)

        Both rely on a working Cole drill! 

        Welding/brazing would make it easier, but bolted construction is possible.  The metal brake can be made into a box brake by specialized inserts.

        Does this give you any ideas?

        Some good uses:

        • Guards (for the MM, for instance), in the Industrial Revolution lack of guards resulted in lack of limbs or deaths.
        • Stoves/stove pipes, the third world has LOTS of unsafe cooking/heating practices.
        • Gasifiers, If a gasoline engine can run on wood chips (and they can), a MM can run on wood chips!  Or Buffalo chips!

        Dave  8{)

      • David G. LeVine
        ... On the ice, Eskimos use wooden glasses with slits to limit light into the eyes and prevent snow blindness , perhaps pinhole glasses would help limit light
        Message 3 of 27 , Apr 2 10:02 PM
          On 03/30/2012 10:29 PM, Shannon DeWolfe wrote:
          Simple cardboard glasses, similar to 3D glasses passed out at movie theaters, could be made with a slit to hold the film. Better, the film could be glued to a metal UV shield to protect the welder's face from the weld light.

          On the ice, Eskimos use wooden glasses with slits to limit light into the eyes and prevent "snow blindness", perhaps pinhole glasses would help limit light damage to the eyes.

          Dave  8{)

          --
          "Political Correctness is a doctrine, fostered by a delusional, illogical minority and rabidly promoted by an unscrupulous mainstream media, which holds forth the proposition that it is entirely possible to pick up a turd by the clean end."
          (quoted from http://www.wattflyer.com/forums/showthread.php?t=30060)

          NOTE TO ALL:

          When forwarding emails, please use only "Blind Carbon Copy" or "Bcc" for all recipients. Please "delete" or "highlight & cut" any forwarding history which includes my email address! It is a courtesy to me and others who may not wish to have their email addresses sent all over the world! Erasing the history helps prevent Spammers from mining addresses and viruses from being propagated.

          THANK YOU!
        • Pat
          Thanks Dave If Drexel students accept these projects, I ll add your ideas during my Skype handholding
          Message 4 of 27 , Apr 4 9:36 AM
            Thanks Dave

            If Drexel students accept these projects, I'll add your ideas during my Skype "handholding"

            --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, "David G. LeVine" <dlevine@...> wrote:
            >
            > On 03/30/2012 10:29 PM, Shannon DeWolfe wrote:
            > > Simple cardboard glasses, similar to 3D glasses passed out at movie
            > > theaters, could be made with a slit to hold the film. Better, the film
            > > could be glued to a metal UV shield to protect the welder's face from
            > > the weld light.
            >
            > On the ice, Eskimos use wooden glasses with slits to limit light into
            > the eyes and prevent "snow blindness", perhaps pinhole glasses would
            > help limit light damage to the eyes.
            >
            > Dave 8{)
            >
            > --
            > /"Political Correctness is a doctrine, fostered by a delusional,
            > illogical minority and rabidly promoted by an unscrupulous mainstream
            > media, which holds forth the proposition that it is entirely possible to
            > pick up a turd by the clean end."/
            > (quoted from http://www.wattflyer.com/forums/showthread.php?t=30060)
            >
            > NOTE TO ALL:
            >
            >
            > When forwarding emails, please use only "Blind Carbon Copy" or "Bcc" for
            > all recipients. Please "delete" or "highlight & cut" any forwarding
            > history which includes my email address! It is a courtesy to me and
            > others who may not wish to have their email addresses sent all over the
            > world! Erasing the history helps prevent Spammers from mining addresses
            > and viruses from being propagated.
            >
            > THANK YOU!
            >
          • mika ugbo
            Hi Pat, May the good Lord bless your efforts and those of others in this forum for all your works to bring industrial revolution to developing countries. I
            Message 5 of 27 , Jun 29, 2012
              Hi Pat,
              May the good Lord bless your efforts and those of others in this forum for all your works to bring industrial revolution to developing countries. I happen to be from rural/agricultural areas of Nigeria although I presently live in Canada.
               
              Please, how can I build a sustainable rural Technical school/business on these works of yours. Can anyone in the group help me with the technical/business plan? The concrete multimachine is really detail enough but had any body build one yet?
               
              I am serious. I saved every message I received from this forum. Is there any member of our group that lives in Alberta,Canada? Pls. contact me.
               
              You are one of those people that should be ruling my country's men. Africa need practical ideals that work not just aids.
               
              Thanks.
               
              Sincerely yours,
              Michael Ugbo
              Fort Mcmurray, Alberta
              Tel: 780-531-1993

              --- On Fri, 3/30/12, Pat <rigmatch@...> wrote:

              From: Pat <rigmatch@...>
              Subject: [multimachine] Need some chemical knowledge
              To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
              Received: Friday, March 30, 2012, 4:52 PM

               
              Drexel University is going to list 7 of our projects as engineering class projects. A real honor! I need suggestions about project 7.

              This is what I sent to a professor there:

              A series of steps (projects) that could be be used to finance and build the equipment for a large metal-working shop or small factory in the developing world.

              Projects 1 and 2 are for simple, badly needed products that could be made and sold to get the few hundred dollars needed to buy the materials needed to build an accurate screw cutting lathe. This lathe (Project 3) would be central to the making of dedicated milling machines, drills and rolling and bending machines.

              Project 1
              A very inexpensive tool that can drill holes the hardest steel. The 140 year old drill that we have modeled on can easily drill 1" holes, using a masonry bit, in something as hard as a file. We designed ours to drill holes, without using electricity, in steel plate that is to be used in making farm implements. These holes allow a steel tip attached to a wooden plow making it much more efficient than a plow that is entirely made of wood.
              From the 1870's to the 1930's blacksmiths used a now almost forgotten technique that was often called "racheting" a hole. Instead of turning the bit at high speed,they turned the bit with a ratcheted crank while 500 to 1000 pounds of downward pressure was applied. An example is the "Cole" drill (link below). A Cole type drill is now too expensive for low income artizens because it's frame is a steel forging that has been internally threaded with a large, fine thread. This project involves replacing this forged and threaded device with a simple lever that can be used exert the needed high pressure on the bit while still alowing it to be turned easily. Design problems include a simple method to attach the bit, a simple thrust bearing design and a way to steady the spindle. Crude but succesful experiments are here (http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Cole+drill+project)

              Project 2
              A WD 40 like penetrating oil for the developing world. If there any constant in metal work in many developing countries, it is rust. Heavily rusted parts often hold a otherwise unavailable treasure trove of vital but unavailable fasteners. A project starting point could be used (filtered) automatic transmission oil that could be mixed with some kind of a locally available solvent. Acetone is claimed to work well in practice (but seemingly not in theory!).

              Project 3, An accurate screw cutting metal lathe.
              The MultiMachine concrete lathe project is a design for building the essential tools of a basic machine shop -- a screw cutting metal lathe, drill press and milling machine -- out of inexpensive materials easily available anywhere. Metalworking lathes in particular are necessary for the production of almost all tools and other manufactured goods but are often too expensive to be widely available.
              In 1915, special lathes made from concrete were developed to quickly and cheaply produce millions of cannon shells needed for World War I. Lucien Yeomans, the inventor, won America's highest engineering award for this invention, but sadly the technique was almost forgotten after the war. We re-discovered it and recognized it as a way to quickly make inexpensive but accurate machine tools for use in developing countries and in trade schools and shops everywhere. Besides concrete, the MultiMachine lathe requires only a steel bar, used pipe and a few discarded engine pistons that are used as a source of metal used in simple castings. The machine can be built by anyone with good mechanical skills, common mechanic's tools and a hand or powered drill. The machines can be built in sizes that will fit on a desktop or can be scaled up many times. Some Yeomans lathes weighed 10 tons and were able to accurately machine 3200 pound cannon projectiles.

              NOTE:
              The Multimachine project needs to have a lathe built and it's construction documented so that we improve the existing plans and design.

              The latest version of the plans are at: http://makeprojects.com/Project/The-Multimachine-150-12-Inch-swing-metal-lathe-and-mill/1751/1

              Important upporting files are at:
              http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Current+Design+Drawings

              Project 4
              An easily built and affordable lathe will be of little use if it is too difficult to train workers to machine the poor quality steel that is commonly available in developing countries. Needed is a machinist training method that could replace the normally long machining apprenticeship with training that takes much less time. We suggest a method of using conventional metal turning to only rough out a slightly oversized workpiece followed by grinding to a proper fit and finish. Turning steel to an exact size and finish can be quite difficult while roughing out is easily taught. Grinding is usually discouraged on a lathe because the grit can cause excessive wear but our concrete lathe has been expressly designed to be easily repaired or upgraded.
              Teaching the "old" skills of shaping and grinding cutting tools is a needed way to replace the use of the carbide tipped tools which are commonly used in the Western world. These are often too expensive to use, or even unavailable in many areas.
              The use of 3-D graphics to show otherwise difficult to explain tool shapes should be carefully explored. 3-D PDFs would be a great improvement over the older types of drawings that are often used for instruction in this critical skill.

              Project 5
              Coolant/lubricants are necessary for metal machining but normally used chemicals are unaffordable or unavailable in many parts of the world. A project to develop a coolant for machining steel that can be made from locally available ingredients could have great value. A starting point for such a project could be an "old-timers" trick of using 90% water, 10% motor oil (used and filtered?) and enough dishwasher detergent to mix them together. A device for testing effectiveness of different mixtures should be made.

              Project 6
              Welding rods are very expensive in many parts of the world. Developing a welding rod that could be made in rural areas is an important project. Welding rods made from concrete re-inforcing wire coated with lime and using commercial wallpaper paste as an adhesive is one possible answer.(I can put project members in touch with a Latin American blacksmith who has done this)

              Project 7
              Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more effective welders eye protection and can cause permanent eye damage after a just a few years. The development of a welding lens that would be cheap enough to include in boxes of welding rods could be an answer to the problem.
              It is hard to imagine economic development with welding.

              My question is: Someone here (I hope I can find his name!) suggested using the thin aluminum foil that is used to line packages of chips. I really tried but I can't peel the foil off. Can someone suggest a way of separating the foil from the plastic with a solvent?

              Pat

            • Edgar Castelo
              God bless you guys! :)
              Message 6 of 27 , Jun 29, 2012
                God bless you guys! :)

                On Fri, Jun 29, 2012 at 4:05 PM, mika ugbo <iyinbor@...> wrote:
                 

                Hi Pat,
                May the good Lord bless your efforts and those of others in this forum for all your works to bring industrial revolution to developing countries. I happen to be from rural/agricultural areas of Nigeria although I presently live in Canada.
                 
                Please, how can I build a sustainable rural Technical school/business on these works of yours. Can anyone in the group help me with the technical/business plan? The concrete multimachine is really detail enough but had any body build one yet?
                 
                I am serious. I saved every message I received from this forum. Is there any member of our group that lives in Alberta,Canada? Pls. contact me.
                 
                You are one of those people that should be ruling my country's men. Africa need practical ideals that work not just aids.
                 
                Thanks.
                 
                Sincerely yours,
                Michael Ugbo
                Fort Mcmurray, Alberta
                Tel: 780-531-1993

                --- On Fri, 3/30/12, Pat <rigmatch@...> wrote:

                From: Pat <rigmatch@...>
                Subject: [multimachine] Need some chemical knowledge
                To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                Received: Friday, March 30, 2012, 4:52 PM

                 
                Drexel University is going to list 7 of our projects as engineering class projects. A real honor! I need suggestions about project 7.

                This is what I sent to a professor there:

                A series of steps (projects) that could be be used to finance and build the equipment for a large metal-working shop or small factory in the developing world.

                Projects 1 and 2 are for simple, badly needed products that could be made and sold to get the few hundred dollars needed to buy the materials needed to build an accurate screw cutting lathe. This lathe (Project 3) would be central to the making of dedicated milling machines, drills and rolling and bending machines.

                Project 1
                A very inexpensive tool that can drill holes the hardest steel. The 140 year old drill that we have modeled on can easily drill 1" holes, using a masonry bit, in something as hard as a file. We designed ours to drill holes, without using electricity, in steel plate that is to be used in making farm implements. These holes allow a steel tip attached to a wooden plow making it much more efficient than a plow that is entirely made of wood.
                From the 1870's to the 1930's blacksmiths used a now almost forgotten technique that was often called "racheting" a hole. Instead of turning the bit at high speed,they turned the bit with a ratcheted crank while 500 to 1000 pounds of downward pressure was applied. An example is the "Cole" drill (link below). A Cole type drill is now too expensive for low income artizens because it's frame is a steel forging that has been internally threaded with a large, fine thread. This project involves replacing this forged and threaded device with a simple lever that can be used exert the needed high pressure on the bit while still alowing it to be turned easily. Design problems include a simple method to attach the bit, a simple thrust bearing design and a way to steady the spindle. Crude but succesful experiments are here (http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Cole+drill+project)

                Project 2
                A WD 40 like penetrating oil for the developing world. If there any constant in metal work in many developing countries, it is rust. Heavily rusted parts often hold a otherwise unavailable treasure trove of vital but unavailable fasteners. A project starting point could be used (filtered) automatic transmission oil that could be mixed with some kind of a locally available solvent. Acetone is claimed to work well in practice (but seemingly not in theory!).

                Project 3, An accurate screw cutting metal lathe.
                The MultiMachine concrete lathe project is a design for building the essential tools of a basic machine shop -- a screw cutting metal lathe, drill press and milling machine -- out of inexpensive materials easily available anywhere. Metalworking lathes in particular are necessary for the production of almost all tools and other manufactured goods but are often too expensive to be widely available.
                In 1915, special lathes made from concrete were developed to quickly and cheaply produce millions of cannon shells needed for World War I. Lucien Yeomans, the inventor, won America's highest engineering award for this invention, but sadly the technique was almost forgotten after the war. We re-discovered it and recognized it as a way to quickly make inexpensive but accurate machine tools for use in developing countries and in trade schools and shops everywhere. Besides concrete, the MultiMachine lathe requires only a steel bar, used pipe and a few discarded engine pistons that are used as a source of metal used in simple castings. The machine can be built by anyone with good mechanical skills, common mechanic's tools and a hand or powered drill. The machines can be built in sizes that will fit on a desktop or can be scaled up many times. Some Yeomans lathes weighed 10 tons and were able to accurately machine 3200 pound cannon projectiles.

                NOTE:
                The Multimachine project needs to have a lathe built and it's construction documented so that we improve the existing plans and design.

                The latest version of the plans are at: http://makeprojects.com/Project/The-Multimachine-150-12-Inch-swing-metal-lathe-and-mill/1751/1

                Important upporting files are at:
                http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Current+Design+Drawings

                Project 4
                An easily built and affordable lathe will be of little use if it is too difficult to train workers to machine the poor quality steel that is commonly available in developing countries. Needed is a machinist training method that could replace the normally long machining apprenticeship with training that takes much less time. We suggest a method of using conventional metal turning to only rough out a slightly oversized workpiece followed by grinding to a proper fit and finish. Turning steel to an exact size and finish can be quite difficult while roughing out is easily taught. Grinding is usually discouraged on a lathe because the grit can cause excessive wear but our concrete lathe has been expressly designed to be easily repaired or upgraded.
                Teaching the "old" skills of shaping and grinding cutting tools is a needed way to replace the use of the carbide tipped tools which are commonly used in the Western world. These are often too expensive to use, or even unavailable in many areas.
                The use of 3-D graphics to show otherwise difficult to explain tool shapes should be carefully explored. 3-D PDFs would be a great improvement over the older types of drawings that are often used for instruction in this critical skill.

                Project 5
                Coolant/lubricants are necessary for metal machining but normally used chemicals are unaffordable or unavailable in many parts of the world. A project to develop a coolant for machining steel that can be made from locally available ingredients could have great value. A starting point for such a project could be an "old-timers" trick of using 90% water, 10% motor oil (used and filtered?) and enough dishwasher detergent to mix them together. A device for testing effectiveness of different mixtures should be made.

                Project 6
                Welding rods are very expensive in many parts of the world. Developing a welding rod that could be made in rural areas is an important project. Welding rods made from concrete re-inforcing wire coated with lime and using commercial wallpaper paste as an adhesive is one possible answer.(I can put project members in touch with a Latin American blacksmith who has done this)

                Project 7
                Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more effective welders eye protection and can cause permanent eye damage after a just a few years. The development of a welding lens that would be cheap enough to include in boxes of welding rods could be an answer to the problem.
                It is hard to imagine economic development with welding.

                My question is: Someone here (I hope I can find his name!) suggested using the thin aluminum foil that is used to line packages of chips. I really tried but I can't peel the foil off. Can someone suggest a way of separating the foil from the plastic with a solvent?

                Pat


              • Pat
                Hi Michael Very glad to hear from you! This is a complicated question but is one that I have thought about for years. My best answer will probably take a few
                Message 7 of 27 , Jun 29, 2012
                  Hi Michael
                  Very glad to hear from you!

                  This is a complicated question but is one that I have thought about for years. My best answer will probably take a few days but I am getting to it now.

                  Pat



                  --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, mika ugbo <iyinbor@...> wrote:
                  >
                  > Hi Pat,
                  > May the good Lord bless your efforts and those of others in this forum for all your works to bring industrial revolution to developing countries. I happen to be from rural/agricultural areas of Nigeria although I presently live in Canada.
                  >  
                  > Please, how can I build a sustainable rural Technical school/business on these works of yours. Can anyone in the group help me with the technical/business plan? The concrete multimachine is really detail enough but had any body build one yet?
                  >  
                  > I am serious. I saved every message I received from this forum. Is there any member of our group that lives in Alberta,Canada? Pls. contact me.
                  >  
                  > You are one of those people that should be ruling my country's men. Africa need practical ideals that work not just aids.
                  >  
                  > Thanks.
                  >  
                  > Sincerely yours,
                  > Michael Ugbo
                  > Fort Mcmurray, Alberta
                  > Tel: 780-531-1993
                  >
                  > --- On Fri, 3/30/12, Pat <rigmatch@...> wrote:
                  >
                  >
                  > From: Pat <rigmatch@...>
                  > Subject: [multimachine] Need some chemical knowledge
                  > To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                  > Received: Friday, March 30, 2012, 4:52 PM
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >  
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > Drexel University is going to list 7 of our projects as engineering class projects. A real honor! I need suggestions about project 7.
                  >
                  > This is what I sent to a professor there:
                  >
                  > A series of steps (projects) that could be be used to finance and build the equipment for a large metal-working shop or small factory in the developing world.
                  >
                  > Projects 1 and 2 are for simple, badly needed products that could be made and sold to get the few hundred dollars needed to buy the materials needed to build an accurate screw cutting lathe. This lathe (Project 3) would be central to the making of dedicated milling machines, drills and rolling and bending machines.
                  >
                  > Project 1
                  > A very inexpensive tool that can drill holes the hardest steel. The 140 year old drill that we have modeled on can easily drill 1" holes, using a masonry bit, in something as hard as a file. We designed ours to drill holes, without using electricity, in steel plate that is to be used in making farm implements. These holes allow a steel tip attached to a wooden plow making it much more efficient than a plow that is entirely made of wood.
                  > From the 1870's to the 1930's blacksmiths used a now almost forgotten technique that was often called "racheting" a hole. Instead of turning the bit at high speed,they turned the bit with a ratcheted crank while 500 to 1000 pounds of downward pressure was applied. An example is the "Cole" drill (link below). A Cole type drill is now too expensive for low income artizens because it's frame is a steel forging that has been internally threaded with a large, fine thread. This project involves replacing this forged and threaded device with a simple lever that can be used exert the needed high pressure on the bit while still alowing it to be turned easily. Design problems include a simple method to attach the bit, a simple thrust bearing design and a way to steady the spindle. Crude but succesful experiments are here (http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Cole+drill+project)
                  >
                  > Project 2
                  > A WD 40 like penetrating oil for the developing world. If there any constant in metal work in many developing countries, it is rust. Heavily rusted parts often hold a otherwise unavailable treasure trove of vital but unavailable fasteners. A project starting point could be used (filtered) automatic transmission oil that could be mixed with some kind of a locally available solvent. Acetone is claimed to work well in practice (but seemingly not in theory!).
                  >
                  > Project 3, An accurate screw cutting metal lathe.
                  > The MultiMachine concrete lathe project is a design for building the essential tools of a basic machine shop -- a screw cutting metal lathe, drill press and milling machine -- out of inexpensive materials easily available anywhere. Metalworking lathes in particular are necessary for the production of almost all tools and other manufactured goods but are often too expensive to be widely available.
                  > In 1915, special lathes made from concrete were developed to quickly and cheaply produce millions of cannon shells needed for World War I. Lucien Yeomans, the inventor, won America's highest engineering award for this invention, but sadly the technique was almost forgotten after the war. We re-discovered it and recognized it as a way to quickly make inexpensive but accurate machine tools for use in developing countries and in trade schools and shops everywhere. Besides concrete, the MultiMachine lathe requires only a steel bar, used pipe and a few discarded engine pistons that are used as a source of metal used in simple castings. The machine can be built by anyone with good mechanical skills, common mechanic's tools and a hand or powered drill. The machines can be built in sizes that will fit on a desktop or can be scaled up many times. Some Yeomans lathes weighed 10 tons and were able to accurately machine 3200 pound cannon projectiles.
                  >
                  > NOTE:
                  > The Multimachine project needs to have a lathe built and it's construction documented so that we improve the existing plans and design.
                  >
                  > The latest version of the plans are at: http://makeprojects.com/Project/The-Multimachine-150-12-Inch-swing-metal-lathe-and-mill/1751/1
                  >
                  > Important upporting files are at:
                  > http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Current+Design+Drawings
                  >
                  > Project 4
                  > An easily built and affordable lathe will be of little use if it is too difficult to train workers to machine the poor quality steel that is commonly available in developing countries. Needed is a machinist training method that could replace the normally long machining apprenticeship with training that takes much less time. We suggest a method of using conventional metal turning to only rough out a slightly oversized workpiece followed by grinding to a proper fit and finish. Turning steel to an exact size and finish can be quite difficult while roughing out is easily taught. Grinding is usually discouraged on a lathe because the grit can cause excessive wear but our concrete lathe has been expressly designed to be easily repaired or upgraded.
                  > Teaching the "old" skills of shaping and grinding cutting tools is a needed way to replace the use of the carbide tipped tools which are commonly used in the Western world. These are often too expensive to use, or even unavailable in many areas.
                  > The use of 3-D graphics to show otherwise difficult to explain tool shapes should be carefully explored. 3-D PDFs would be a great improvement over the older types of drawings that are often used for instruction in this critical skill.
                  >
                  > Project 5
                  > Coolant/lubricants are necessary for metal machining but normally used chemicals are unaffordable or unavailable in many parts of the world. A project to develop a coolant for machining steel that can be made from locally available ingredients could have great value. A starting point for such a project could be an "old-timers" trick of using 90% water, 10% motor oil (used and filtered?) and enough dishwasher detergent to mix them together. A device for testing effectiveness of different mixtures should be made.
                  >
                  > Project 6
                  > Welding rods are very expensive in many parts of the world. Developing a welding rod that could be made in rural areas is an important project. Welding rods made from concrete re-inforcing wire coated with lime and using commercial wallpaper paste as an adhesive is one possible answer.(I can put project members in touch with a Latin American blacksmith who has done this)
                  >
                  > Project 7
                  > Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more effective welders eye protection and can cause permanent eye damage after a just a few years. The development of a welding lens that would be cheap enough to include in boxes of welding rods could be an answer to the problem.
                  > It is hard to imagine economic development with welding.
                  >
                  > My question is: Someone here (I hope I can find his name!) suggested using the thin aluminum foil that is used to line packages of chips. I really tried but I can't peel the foil off. Can someone suggest a way of separating the foil from the plastic with a solvent?
                  >
                  > Pat
                  >
                • Edgar Castelo
                  As far as eye protection, you could look at Sun eclipses peeking trough those old PC Diskette s magnetic material, you know, lifting the metal protection,
                  Message 8 of 27 , Jun 29, 2012
                    As far as eye protection, you could look at Sun eclipses peeking trough those old PC Diskette's magnetic material, you know, lifting the metal protection, there's a brown disk, there, peek though it and you won't get your eyes sore.

                    I believe a couple of those disks, behind thick glass, could protect you way better than sunglasses, but you better ask someone with some eye care degree...

                    On Fri, Jun 29, 2012 at 5:42 PM, Edgar Castelo <edgarinventor@...> wrote:
                    God bless you guys! :)


                    On Fri, Jun 29, 2012 at 4:05 PM, mika ugbo <iyinbor@...> wrote:
                     

                    Hi Pat,
                    May the good Lord bless your efforts and those of others in this forum for all your works to bring industrial revolution to developing countries. I happen to be from rural/agricultural areas of Nigeria although I presently live in Canada.
                     
                    Please, how can I build a sustainable rural Technical school/business on these works of yours. Can anyone in the group help me with the technical/business plan? The concrete multimachine is really detail enough but had any body build one yet?
                     
                    I am serious. I saved every message I received from this forum. Is there any member of our group that lives in Alberta,Canada? Pls. contact me.
                     
                    You are one of those people that should be ruling my country's men. Africa need practical ideals that work not just aids.
                     
                    Thanks.
                     
                    Sincerely yours,
                    Michael Ugbo
                    Fort Mcmurray, Alberta
                    Tel: 780-531-1993

                    --- On Fri, 3/30/12, Pat <rigmatch@...> wrote:

                    From: Pat <rigmatch@...>
                    Subject: [multimachine] Need some chemical knowledge
                    To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                    Received: Friday, March 30, 2012, 4:52 PM

                     
                    Drexel University is going to list 7 of our projects as engineering class projects. A real honor! I need suggestions about project 7.

                    This is what I sent to a professor there:

                    A series of steps (projects) that could be be used to finance and build the equipment for a large metal-working shop or small factory in the developing world.

                    Projects 1 and 2 are for simple, badly needed products that could be made and sold to get the few hundred dollars needed to buy the materials needed to build an accurate screw cutting lathe. This lathe (Project 3) would be central to the making of dedicated milling machines, drills and rolling and bending machines.

                    Project 1
                    A very inexpensive tool that can drill holes the hardest steel. The 140 year old drill that we have modeled on can easily drill 1" holes, using a masonry bit, in something as hard as a file. We designed ours to drill holes, without using electricity, in steel plate that is to be used in making farm implements. These holes allow a steel tip attached to a wooden plow making it much more efficient than a plow that is entirely made of wood.
                    From the 1870's to the 1930's blacksmiths used a now almost forgotten technique that was often called "racheting" a hole. Instead of turning the bit at high speed,they turned the bit with a ratcheted crank while 500 to 1000 pounds of downward pressure was applied. An example is the "Cole" drill (link below). A Cole type drill is now too expensive for low income artizens because it's frame is a steel forging that has been internally threaded with a large, fine thread. This project involves replacing this forged and threaded device with a simple lever that can be used exert the needed high pressure on the bit while still alowing it to be turned easily. Design problems include a simple method to attach the bit, a simple thrust bearing design and a way to steady the spindle. Crude but succesful experiments are here (http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Cole+drill+project)

                    Project 2
                    A WD 40 like penetrating oil for the developing world. If there any constant in metal work in many developing countries, it is rust. Heavily rusted parts often hold a otherwise unavailable treasure trove of vital but unavailable fasteners. A project starting point could be used (filtered) automatic transmission oil that could be mixed with some kind of a locally available solvent. Acetone is claimed to work well in practice (but seemingly not in theory!).

                    Project 3, An accurate screw cutting metal lathe.
                    The MultiMachine concrete lathe project is a design for building the essential tools of a basic machine shop -- a screw cutting metal lathe, drill press and milling machine -- out of inexpensive materials easily available anywhere. Metalworking lathes in particular are necessary for the production of almost all tools and other manufactured goods but are often too expensive to be widely available.
                    In 1915, special lathes made from concrete were developed to quickly and cheaply produce millions of cannon shells needed for World War I. Lucien Yeomans, the inventor, won America's highest engineering award for this invention, but sadly the technique was almost forgotten after the war. We re-discovered it and recognized it as a way to quickly make inexpensive but accurate machine tools for use in developing countries and in trade schools and shops everywhere. Besides concrete, the MultiMachine lathe requires only a steel bar, used pipe and a few discarded engine pistons that are used as a source of metal used in simple castings. The machine can be built by anyone with good mechanical skills, common mechanic's tools and a hand or powered drill. The machines can be built in sizes that will fit on a desktop or can be scaled up many times. Some Yeomans lathes weighed 10 tons and were able to accurately machine 3200 pound cannon projectiles.

                    NOTE:
                    The Multimachine project needs to have a lathe built and it's construction documented so that we improve the existing plans and design.

                    The latest version of the plans are at: http://makeprojects.com/Project/The-Multimachine-150-12-Inch-swing-metal-lathe-and-mill/1751/1

                    Important upporting files are at:
                    http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Current+Design+Drawings

                    Project 4
                    An easily built and affordable lathe will be of little use if it is too difficult to train workers to machine the poor quality steel that is commonly available in developing countries. Needed is a machinist training method that could replace the normally long machining apprenticeship with training that takes much less time. We suggest a method of using conventional metal turning to only rough out a slightly oversized workpiece followed by grinding to a proper fit and finish. Turning steel to an exact size and finish can be quite difficult while roughing out is easily taught. Grinding is usually discouraged on a lathe because the grit can cause excessive wear but our concrete lathe has been expressly designed to be easily repaired or upgraded.
                    Teaching the "old" skills of shaping and grinding cutting tools is a needed way to replace the use of the carbide tipped tools which are commonly used in the Western world. These are often too expensive to use, or even unavailable in many areas.
                    The use of 3-D graphics to show otherwise difficult to explain tool shapes should be carefully explored. 3-D PDFs would be a great improvement over the older types of drawings that are often used for instruction in this critical skill.

                    Project 5
                    Coolant/lubricants are necessary for metal machining but normally used chemicals are unaffordable or unavailable in many parts of the world. A project to develop a coolant for machining steel that can be made from locally available ingredients could have great value. A starting point for such a project could be an "old-timers" trick of using 90% water, 10% motor oil (used and filtered?) and enough dishwasher detergent to mix them together. A device for testing effectiveness of different mixtures should be made.

                    Project 6
                    Welding rods are very expensive in many parts of the world. Developing a welding rod that could be made in rural areas is an important project. Welding rods made from concrete re-inforcing wire coated with lime and using commercial wallpaper paste as an adhesive is one possible answer.(I can put project members in touch with a Latin American blacksmith who has done this)

                    Project 7
                    Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more effective welders eye protection and can cause permanent eye damage after a just a few years. The development of a welding lens that would be cheap enough to include in boxes of welding rods could be an answer to the problem.
                    It is hard to imagine economic development with welding.

                    My question is: Someone here (I hope I can find his name!) suggested using the thin aluminum foil that is used to line packages of chips. I really tried but I can't peel the foil off. Can someone suggest a way of separating the foil from the plastic with a solvent?

                    Pat



                  • Edgar Castelo
                    Found this, too, may be of use: http://makeprojects.com/Project/The-Multimachine-150-12-Inch-Swing-Metal-Lathe-Mill-Drill/1751/1#.T-3etHlIqIQ
                    Message 9 of 27 , Jun 29, 2012
                      Found this, too, may be of use:
                      http://makeprojects.com/Project/The-Multimachine-150-12-Inch-Swing-Metal-Lathe-Mill-Drill/1751/1#.T-3etHlIqIQ

                      On Fri, Jun 29, 2012 at 5:52 PM, Edgar Castelo <edgarinventor@...> wrote:
                      As far as eye protection, you could look at Sun eclipses peeking trough those old PC Diskette's magnetic material, you know, lifting the metal protection, there's a brown disk, there, peek though it and you won't get your eyes sore.

                      I believe a couple of those disks, behind thick glass, could protect you way better than sunglasses, but you better ask someone with some eye care degree...


                      On Fri, Jun 29, 2012 at 5:42 PM, Edgar Castelo <edgarinventor@...> wrote:
                      God bless you guys! :)


                      On Fri, Jun 29, 2012 at 4:05 PM, mika ugbo <iyinbor@...> wrote:
                       

                      Hi Pat,
                      May the good Lord bless your efforts and those of others in this forum for all your works to bring industrial revolution to developing countries. I happen to be from rural/agricultural areas of Nigeria although I presently live in Canada.
                       
                      Please, how can I build a sustainable rural Technical school/business on these works of yours. Can anyone in the group help me with the technical/business plan? The concrete multimachine is really detail enough but had any body build one yet?
                       
                      I am serious. I saved every message I received from this forum. Is there any member of our group that lives in Alberta,Canada? Pls. contact me.
                       
                      You are one of those people that should be ruling my country's men. Africa need practical ideals that work not just aids.
                       
                      Thanks.
                       
                      Sincerely yours,
                      Michael Ugbo
                      Fort Mcmurray, Alberta
                      Tel: 780-531-1993

                      --- On Fri, 3/30/12, Pat <rigmatch@...> wrote:

                      From: Pat <rigmatch@...>
                      Subject: [multimachine] Need some chemical knowledge
                      To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                      Received: Friday, March 30, 2012, 4:52 PM

                       
                      Drexel University is going to list 7 of our projects as engineering class projects. A real honor! I need suggestions about project 7.

                      This is what I sent to a professor there:

                      A series of steps (projects) that could be be used to finance and build the equipment for a large metal-working shop or small factory in the developing world.

                      Projects 1 and 2 are for simple, badly needed products that could be made and sold to get the few hundred dollars needed to buy the materials needed to build an accurate screw cutting lathe. This lathe (Project 3) would be central to the making of dedicated milling machines, drills and rolling and bending machines.

                      Project 1
                      A very inexpensive tool that can drill holes the hardest steel. The 140 year old drill that we have modeled on can easily drill 1" holes, using a masonry bit, in something as hard as a file. We designed ours to drill holes, without using electricity, in steel plate that is to be used in making farm implements. These holes allow a steel tip attached to a wooden plow making it much more efficient than a plow that is entirely made of wood.
                      From the 1870's to the 1930's blacksmiths used a now almost forgotten technique that was often called "racheting" a hole. Instead of turning the bit at high speed,they turned the bit with a ratcheted crank while 500 to 1000 pounds of downward pressure was applied. An example is the "Cole" drill (link below). A Cole type drill is now too expensive for low income artizens because it's frame is a steel forging that has been internally threaded with a large, fine thread. This project involves replacing this forged and threaded device with a simple lever that can be used exert the needed high pressure on the bit while still alowing it to be turned easily. Design problems include a simple method to attach the bit, a simple thrust bearing design and a way to steady the spindle. Crude but succesful experiments are here (http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Cole+drill+project)

                      Project 2
                      A WD 40 like penetrating oil for the developing world. If there any constant in metal work in many developing countries, it is rust. Heavily rusted parts often hold a otherwise unavailable treasure trove of vital but unavailable fasteners. A project starting point could be used (filtered) automatic transmission oil that could be mixed with some kind of a locally available solvent. Acetone is claimed to work well in practice (but seemingly not in theory!).

                      Project 3, An accurate screw cutting metal lathe.
                      The MultiMachine concrete lathe project is a design for building the essential tools of a basic machine shop -- a screw cutting metal lathe, drill press and milling machine -- out of inexpensive materials easily available anywhere. Metalworking lathes in particular are necessary for the production of almost all tools and other manufactured goods but are often too expensive to be widely available.
                      In 1915, special lathes made from concrete were developed to quickly and cheaply produce millions of cannon shells needed for World War I. Lucien Yeomans, the inventor, won America's highest engineering award for this invention, but sadly the technique was almost forgotten after the war. We re-discovered it and recognized it as a way to quickly make inexpensive but accurate machine tools for use in developing countries and in trade schools and shops everywhere. Besides concrete, the MultiMachine lathe requires only a steel bar, used pipe and a few discarded engine pistons that are used as a source of metal used in simple castings. The machine can be built by anyone with good mechanical skills, common mechanic's tools and a hand or powered drill. The machines can be built in sizes that will fit on a desktop or can be scaled up many times. Some Yeomans lathes weighed 10 tons and were able to accurately machine 3200 pound cannon projectiles.

                      NOTE:
                      The Multimachine project needs to have a lathe built and it's construction documented so that we improve the existing plans and design.

                      The latest version of the plans are at: http://makeprojects.com/Project/The-Multimachine-150-12-Inch-swing-metal-lathe-and-mill/1751/1

                      Important upporting files are at:
                      http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Current+Design+Drawings

                      Project 4
                      An easily built and affordable lathe will be of little use if it is too difficult to train workers to machine the poor quality steel that is commonly available in developing countries. Needed is a machinist training method that could replace the normally long machining apprenticeship with training that takes much less time. We suggest a method of using conventional metal turning to only rough out a slightly oversized workpiece followed by grinding to a proper fit and finish. Turning steel to an exact size and finish can be quite difficult while roughing out is easily taught. Grinding is usually discouraged on a lathe because the grit can cause excessive wear but our concrete lathe has been expressly designed to be easily repaired or upgraded.
                      Teaching the "old" skills of shaping and grinding cutting tools is a needed way to replace the use of the carbide tipped tools which are commonly used in the Western world. These are often too expensive to use, or even unavailable in many areas.
                      The use of 3-D graphics to show otherwise difficult to explain tool shapes should be carefully explored. 3-D PDFs would be a great improvement over the older types of drawings that are often used for instruction in this critical skill.

                      Project 5
                      Coolant/lubricants are necessary for metal machining but normally used chemicals are unaffordable or unavailable in many parts of the world. A project to develop a coolant for machining steel that can be made from locally available ingredients could have great value. A starting point for such a project could be an "old-timers" trick of using 90% water, 10% motor oil (used and filtered?) and enough dishwasher detergent to mix them together. A device for testing effectiveness of different mixtures should be made.

                      Project 6
                      Welding rods are very expensive in many parts of the world. Developing a welding rod that could be made in rural areas is an important project. Welding rods made from concrete re-inforcing wire coated with lime and using commercial wallpaper paste as an adhesive is one possible answer.(I can put project members in touch with a Latin American blacksmith who has done this)

                      Project 7
                      Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more effective welders eye protection and can cause permanent eye damage after a just a few years. The development of a welding lens that would be cheap enough to include in boxes of welding rods could be an answer to the problem.
                      It is hard to imagine economic development with welding.

                      My question is: Someone here (I hope I can find his name!) suggested using the thin aluminum foil that is used to line packages of chips. I really tried but I can't peel the foil off. Can someone suggest a way of separating the foil from the plastic with a solvent?

                      Pat




                    • Pat
                      Guys, what can you add to this? Suggestions for starting a metal shop/small factory/trade school in Africa You will need the occasional use of a small truck.
                      Message 10 of 27 , Jun 29, 2012
                        Guys, what can you add to this?

                        Suggestions for starting a metal shop/small factory/trade school in Africa

                        You will need the occasional use of a small truck.

                        Skills needed to start:
                        Basic metal machining, grinding cutting tools skills, basic stick welding. Parhaps you can be taught these skills in return for shop cleaning etc while you are in Canada. If your project is sucessful, you will eventually need someone with good machining and engineering skills.
                        Aluminum alloy casting (is there a local cooking pan re-caster?)

                        Tools
                        If you have access to good junk, a concrete screw cutting can be built at a very low cost. Only basic mechanic's and carpenters tools are needed.

                        Other possible sources of income as the project develops:

                        Sales of our penetrating oil formula.
                        Parts for a Cole drill, sale of drill bits or complete drills (the drill was developed at the request of an engineering professor in Kenya).
                        A treadle powered wooden wood turning lathe. Wood should be acquired with drying time in mind.
                        The Genny cell phone charger, charging and sales (developed at the request of a Peace Corps worker)
                        Machining clutches and brakes, especially for trucks (suggested by a missionaries in Kenya and Mexico)
                        Production of small concrete machine tools for schools and small shops.
                        Production of a general purpose/truck brake lathe.

                        Additional funding
                        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowd_funding You will have to have a good start first so people will take you seriously. The Nigerian 911 scam has made people wary.

                        Business plan
                        Show people that you are serious by working hard (and doccumenting it)to learn the basic skills that are needed.

                        Accumulate the basic tools needed.

                        By the time that you do this, I think several lathes will have been built and doccumented.

                        Start with your own clutch and brake lathe then build a very accurate lathe that can be used to make more lathes and milling machines.



                        --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, mika ugbo <iyinbor@...> wrote:
                        >
                        > Hi Pat,
                        > May the good Lord bless your efforts and those of others in this forum for all your works to bring industrial revolution to developing countries. I happen to be from rural/agricultural areas of Nigeria although I presently live in Canada.
                        >  
                        > Please, how can I build a sustainable rural Technical school/business on these works of yours. Can anyone in the group help me with the technical/business plan? The concrete multimachine is really detail enough but had any body build one yet?
                        >  
                        > I am serious. I saved every message I received from this forum. Is there any member of our group that lives in Alberta,Canada? Pls. contact me.
                        >  
                        > You are one of those people that should be ruling my country's men. Africa need practical ideals that work not just aids.
                        >  
                        > Thanks.
                        >  
                        > Sincerely yours,
                        > Michael Ugbo
                        > Fort Mcmurray, Alberta
                        > Tel: 780-531-1993
                        >
                        > --- On Fri, 3/30/12, Pat <rigmatch@...> wrote:
                        >
                        >
                        > From: Pat <rigmatch@...>
                        > Subject: [multimachine] Need some chemical knowledge
                        > To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                        > Received: Friday, March 30, 2012, 4:52 PM
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        >  
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        > Drexel University is going to list 7 of our projects as engineering class projects. A real honor! I need suggestions about project 7.
                        >
                        > This is what I sent to a professor there:
                        >
                        > A series of steps (projects) that could be be used to finance and build the equipment for a large metal-working shop or small factory in the developing world.
                        >
                        > Projects 1 and 2 are for simple, badly needed products that could be made and sold to get the few hundred dollars needed to buy the materials needed to build an accurate screw cutting lathe. This lathe (Project 3) would be central to the making of dedicated milling machines, drills and rolling and bending machines.
                        >
                        > Project 1
                        > A very inexpensive tool that can drill holes the hardest steel. The 140 year old drill that we have modeled on can easily drill 1" holes, using a masonry bit, in something as hard as a file. We designed ours to drill holes, without using electricity, in steel plate that is to be used in making farm implements. These holes allow a steel tip attached to a wooden plow making it much more efficient than a plow that is entirely made of wood.
                        > From the 1870's to the 1930's blacksmiths used a now almost forgotten technique that was often called "racheting" a hole. Instead of turning the bit at high speed,they turned the bit with a ratcheted crank while 500 to 1000 pounds of downward pressure was applied. An example is the "Cole" drill (link below). A Cole type drill is now too expensive for low income artizens because it's frame is a steel forging that has been internally threaded with a large, fine thread. This project involves replacing this forged and threaded device with a simple lever that can be used exert the needed high pressure on the bit while still alowing it to be turned easily. Design problems include a simple method to attach the bit, a simple thrust bearing design and a way to steady the spindle. Crude but succesful experiments are here (http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Cole+drill+project)
                        >
                        > Project 2
                        > A WD 40 like penetrating oil for the developing world. If there any constant in metal work in many developing countries, it is rust. Heavily rusted parts often hold a otherwise unavailable treasure trove of vital but unavailable fasteners. A project starting point could be used (filtered) automatic transmission oil that could be mixed with some kind of a locally available solvent. Acetone is claimed to work well in practice (but seemingly not in theory!).
                        >
                        > Project 3, An accurate screw cutting metal lathe.
                        > The MultiMachine concrete lathe project is a design for building the essential tools of a basic machine shop -- a screw cutting metal lathe, drill press and milling machine -- out of inexpensive materials easily available anywhere. Metalworking lathes in particular are necessary for the production of almost all tools and other manufactured goods but are often too expensive to be widely available.
                        > In 1915, special lathes made from concrete were developed to quickly and cheaply produce millions of cannon shells needed for World War I. Lucien Yeomans, the inventor, won America's highest engineering award for this invention, but sadly the technique was almost forgotten after the war. We re-discovered it and recognized it as a way to quickly make inexpensive but accurate machine tools for use in developing countries and in trade schools and shops everywhere. Besides concrete, the MultiMachine lathe requires only a steel bar, used pipe and a few discarded engine pistons that are used as a source of metal used in simple castings. The machine can be built by anyone with good mechanical skills, common mechanic's tools and a hand or powered drill. The machines can be built in sizes that will fit on a desktop or can be scaled up many times. Some Yeomans lathes weighed 10 tons and were able to accurately machine 3200 pound cannon projectiles.
                        >
                        > NOTE:
                        > The Multimachine project needs to have a lathe built and it's construction documented so that we improve the existing plans and design.
                        >
                        > The latest version of the plans are at: http://makeprojects.com/Project/The-Multimachine-150-12-Inch-swing-metal-lathe-and-mill/1751/1
                        >
                        > Important upporting files are at:
                        > http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Current+Design+Drawings
                        >
                        > Project 4
                        > An easily built and affordable lathe will be of little use if it is too difficult to train workers to machine the poor quality steel that is commonly available in developing countries. Needed is a machinist training method that could replace the normally long machining apprenticeship with training that takes much less time. We suggest a method of using conventional metal turning to only rough out a slightly oversized workpiece followed by grinding to a proper fit and finish. Turning steel to an exact size and finish can be quite difficult while roughing out is easily taught. Grinding is usually discouraged on a lathe because the grit can cause excessive wear but our concrete lathe has been expressly designed to be easily repaired or upgraded.
                        > Teaching the "old" skills of shaping and grinding cutting tools is a needed way to replace the use of the carbide tipped tools which are commonly used in the Western world. These are often too expensive to use, or even unavailable in many areas.
                        > The use of 3-D graphics to show otherwise difficult to explain tool shapes should be carefully explored. 3-D PDFs would be a great improvement over the older types of drawings that are often used for instruction in this critical skill.
                        >
                        > Project 5
                        > Coolant/lubricants are necessary for metal machining but normally used chemicals are unaffordable or unavailable in many parts of the world. A project to develop a coolant for machining steel that can be made from locally available ingredients could have great value. A starting point for such a project could be an "old-timers" trick of using 90% water, 10% motor oil (used and filtered?) and enough dishwasher detergent to mix them together. A device for testing effectiveness of different mixtures should be made.
                        >
                        > Project 6
                        > Welding rods are very expensive in many parts of the world. Developing a welding rod that could be made in rural areas is an important project. Welding rods made from concrete re-inforcing wire coated with lime and using commercial wallpaper paste as an adhesive is one possible answer.(I can put project members in touch with a Latin American blacksmith who has done this)
                        >
                        > Project 7
                        > Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more effective welders eye protection and can cause permanent eye damage after a just a few years. The development of a welding lens that would be cheap enough to include in boxes of welding rods could be an answer to the problem.
                        > It is hard to imagine economic development with welding.
                        >
                        > My question is: Someone here (I hope I can find his name!) suggested using the thin aluminum foil that is used to line packages of chips. I really tried but I can't peel the foil off. Can someone suggest a way of separating the foil from the plastic with a solvent?
                        >
                        > Pat
                        >
                      • David G. LeVine
                        ... Layout and bending skills should be in there also. A big thing which is often missed is record keeping skills. While you don t need to be a CPA, knowing
                        Message 11 of 27 , Jun 29, 2012
                          On 06/29/2012 05:22 PM, Pat wrote:
                          Guys, what can you add to this?
                          
                          Suggestions for starting a metal shop/small factory/trade school in Africa
                          
                          You will need the occasional use of a small truck.
                          
                          Skills needed to start:
                          Basic metal machining, grinding cutting tools skills, basic stick welding. Parhaps you can be taught these skills in return for shop cleaning etc while you are in Canada. If your project is sucessful, you will eventually need someone with good machining and engineering skills.
                          Aluminum alloy casting (is there a local cooking pan re-caster?)

                          Layout and bending skills should be in there also. 

                          A big thing which is often missed is record keeping skills.  While you don't need to be a CPA, knowing that it costs $113 in labor to make a part which sells for $93.00 is not to be ignored.  Also the inventory control is very important.

                          Another skill which is critical is first aid.  Sheet metal cuts like a knife.  Losing your hand will not be good for business.

                          Tools
                          If you have access to good junk, a concrete screw cutting can be built at a very low cost. Only basic mechanic's and carpenters tools are needed.

                          However a surface plate (or accurately machined granite or glass or CI or E/G with a self-leveling epoxy top) is so useful it is worth having.  Since many cultures either have monuments or gravestones, granite is pretty easy to acquire with a surface finish and flatness which is really good.

                          Other possible sources of income as the project develops:
                          
                          Sales of our penetrating oil formula.
                          Parts for a Cole drill, sale of drill bits or complete drills (the drill was developed at the request of an engineering professor in Kenya).
                          A treadle powered wooden wood turning lathe. Wood should be acquired with drying time in mind.
                          The Genny cell phone charger, charging and sales (developed at the request of a Peace Corps worker)
                          Machining clutches and brakes, especially for trucks (suggested by a missionaries in Kenya and Mexico)
                          Production of small concrete machine tools for schools and small shops.
                          Production of a general purpose/truck brake lathe.

                          All the above (except the oil) are enhanced by being able to do repeatable layout.  Measuring and layout tools are very valuable for these endeavors.

                          Additional funding
                          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowd_funding You will have to have a good start first so people will take you seriously. The Nigerian 911 scam has made people wary.
                          
                          Business plan
                          Show people that you are serious by working hard (and doccumenting it)to learn the basic skills that are needed.
                          
                          Accumulate the basic tools needed.
                          
                          By the time that you do this, I think several lathes will have been built and doccumented. 
                          
                          Start with your own clutch and brake lathe then build a very accurate lathe that can be used to make more lathes and milling machines.

                          Having ANY lathe and tooling will get you way up on the curve.  But tooling if far more expensive than the lathe.  Start by building a tool grinder and you can sell end mills and drill bits pretty easily.  You can make lathe parts to build your lathe.

                          Build a toolpost grinder and you will be ahead of the curve.  Even a tiny thread maker (6" long) can make a huge difference.  You do not need a screw cutting lathe to make short sections, like lathe spindles.  Making leadscrews is more difficult.  Start by making a number of connected and basically synchronized sections, use a long follower and cut the screw threads on the fly.  You should be able to get pretty good threads on the first lead screw, cut a second with different length followers (not a harmonically related number) and you should be able to get great ones in a hurry.

                          Please, how can I build a sustainable rural Technical school/business on these works of yours. Can anyone in the group help me with the technical/business plan? The concrete multimachine is really detail enough but had any body build one yet?

                          Remember, sustainable means profitable.  If you don't have something with which to pay people, they must walk or starve. 

                          This is where record keeping comes in.  If it costs $21.00 to turn a brake drum, and you get $2.00 worth of food, you will go out of business.  If you get $23.00 worth of food, and your workers will accept food as pay (or you can sell it for a profit), you can possibly stay in business.  Without records, you won't know.

                          Dave  8{)

                          --
                          "Political Correctness is a doctrine, fostered by a delusional, illogical minority and rabidly promoted by an unscrupulous mainstream media, which holds forth the proposition that it is entirely possible to pick up a turd by the clean end."
                          (quoted from http://www.wattflyer.com/forums/showthread.php?t=30060)

                          NOTE TO ALL:

                          When forwarding emails, please use only "Blind Carbon Copy" or "Bcc" for all recipients. Please "delete" or "highlight & cut" any forwarding history which includes my email address! It is a courtesy to me and others who may not wish to have their email addresses sent all over the world! Erasing the history helps prevent Spammers from mining addresses and viruses from being propagated.

                          THANK YOU!
                        • mika ugbo
                          Hi Pat, Thanks for your quick response. These are fine projects I will be looking into. Please I need more information on the penetrating oil and the welding
                          Message 12 of 27 , Jun 29, 2012
                            Hi Pat,
                            Thanks for your quick response. These are fine projects I will be looking into. Please I need more information on the penetrating oil and the welding electrode: production process/equipment.
                             
                            I do understand your reference to 911 scams. I received those letters too. It is a shame. But those who fell for them are as guilty and greedy as the scammers themselves. That a story for another day.
                             
                            Let stay on course. Let stay on the good works you are trying give to the world, my take is this: don't you think there should been system in place where people can actually have hand-on training on these projects?
                             
                            Thanks for the link but I am not looking for funds.
                             
                            I mean no offence.
                             
                            Thanks.
                            Michael Ugbo,
                            Fort Mcmurray, Canada.

                            --- On Fri, 6/29/12, Pat <rigmatch@...> wrote:

                            From: Pat <rigmatch@...>
                            Subject: [multimachine] Re: To Michael Ugbo
                            To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                            Received: Friday, June 29, 2012, 5:22 PM

                             
                            Guys, what can you add to this?

                            Suggestions for starting a metal shop/small factory/trade school in Africa

                            You will need the occasional use of a small truck.

                            Skills needed to start:
                            Basic metal machining, grinding cutting tools skills, basic stick welding. Parhaps you can be taught these skills in return for shop cleaning etc while you are in Canada. If your project is sucessful, you will eventually need someone with good machining and engineering skills.
                            Aluminum alloy casting (is there a local cooking pan re-caster?)

                            Tools
                            If you have access to good junk, a concrete screw cutting can be built at a very low cost. Only basic mechanic's and carpenters tools are needed.

                            Other possible sources of income as the project develops:

                            Sales of our penetrating oil formula.
                            Parts for a Cole drill, sale of drill bits or complete drills (the drill was developed at the request of an engineering professor in Kenya).
                            A treadle powered wooden wood turning lathe. Wood should be acquired with drying time in mind.
                            The Genny cell phone charger, charging and sales (developed at the request of a Peace Corps worker)
                            Machining clutches and brakes, especially for trucks (suggested by a missionaries in Kenya and Mexico)
                            Production of small concrete machine tools for schools and small shops.
                            Production of a general purpose/truck brake lathe.

                            Additional funding
                            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowd_funding You will have to have a good start first so people will take you seriously. The Nigerian 911 scam has made people wary.

                            Business plan
                            Show people that you are serious by working hard (and doccumenting it)to learn the basic skills that are needed.

                            Accumulate the basic tools needed.

                            By the time that you do this, I think several lathes will have been built and doccumented.

                            Start with your own clutch and brake lathe then build a very accurate lathe that can be used to make more lathes and milling machines.

                            --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, mika ugbo <iyinbor@...> wrote:
                            >
                            > Hi Pat,
                            > May the good Lord bless your efforts and those of others in this forum for all your works to bring industrial revolution to developing countries. I happen to be from rural/agricultural areas of Nigeria although I presently live in Canada.
                            >  
                            > Please, how can I build a sustainable rural Technical school/business on these works of yours. Can anyone in the group help me with the technical/business plan? The concrete multimachine is really detail enough but had any body build one yet?
                            >  
                            > I am serious. I saved every message I received from this forum. Is there any member of our group that lives in Alberta,Canada? Pls. contact me.
                            >  
                            > You are one of those people that should be ruling my country's men. Africa need practical ideals that work not just aids.
                            >  
                            > Thanks.
                            >  
                            > Sincerely yours,
                            > Michael Ugbo
                            > Fort Mcmurray, Alberta
                            > Tel: 780-531-1993
                            >
                            > --- On Fri, 3/30/12, Pat <rigmatch@...> wrote:
                            >
                            >
                            > From: Pat <rigmatch@...>
                            > Subject: [multimachine] Need some chemical knowledge
                            > To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                            > Received: Friday, March 30, 2012, 4:52 PM
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >  
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            > Drexel University is going to list 7 of our projects as engineering class projects. A real honor! I need suggestions about project 7.
                            >
                            > This is what I sent to a professor there:
                            >
                            > A series of steps (projects) that could be be used to finance and build the equipment for a large metal-working shop or small factory in the developing world.
                            >
                            > Projects 1 and 2 are for simple, badly needed products that could be made and sold to get the few hundred dollars needed to buy the materials needed to build an accurate screw cutting lathe. This lathe (Project 3) would be central to the making of dedicated milling machines, drills and rolling and bending machines.
                            >
                            > Project 1
                            > A very inexpensive tool that can drill holes the hardest steel. The 140 year old drill that we have modeled on can easily drill 1" holes, using a masonry bit, in something as hard as a file. We designed ours to drill holes, without using electricity, in steel plate that is to be used in making farm implements. These holes allow a steel tip attached to a wooden plow making it much more efficient than a plow that is entirely made of wood.
                            > From the 1870's to the 1930's blacksmiths used a now almost forgotten technique that was often called "racheting" a hole. Instead of turning the bit at high speed,they turned the bit with a ratcheted crank while 500 to 1000 pounds of downward pressure was applied. An example is the "Cole" drill (link below). A Cole type drill is now too expensive for low income artizens because it's frame is a steel forging that has been internally threaded with a large, fine thread. This project involves replacing this forged and threaded device with a simple lever that can be used exert the needed high pressure on the bit while still alowing it to be turned easily. Design problems include a simple method to attach the bit, a simple thrust bearing design and a way to steady the spindle. Crude but succesful experiments are here (http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Cole+drill+project)
                            >
                            > Project 2
                            > A WD 40 like penetrating oil for the developing world. If there any constant in metal work in many developing countries, it is rust. Heavily rusted parts often hold a otherwise unavailable treasure trove of vital but unavailable fasteners. A project starting point could be used (filtered) automatic transmission oil that could be mixed with some kind of a locally available solvent. Acetone is claimed to work well in practice (but seemingly not in theory!).
                            >
                            > Project 3, An accurate screw cutting metal lathe.
                            > The MultiMachine concrete lathe project is a design for building the essential tools of a basic machine shop -- a screw cutting metal lathe, drill press and milling machine -- out of inexpensive materials easily available anywhere. Metalworking lathes in particular are necessary for the production of almost all tools and other manufactured goods but are often too expensive to be widely available.
                            > In 1915, special lathes made from concrete were developed to quickly and cheaply produce millions of cannon shells needed for World War I. Lucien Yeomans, the inventor, won America's highest engineering award for this invention, but sadly the technique was almost forgotten after the war. We re-discovered it and recognized it as a way to quickly make inexpensive but accurate machine tools for use in developing countries and in trade schools and shops everywhere. Besides concrete, the MultiMachine lathe requires only a steel bar, used pipe and a few discarded engine pistons that are used as a source of metal used in simple castings. The machine can be built by anyone with good mechanical skills, common mechanic's tools and a hand or powered drill. The machines can be built in sizes that will fit on a desktop or can be scaled up many times. Some Yeomans lathes weighed 10 tons and were able to accurately machine 3200 pound cannon projectiles.
                            >
                            > NOTE:
                            > The Multimachine project needs to have a lathe built and it's construction documented so that we improve the existing plans and design.
                            >
                            > The latest version of the plans are at: http://makeprojects.com/Project/The-Multimachine-150-12-Inch-swing-metal-lathe-and-mill/1751/1
                            >
                            > Important upporting files are at:
                            > http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Current+Design+Drawings
                            >
                            > Project 4
                            > An easily built and affordable lathe will be of little use if it is too difficult to train workers to machine the poor quality steel that is commonly available in developing countries. Needed is a machinist training method that could replace the normally long machining apprenticeship with training that takes much less time. We suggest a method of using conventional metal turning to only rough out a slightly oversized workpiece followed by grinding to a proper fit and finish. Turning steel to an exact size and finish can be quite difficult while roughing out is easily taught. Grinding is usually discouraged on a lathe because the grit can cause excessive wear but our concrete lathe has been expressly designed to be easily repaired or upgraded.
                            > Teaching the "old" skills of shaping and grinding cutting tools is a needed way to replace the use of the carbide tipped tools which are commonly used in the Western world. These are often too expensive to use, or even unavailable in many areas.
                            > The use of 3-D graphics to show otherwise difficult to explain tool shapes should be carefully explored. 3-D PDFs would be a great improvement over the older types of drawings that are often used for instruction in this critical skill.
                            >
                            > Project 5
                            > Coolant/lubricants are necessary for metal machining but normally used chemicals are unaffordable or unavailable in many parts of the world. A project to develop a coolant for machining steel that can be made from locally available ingredients could have great value. A starting point for such a project could be an "old-timers" trick of using 90% water, 10% motor oil (used and filtered?) and enough dishwasher detergent to mix them together. A device for testing effectiveness of different mixtures should be made.
                            >
                            > Project 6
                            > Welding rods are very expensive in many parts of the world. Developing a welding rod that could be made in rural areas is an important project. Welding rods made from concrete re-inforcing wire coated with lime and using commercial wallpaper paste as an adhesive is one possible answer.(I can put project members in touch with a Latin American blacksmith who has done this)
                            >
                            > Project 7
                            > Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more effective welders eye protection and can cause permanent eye damage after a just a few years. The development of a welding lens that would be cheap enough to include in boxes of welding rods could be an answer to the problem.
                            > It is hard to imagine economic development with welding.
                            >
                            > My question is: Someone here (I hope I can find his name!) suggested using the thin aluminum foil that is used to line packages of chips. I really tried but I can't peel the foil off. Can someone suggest a way of separating the foil from the plastic with a solvent?
                            >
                            > Pat
                            >

                          • Shannon DeWolfe
                            Michael, I would like to add to what Pat and David have already mentioned. I am not an expert, nor even experienced, about the subject. But, I can read. And I
                            Message 13 of 27 , Jun 30, 2012
                              Michael,

                              I would like to add to what Pat and David have already mentioned. I am
                              not an expert, nor even experienced, about the subject. But, I can read.
                              And I do -- a lot. ;-)

                              Here are the things I've found since you posted your request for
                              information on business start-up with the concrete lathe.

                              There is a machine tool company in Nigeria that works in concert with
                              universities to train machinists. Here is their web site:

                              http://www.nigeriamachinetools.com/index.html

                              I read their entire site. They have a training facility, foundry, and a
                              pattern shop, which you will find very useful to you, I think. Under the
                              tab, "Clients", they list schools they work with:

                              Edo State university, Ekpoma; Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos;
                              Federal Polytechnic, Nassarawa; Zamfara State Polytechnic.

                              Whether or not the company will help you I cannot say. But, they do
                              provide facilities for the schools. These are people you want on your
                              side in this endeavor. I would also find the persons at the universities
                              that can at least listen to the ideas.

                              You will need at least one, and hopefully more, machinists that are
                              willing to donate time and effort to train young people across the
                              country. The machinists must also be willing to work with the concrete
                              lathe idea -- I think you will find some people who do not take the idea
                              seriously. In order to do that, you have to acquire some basic machine
                              skills and you must also build a concrete lathe when you go home to
                              prove that it can be done, it is reasonably accurate, and it can be used
                              to build "proper" machines when castings are available.

                              I also found this paper, written by a professor at Ladoke Akintola
                              University of Technology:

                              http://www.krepublishers.com/02-Journals/JE/JE-01-0-000-10-Web/JE-01-2-000-10-PDF/JE-01-2-085-10-032-Onipede-K-J/JE-01-2-085-10-032-Onipede-K-J-Tt.pdf

                              I recommend that everyone read that paper. It is very informative. He
                              talks about the history of the suppression of science and technology
                              through the colonial years and how that mindset has hampered development
                              since independence. Reliance on foreign "help" is the main culprit
                              identified. He then goes on to outline some remedies for the situation.
                              The point of his paper is summed up in the final paragraph:

                              "Ultimately, it would be more rewarding if
                              Nigerian policy makers realize the need to look
                              inward, recognize the technological need of the
                              nation, and use same to develop a high competitive
                              manufacturing and industrial sector toward
                              a higher productivity so as to relieve Nigeria
                              the burden of underdevelopment."

                              This is a man you need to present your ideas to. His name is Kayode
                              Joseph Onipede. He is a history professor at the university.

                              Funding will be a problem, as always. That is the beauty of the
                              MMConcrete Lathe, and, in fact, the entire thrust of Pat's ideas; low or
                              no cost solutions to problems that historically have required huge
                              capital investments. Professor Onipede outlines the many government
                              programs that have thrown millions of naira at problems with little, or
                              even negative, return. Small amounts of capital are the strong suite you
                              can offer any potential investor or grantor.

                              I cannot offer any help with your business plan. However, the US
                              government has huge amounts of information for small businesses,
                              including writing business plans. Here is a template provided by them:

                              http://web.sba.gov/busplantemplate/BizPlanStart.cfm

                              Be sure to explore their entire web site and links.

                              Good luck to you, sir. I hope that before I die I can read about the
                              success of local machine shops in Nigeria. :-)

                              On 6/29/2012 10:05 AM, mika ugbo wrote:
                              > Please, how can I build a sustainable rural Technical school/business
                              > on these works of yours. Can anyone in the group help me with the
                              > technical/business plan? The concrete multimachine is really detail
                              > enough but had any body build one yet?

                              --
                              Mr. Shannon DeWolfe
                              --I've taken to using Mr. because my name misleads folks on the WWW. I am a 56 year old fat man.
                            • Pat Delany
                              Michael A system to get the information out and then provide hands on training is my big interest even though it would cost millions of dollars. If Africans
                              Message 14 of 27 , Jun 30, 2012
                                Michael
                                A system to get the information out and then provide hands on training is my big interest even though it would cost millions of dollars. If Africans don't develop skills, any chance of developing local economies will be wiped out by imports of Chinese goods that are paid for by a rape of African natural resources.

                                I am trying to get support for building a training system by entering as many prestigious contests as I can. This is why I need help to make the best MAKE project I can.

                                Pat 


                                From: mika ugbo <iyinbor@...>
                                To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                                Sent: Saturday, June 30, 2012 1:50 AM
                                Subject: Re: [multimachine] Re: To Michael Ugbo

                                 
                                Hi Pat,
                                Thanks for your quick response. These are fine projects I will be looking into. Please I need more information on the penetrating oil and the welding electrode: production process/equipment.
                                 
                                I do understand your reference to 911 scams. I received those letters too. It is a shame. But those who fell for them are as guilty and greedy as the scammers themselves. That a story for another day.
                                 
                                Let stay on course. Let stay on the good works you are trying give to the world, my take is this: don't you think there should been system in place where people can actually have hand-on training on these projects?
                                 
                                Thanks for the link but I am not looking for funds.
                                 
                                I mean no offence.
                                 
                                Thanks.
                                Michael Ugbo,
                                Fort Mcmurray, Canada.

                                --- On Fri, 6/29/12, Pat <rigmatch@...> wrote:

                                From: Pat <rigmatch@...>
                                Subject: [multimachine] Re: To Michael Ugbo
                                To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                                Received: Friday, June 29, 2012, 5:22 PM

                                 
                                Guys, what can you add to this?

                                Suggestions for starting a metal shop/small factory/trade school in Africa

                                You will need the occasional use of a small truck.

                                Skills needed to start:
                                Basic metal machining, grinding cutting tools skills, basic stick welding. Parhaps you can be taught these skills in return for shop cleaning etc while you are in Canada. If your project is sucessful, you will eventually need someone with good machining and engineering skills.
                                Aluminum alloy casting (is there a local cooking pan re-caster?)

                                Tools
                                If you have access to good junk, a concrete screw cutting can be built at a very low cost. Only basic mechanic's and carpenters tools are needed.

                                Other possible sources of income as the project develops:

                                Sales of our penetrating oil formula.
                                Parts for a Cole drill, sale of drill bits or complete drills (the drill was developed at the request of an engineering professor in Kenya).
                                A treadle powered wooden wood turning lathe. Wood should be acquired with drying time in mind.
                                The Genny cell phone charger, charging and sales (developed at the request of a Peace Corps worker)
                                Machining clutches and brakes, especially for trucks (suggested by a missionaries in Kenya and Mexico)
                                Production of small concrete machine tools for schools and small shops.
                                Production of a general purpose/truck brake lathe.

                                Additional funding
                                http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowd_funding You will have to have a good start first so people will take you seriously. The Nigerian 911 scam has made people wary.

                                Business plan
                                Show people that you are serious by working hard (and doccumenting it)to learn the basic skills that are needed.

                                Accumulate the basic tools needed.

                                By the time that you do this, I think several lathes will have been built and doccumented.

                                Start with your own clutch and brake lathe then build a very accurate lathe that can be used to make more lathes and milling machines.

                                --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, mika ugbo <iyinbor@...> wrote:
                                >
                                > Hi Pat,
                                > May the good Lord bless your efforts and those of others in this forum for all your works to bring industrial revolution to developing countries. I happen to be from rural/agricultural areas of Nigeria although I presently live in Canada.
                                >  
                                > Please, how can I build a sustainable rural Technical school/business on these works of yours. Can anyone in the group help me with the technical/business plan? The concrete multimachine is really detail enough but had any body build one yet?
                                >  
                                > I am serious. I saved every message I received from this forum. Is there any member of our group that lives in Alberta,Canada? Pls. contact me.
                                >  
                                > You are one of those people that should be ruling my country's men. Africa need practical ideals that work not just aids.
                                >  
                                > Thanks.
                                >  
                                > Sincerely yours,
                                > Michael Ugbo
                                > Fort Mcmurray, Alberta
                                > Tel: 780-531-1993
                                >
                                > --- On Fri, 3/30/12, Pat <rigmatch@...> wrote:
                                >
                                >
                                > From: Pat <rigmatch@...>
                                > Subject: [multimachine] Need some chemical knowledge
                                > To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                                > Received: Friday, March 30, 2012, 4:52 PM
                                >
                                >
                                >
                                >  
                                >
                                >
                                >
                                > Drexel University is going to list 7 of our projects as engineering class projects. A real honor! I need suggestions about project 7.
                                >
                                > This is what I sent to a professor there:
                                >
                                > A series of steps (projects) that could be be used to finance and build the equipment for a large metal-working shop or small factory in the developing world.
                                >
                                > Projects 1 and 2 are for simple, badly needed products that could be made and sold to get the few hundred dollars needed to buy the materials needed to build an accurate screw cutting lathe. This lathe (Project 3) would be central to the making of dedicated milling machines, drills and rolling and bending machines.
                                >
                                > Project 1
                                > A very inexpensive tool that can drill holes the hardest steel. The 140 year old drill that we have modeled on can easily drill 1" holes, using a masonry bit, in something as hard as a file. We designed ours to drill holes, without using electricity, in steel plate that is to be used in making farm implements. These holes allow a steel tip attached to a wooden plow making it much more efficient than a plow that is entirely made of wood.
                                > From the 1870's to the 1930's blacksmiths used a now almost forgotten technique that was often called "racheting" a hole. Instead of turning the bit at high speed,they turned the bit with a ratcheted crank while 500 to 1000 pounds of downward pressure was applied. An example is the "Cole" drill (link below). A Cole type drill is now too expensive for low income artizens because it's frame is a steel forging that has been internally threaded with a large, fine thread. This project involves replacing this forged and threaded device with a simple lever that can be used exert the needed high pressure on the bit while still alowing it to be turned easily. Design problems include a simple method to attach the bit, a simple thrust bearing design and a way to steady the spindle. Crude but succesful experiments are here (http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Cole+drill+project)
                                >
                                > Project 2
                                > A WD 40 like penetrating oil for the developing world. If there any constant in metal work in many developing countries, it is rust. Heavily rusted parts often hold a otherwise unavailable treasure trove of vital but unavailable fasteners. A project starting point could be used (filtered) automatic transmission oil that could be mixed with some kind of a locally available solvent. Acetone is claimed to work well in practice (but seemingly not in theory!).
                                >
                                > Project 3, An accurate screw cutting metal lathe.
                                > The MultiMachine concrete lathe project is a design for building the essential tools of a basic machine shop -- a screw cutting metal lathe, drill press and milling machine -- out of inexpensive materials easily available anywhere. Metalworking lathes in particular are necessary for the production of almost all tools and other manufactured goods but are often too expensive to be widely available.
                                > In 1915, special lathes made from concrete were developed to quickly and cheaply produce millions of cannon shells needed for World War I. Lucien Yeomans, the inventor, won America's highest engineering award for this invention, but sadly the technique was almost forgotten after the war. We re-discovered it and recognized it as a way to quickly make inexpensive but accurate machine tools for use in developing countries and in trade schools and shops everywhere. Besides concrete, the MultiMachine lathe requires only a steel bar, used pipe and a few discarded engine pistons that are used as a source of metal used in simple castings. The machine can be built by anyone with good mechanical skills, common mechanic's tools and a hand or powered drill. The machines can be built in sizes that will fit on a desktop or can be scaled up many times. Some Yeomans lathes weighed 10 tons and were able to accurately machine 3200 pound cannon projectiles.
                                >
                                > NOTE:
                                > The Multimachine project needs to have a lathe built and it's construction documented so that we improve the existing plans and design.
                                >
                                > The latest version of the plans are at: http://makeprojects.com/Project/The-Multimachine-150-12-Inch-swing-metal-lathe-and-mill/1751/1
                                >
                                > Important upporting files are at:
                                > http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Current+Design+Drawings
                                >
                                > Project 4
                                > An easily built and affordable lathe will be of little use if it is too difficult to train workers to machine the poor quality steel that is commonly available in developing countries. Needed is a machinist training method that could replace the normally long machining apprenticeship with training that takes much less time. We suggest a method of using conventional metal turning to only rough out a slightly oversized workpiece followed by grinding to a proper fit and finish. Turning steel to an exact size and finish can be quite difficult while roughing out is easily taught. Grinding is usually discouraged on a lathe because the grit can cause excessive wear but our concrete lathe has been expressly designed to be easily repaired or upgraded.
                                > Teaching the "old" skills of shaping and grinding cutting tools is a needed way to replace the use of the carbide tipped tools which are commonly used in the Western world. These are often too expensive to use, or even unavailable in many areas.
                                > The use of 3-D graphics to show otherwise difficult to explain tool shapes should be carefully explored. 3-D PDFs would be a great improvement over the older types of drawings that are often used for instruction in this critical skill.
                                >
                                > Project 5
                                > Coolant/lubricants are necessary for metal machining but normally used chemicals are unaffordable or unavailable in many parts of the world. A project to develop a coolant for machining steel that can be made from locally available ingredients could have great value. A starting point for such a project could be an "old-timers" trick of using 90% water, 10% motor oil (used and filtered?) and enough dishwasher detergent to mix them together. A device for testing effectiveness of different mixtures should be made.
                                >
                                > Project 6
                                > Welding rods are very expensive in many parts of the world. Developing a welding rod that could be made in rural areas is an important project. Welding rods made from concrete re-inforcing wire coated with lime and using commercial wallpaper paste as an adhesive is one possible answer.(I can put project members in touch with a Latin American blacksmith who has done this)
                                >
                                > Project 7
                                > Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more effective welders eye protection and can cause permanent eye damage after a just a few years. The development of a welding lens that would be cheap enough to include in boxes of welding rods could be an answer to the problem.
                                > It is hard to imagine economic development with welding.
                                >
                                > My question is: Someone here (I hope I can find his name!) suggested using the thin aluminum foil that is used to line packages of chips. I really tried but I can't peel the foil off. Can someone suggest a way of separating the foil from the plastic with a solvent?
                                >
                                > Pat
                                >



                              • Pat
                                TERRIFIC JOB SHANNON! I am going to write the professor today. Maybe Michael could also. kjonipede@lautech.edu.ng Pat
                                Message 15 of 27 , Jun 30, 2012
                                  TERRIFIC JOB SHANNON!

                                  I am going to write the professor today.

                                  Maybe Michael could also.

                                  kjonipede@...

                                  Pat

                                  --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, Shannon DeWolfe <sdewolfe@...> wrote:
                                  >
                                  > Michael,
                                  >
                                  > I would like to add to what Pat and David have already mentioned. I am
                                  > not an expert, nor even experienced, about the subject. But, I can read.
                                  > And I do -- a lot. ;-)
                                  >
                                  > Here are the things I've found since you posted your request for
                                  > information on business start-up with the concrete lathe.
                                  >
                                  > There is a machine tool company in Nigeria that works in concert with
                                  > universities to train machinists. Here is their web site:
                                  >
                                  > http://www.nigeriamachinetools.com/index.html
                                  >
                                  > I read their entire site. They have a training facility, foundry, and a
                                  > pattern shop, which you will find very useful to you, I think. Under the
                                  > tab, "Clients", they list schools they work with:
                                  >
                                  > Edo State university, Ekpoma; Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos;
                                  > Federal Polytechnic, Nassarawa; Zamfara State Polytechnic.
                                  >
                                  > Whether or not the company will help you I cannot say. But, they do
                                  > provide facilities for the schools. These are people you want on your
                                  > side in this endeavor. I would also find the persons at the universities
                                  > that can at least listen to the ideas.
                                  >
                                  > You will need at least one, and hopefully more, machinists that are
                                  > willing to donate time and effort to train young people across the
                                  > country. The machinists must also be willing to work with the concrete
                                  > lathe idea -- I think you will find some people who do not take the idea
                                  > seriously. In order to do that, you have to acquire some basic machine
                                  > skills and you must also build a concrete lathe when you go home to
                                  > prove that it can be done, it is reasonably accurate, and it can be used
                                  > to build "proper" machines when castings are available.
                                  >
                                  > I also found this paper, written by a professor at Ladoke Akintola
                                  > University of Technology:
                                  >
                                  > http://www.krepublishers.com/02-Journals/JE/JE-01-0-000-10-Web/JE-01-2-000-10-PDF/JE-01-2-085-10-032-Onipede-K-J/JE-01-2-085-10-032-Onipede-K-J-Tt.pdf
                                  >
                                  > I recommend that everyone read that paper. It is very informative. He
                                  > talks about the history of the suppression of science and technology
                                  > through the colonial years and how that mindset has hampered development
                                  > since independence. Reliance on foreign "help" is the main culprit
                                  > identified. He then goes on to outline some remedies for the situation.
                                  > The point of his paper is summed up in the final paragraph:
                                  >
                                  > "Ultimately, it would be more rewarding if
                                  > Nigerian policy makers realize the need to look
                                  > inward, recognize the technological need of the
                                  > nation, and use same to develop a high competitive
                                  > manufacturing and industrial sector toward
                                  > a higher productivity so as to relieve Nigeria
                                  > the burden of underdevelopment."
                                  >
                                  > This is a man you need to present your ideas to. His name is Kayode
                                  > Joseph Onipede. He is a history professor at the university.
                                  >
                                  > Funding will be a problem, as always. That is the beauty of the
                                  > MMConcrete Lathe, and, in fact, the entire thrust of Pat's ideas; low or
                                  > no cost solutions to problems that historically have required huge
                                  > capital investments. Professor Onipede outlines the many government
                                  > programs that have thrown millions of naira at problems with little, or
                                  > even negative, return. Small amounts of capital are the strong suite you
                                  > can offer any potential investor or grantor.
                                  >
                                  > I cannot offer any help with your business plan. However, the US
                                  > government has huge amounts of information for small businesses,
                                  > including writing business plans. Here is a template provided by them:
                                  >
                                  > http://web.sba.gov/busplantemplate/BizPlanStart.cfm
                                  >
                                  > Be sure to explore their entire web site and links.
                                  >
                                  > Good luck to you, sir. I hope that before I die I can read about the
                                  > success of local machine shops in Nigeria. :-)
                                  >
                                  > On 6/29/2012 10:05 AM, mika ugbo wrote:
                                  > > Please, how can I build a sustainable rural Technical school/business
                                  > > on these works of yours. Can anyone in the group help me with the
                                  > > technical/business plan? The concrete multimachine is really detail
                                  > > enough but had any body build one yet?
                                  >
                                  > --
                                  > Mr. Shannon DeWolfe
                                  > --I've taken to using Mr. because my name misleads folks on the WWW. I am a 56 year old fat man.
                                  >
                                • mika ugbo
                                  Hi Shannon, Thanks for all the information. Right now I just want to start small. The kind of company you mentioned may not want this kind of movement to
                                  Message 16 of 27 , Jul 1, 2012
                                    Hi Shannon,
                                    Thanks for all the information. Right now I just want to start small. The kind of company you mentioned may not want this kind of movement to succeed.
                                     
                                    Most of these schools you listed are filled with expensive machines with no manpower to run them.
                                     
                                    "You will need at least one, and hopefully more, machinists that are
                                    willing to donate time and effort to train young people across the
                                    country. The machinists must also be willing to work with the concrete
                                    lathe idea -- I think you will find some people who do not take the idea
                                    seriously. In order to do that, you have to acquire some basic machine
                                    skills and you must also build a concrete lathe when you go home to
                                    prove that it can be done, it is reasonably accurate, and it can be used
                                    to build "proper" machines when castings are available''
                                    ------This is the way I wish to take.
                                     
                                    Thanks alot.
                                     
                                    Kind Regards,
                                    Michael Ugbo
                                  • Local
                                    1. Metallurgical charcoal making. 2. Iron melting cupola furnace construction and operation. I know Steve Chastain has book customers in Africa who ve built
                                    Message 17 of 27 , Jul 1, 2012
                                      1. Metallurgical charcoal making.

                                      2. Iron melting cupola furnace construction and operation. I know Steve Chastain has book customers in Africa who've built and operate cupola furnaces. One (I think in Kenya) has done so well he mentioned adding employees solely to break up scrap iron.

                                      3. Hand scraping tools.

                                      Scrap aluminum will likely be too expensive. The far lower average incomes and the world price for Al ingot means it will be far more valuable as a % of the salvager's income.

                                      Suitable silica sand and high alumina clays for making refractories and casting sands are available almost everywhere on Earth on land. One just needs to consult local geologists to find out where the closest deposits are. A silicon dioxide / alumina phase diagram shows the possibilities with these two materials. These include mullite phase crucibles and foundry ware.

                                      The same charcoal fueled cupola furnaces can also fuel hi-temperature kilns to fire ceramics.

                                      This will allow use of more abundant, cheaper and locally available scrap iron and steel.

                                      This would also likely lead to a spin off ceramics and pottery trade. This trade could also make other items such as sinks, toilets and kitchenware.

                                      If the idea is real community economic development then I think this is the direction to go.


                                      --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, "Pat" <rigmatch@...> wrote:
                                      >
                                      > Guys, what can you add to this?
                                      >
                                      > Suggestions for starting a metal shop/small factory/trade school in Africa
                                      >
                                      > You will need the occasional use of a small truck.
                                      >
                                      > Skills needed to start:
                                      > Basic metal machining, grinding cutting tools skills, basic stick welding. Parhaps you can be taught these skills in return for shop cleaning etc while you are in Canada. If your project is sucessful, you will eventually need someone with good machining and engineering skills.
                                      > Aluminum alloy casting (is there a local cooking pan re-caster?)
                                      >
                                      > Tools
                                      > If you have access to good junk, a concrete screw cutting can be built at a very low cost. Only basic mechanic's and carpenters tools are needed.
                                      >
                                      > Other possible sources of income as the project develops:
                                      >
                                      > Sales of our penetrating oil formula.
                                      > Parts for a Cole drill, sale of drill bits or complete drills (the drill was developed at the request of an engineering professor in Kenya).
                                      > A treadle powered wooden wood turning lathe. Wood should be acquired with drying time in mind.
                                      > The Genny cell phone charger, charging and sales (developed at the request of a Peace Corps worker)
                                      > Machining clutches and brakes, especially for trucks (suggested by a missionaries in Kenya and Mexico)
                                      > Production of small concrete machine tools for schools and small shops.
                                      > Production of a general purpose/truck brake lathe.
                                      >
                                      > Additional funding
                                      > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowd_funding You will have to have a good start first so people will take you seriously. The Nigerian 911 scam has made people wary.
                                      >
                                      > Business plan
                                      > Show people that you are serious by working hard (and doccumenting it)to learn the basic skills that are needed.
                                      >
                                      > Accumulate the basic tools needed.
                                      >
                                      > By the time that you do this, I think several lathes will have been built and doccumented.
                                      >
                                      > Start with your own clutch and brake lathe then build a very accurate lathe that can be used to make more lathes and milling machines.
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      > --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, mika ugbo <iyinbor@> wrote:
                                      > >
                                      > > Hi Pat,
                                      > > May the good Lord bless your efforts and those of others in this forum for all your works to bring industrial revolution to developing countries. I happen to be from rural/agricultural areas of Nigeria although I presently live in Canada.
                                      > >  
                                      > > Please, how can I build a sustainable rural Technical school/business on these works of yours. Can anyone in the group help me with the technical/business plan? The concrete multimachine is really detail enough but had any body build one yet?
                                      > >  
                                      > > I am serious. I saved every message I received from this forum. Is there any member of our group that lives in Alberta,Canada? Pls. contact me.
                                      > >  
                                      > > You are one of those people that should be ruling my country's men. Africa need practical ideals that work not just aids.
                                      > >  
                                      > > Thanks.
                                      > >  
                                      > > Sincerely yours,
                                      > > Michael Ugbo
                                      > > Fort Mcmurray, Alberta
                                      > > Tel: 780-531-1993
                                      > >
                                      > > --- On Fri, 3/30/12, Pat <rigmatch@> wrote:
                                      > >
                                      > >
                                      > > From: Pat <rigmatch@>
                                      > > Subject: [multimachine] Need some chemical knowledge
                                      > > To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                                      > > Received: Friday, March 30, 2012, 4:52 PM
                                      > >
                                      > >
                                      > >
                                      > >  
                                      > >
                                      > >
                                      > >
                                      > > Drexel University is going to list 7 of our projects as engineering class projects. A real honor! I need suggestions about project 7.
                                      > >
                                      > > This is what I sent to a professor there:
                                      > >
                                      > > A series of steps (projects) that could be be used to finance and build the equipment for a large metal-working shop or small factory in the developing world.
                                      > >
                                      > > Projects 1 and 2 are for simple, badly needed products that could be made and sold to get the few hundred dollars needed to buy the materials needed to build an accurate screw cutting lathe. This lathe (Project 3) would be central to the making of dedicated milling machines, drills and rolling and bending machines.
                                      > >
                                      > > Project 1
                                      > > A very inexpensive tool that can drill holes the hardest steel. The 140 year old drill that we have modeled on can easily drill 1" holes, using a masonry bit, in something as hard as a file. We designed ours to drill holes, without using electricity, in steel plate that is to be used in making farm implements. These holes allow a steel tip attached to a wooden plow making it much more efficient than a plow that is entirely made of wood.
                                      > > From the 1870's to the 1930's blacksmiths used a now almost forgotten technique that was often called "racheting" a hole. Instead of turning the bit at high speed,they turned the bit with a ratcheted crank while 500 to 1000 pounds of downward pressure was applied. An example is the "Cole" drill (link below). A Cole type drill is now too expensive for low income artizens because it's frame is a steel forging that has been internally threaded with a large, fine thread. This project involves replacing this forged and threaded device with a simple lever that can be used exert the needed high pressure on the bit while still alowing it to be turned easily. Design problems include a simple method to attach the bit, a simple thrust bearing design and a way to steady the spindle. Crude but succesful experiments are here (http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Cole+drill+project)
                                      > >
                                      > > Project 2
                                      > > A WD 40 like penetrating oil for the developing world. If there any constant in metal work in many developing countries, it is rust. Heavily rusted parts often hold a otherwise unavailable treasure trove of vital but unavailable fasteners. A project starting point could be used (filtered) automatic transmission oil that could be mixed with some kind of a locally available solvent. Acetone is claimed to work well in practice (but seemingly not in theory!).
                                      > >
                                      > > Project 3, An accurate screw cutting metal lathe.
                                      > > The MultiMachine concrete lathe project is a design for building the essential tools of a basic machine shop -- a screw cutting metal lathe, drill press and milling machine -- out of inexpensive materials easily available anywhere. Metalworking lathes in particular are necessary for the production of almost all tools and other manufactured goods but are often too expensive to be widely available.
                                      > > In 1915, special lathes made from concrete were developed to quickly and cheaply produce millions of cannon shells needed for World War I. Lucien Yeomans, the inventor, won America's highest engineering award for this invention, but sadly the technique was almost forgotten after the war. We re-discovered it and recognized it as a way to quickly make inexpensive but accurate machine tools for use in developing countries and in trade schools and shops everywhere. Besides concrete, the MultiMachine lathe requires only a steel bar, used pipe and a few discarded engine pistons that are used as a source of metal used in simple castings. The machine can be built by anyone with good mechanical skills, common mechanic's tools and a hand or powered drill. The machines can be built in sizes that will fit on a desktop or can be scaled up many times. Some Yeomans lathes weighed 10 tons and were able to accurately machine 3200 pound cannon projectiles.
                                      > >
                                      > > NOTE:
                                      > > The Multimachine project needs to have a lathe built and it's construction documented so that we improve the existing plans and design.
                                      > >
                                      > > The latest version of the plans are at: http://makeprojects.com/Project/The-Multimachine-150-12-Inch-swing-metal-lathe-and-mill/1751/1
                                      > >
                                      > > Important upporting files are at:
                                      > > http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Current+Design+Drawings
                                      > >
                                      > > Project 4
                                      > > An easily built and affordable lathe will be of little use if it is too difficult to train workers to machine the poor quality steel that is commonly available in developing countries. Needed is a machinist training method that could replace the normally long machining apprenticeship with training that takes much less time. We suggest a method of using conventional metal turning to only rough out a slightly oversized workpiece followed by grinding to a proper fit and finish. Turning steel to an exact size and finish can be quite difficult while roughing out is easily taught. Grinding is usually discouraged on a lathe because the grit can cause excessive wear but our concrete lathe has been expressly designed to be easily repaired or upgraded.
                                      > > Teaching the "old" skills of shaping and grinding cutting tools is a needed way to replace the use of the carbide tipped tools which are commonly used in the Western world. These are often too expensive to use, or even unavailable in many areas.
                                      > > The use of 3-D graphics to show otherwise difficult to explain tool shapes should be carefully explored. 3-D PDFs would be a great improvement over the older types of drawings that are often used for instruction in this critical skill.
                                      > >
                                      > > Project 5
                                      > > Coolant/lubricants are necessary for metal machining but normally used chemicals are unaffordable or unavailable in many parts of the world. A project to develop a coolant for machining steel that can be made from locally available ingredients could have great value. A starting point for such a project could be an "old-timers" trick of using 90% water, 10% motor oil (used and filtered?) and enough dishwasher detergent to mix them together. A device for testing effectiveness of different mixtures should be made.
                                      > >
                                      > > Project 6
                                      > > Welding rods are very expensive in many parts of the world. Developing a welding rod that could be made in rural areas is an important project. Welding rods made from concrete re-inforcing wire coated with lime and using commercial wallpaper paste as an adhesive is one possible answer.(I can put project members in touch with a Latin American blacksmith who has done this)
                                      > >
                                      > > Project 7
                                      > > Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more effective welders eye protection and can cause permanent eye damage after a just a few years. The development of a welding lens that would be cheap enough to include in boxes of welding rods could be an answer to the problem.
                                      > > It is hard to imagine economic development with welding.
                                      > >
                                      > > My question is: Someone here (I hope I can find his name!) suggested using the thin aluminum foil that is used to line packages of chips. I really tried but I can't peel the foil off. Can someone suggest a way of separating the foil from the plastic with a solvent?
                                      > >
                                      > > Pat
                                      > >
                                      >
                                    • Larry Bentley
                                      The Engineering For Change website has a list of 10 web based sources for free technical education:
                                      Message 18 of 27 , Jul 1, 2012
                                        The Engineering For Change website has a list of 10 web based sources for
                                        free technical education:

                                        https://www.engineeringforchange.org/news/2012/06/27/ten_best_sites_for_free_online_education.html

                                        Welding Glasses:

                                        Welders often have fairly short careers due to eye damage when they weld
                                        without proper eye protection.
                                        I think Pat was trying to find a university group to try the aluminized
                                        mylar as a welding lens, space blankets, or liners of snack food bags.

                                        The aluminized mylar, it may not be enough by itself, but it needs
                                        protection from hot sparks anyway so put it behind locally available
                                        sunglasses, as protection. Possibly you may need to double it, not sure,
                                        thats what we need lab tests to tell. They often sell aluminized mylar in
                                        cardboard frames as eclipse viewing glasses whenever there is an eclipse.
                                        Bet right afterward the wholesaler would cut a deal on hundreds of them
                                        rather than wait for the next eclipse.

                                        http://www.rainbowsymphonystore.com/eclipseshades.html

                                        At $0.85 U.S. there are already pretty affordable to anyone working as a
                                        welder, even in the developing world, just need to get the two together with
                                        a distribution channel. The overruns at $0.40 in quanities of 100 are even
                                        cheaper, glue one or two onto a locally made face shield, behind a piece of
                                        window glass to protect from splatter and you should be good to go, may
                                        still want or need sunglasses under that. But anyone working as a welder
                                        can afford the low cost of this.


                                        Larry Bentley

                                        ----- Original Message -----
                                        From: "Local" <>
                                        To: <multimachine@yahoogroups.com>
                                        Sent: Sunday, July 01, 2012 7:46 AM
                                        Subject: [multimachine] Re: To Michael Ugbo


                                        1. Metallurgical charcoal making.

                                        2. Iron melting cupola furnace construction and operation. I know Steve
                                        Chastain has book customers in Africa who've built and operate cupola
                                        furnaces. One (I think in Kenya) has done so well he mentioned adding
                                        employees solely to break up scrap iron.

                                        3. Hand scraping tools.

                                        Scrap aluminum will likely be too expensive. The far lower average incomes
                                        and the world price for Al ingot means it will be far more valuable as a %
                                        of the salvager's income.

                                        Suitable silica sand and high alumina clays for making refractories and
                                        casting sands are available almost everywhere on Earth on land. One just
                                        needs to consult local geologists to find out where the closest deposits
                                        are. A silicon dioxide / alumina phase diagram shows the possibilities with
                                        these two materials. These include mullite phase crucibles and foundry
                                        ware.

                                        The same charcoal fueled cupola furnaces can also fuel hi-temperature kilns
                                        to fire ceramics.

                                        This will allow use of more abundant, cheaper and locally available scrap
                                        iron and steel.

                                        This would also likely lead to a spin off ceramics and pottery trade. This
                                        trade could also make other items such as sinks, toilets and kitchenware.

                                        If the idea is real community economic development then I think this is the
                                        direction to go.


                                        --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, "Pat" <rigmatch@...> wrote:
                                        >
                                        > Guys, what can you add to this?
                                        >
                                        > Suggestions for starting a metal shop/small factory/trade school in Africa
                                        >
                                        > You will need the occasional use of a small truck.
                                        >
                                        > Skills needed to start:
                                        > Basic metal machining, grinding cutting tools skills, basic stick welding.
                                        > Parhaps you can be taught these skills in return for shop cleaning etc
                                        > while you are in Canada. If your project is sucessful, you will eventually
                                        > need someone with good machining and engineering skills.
                                        > Aluminum alloy casting (is there a local cooking pan re-caster?)
                                        >
                                        > Tools
                                        > If you have access to good junk, a concrete screw cutting can be built at
                                        > a very low cost. Only basic mechanic's and carpenters tools are needed.
                                        >
                                        > Other possible sources of income as the project develops:
                                        >
                                        > Sales of our penetrating oil formula.
                                        > Parts for a Cole drill, sale of drill bits or complete drills (the drill
                                        > was developed at the request of an engineering professor in Kenya).
                                        > A treadle powered wooden wood turning lathe. Wood should be acquired with
                                        > drying time in mind.
                                        > The Genny cell phone charger, charging and sales (developed at the request
                                        > of a Peace Corps worker)
                                        > Machining clutches and brakes, especially for trucks (suggested by a
                                        > missionaries in Kenya and Mexico)
                                        > Production of small concrete machine tools for schools and small shops.
                                        > Production of a general purpose/truck brake lathe.
                                        >
                                        > Additional funding
                                        > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowd_funding You will have to have a good
                                        > start first so people will take you seriously. The Nigerian 911 scam has
                                        > made people wary.
                                        >
                                        > Business plan
                                        > Show people that you are serious by working hard (and doccumenting it)to
                                        > learn the basic skills that are needed.
                                        >
                                        > Accumulate the basic tools needed.
                                        >
                                        > By the time that you do this, I think several lathes will have been built
                                        > and doccumented.
                                        >
                                        > Start with your own clutch and brake lathe then build a very accurate
                                        > lathe that can be used to make more lathes and milling machines.
                                        >
                                        >
                                        >
                                        > --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, mika ugbo <iyinbor@> wrote:
                                        > >
                                        > > Hi Pat,
                                        > > May the good Lord bless your efforts and those of others in this forum
                                        > > for all your works to bring industrial revolution to developing
                                        > > countries. I happen to be from rural/agricultural areas of Nigeria
                                        > > although I presently live in Canada.
                                        > > Â
                                        > > Please, how can I build a sustainable rural Technical school/business on
                                        > > these works of yours. Can anyone in the group help me with the
                                        > > technical/business plan? The concrete multimachine is really detail
                                        > > enough but had any body build one yet?
                                        > > Â
                                        > > I am serious. I saved every message I received from this forum. Is there
                                        > > any member of our group that lives in Alberta,Canada? Pls. contact me.
                                        > > Â
                                        > > You are one of those people that should be ruling my country's men.
                                        > > Africa need practical ideals that work not just aids.
                                        > > Â
                                        > > Thanks.
                                        > > Â
                                        > > Sincerely yours,
                                        > > Michael Ugbo
                                        > > Fort Mcmurray, Alberta
                                        > > Tel: 780-531-1993
                                        > >
                                        > > --- On Fri, 3/30/12, Pat <rigmatch@> wrote:
                                        > >
                                        > >
                                        > > From: Pat <rigmatch@>
                                        > > Subject: [multimachine] Need some chemical knowledge
                                        > > To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                                        > > Received: Friday, March 30, 2012, 4:52 PM
                                        > >
                                        > >
                                        > >
                                        > > Â
                                        > >
                                        > >
                                        > >
                                        > > Drexel University is going to list 7 of our projects as engineering
                                        > > class projects. A real honor! I need suggestions about project 7.
                                        > >
                                        > > This is what I sent to a professor there:
                                        > >
                                        > > A series of steps (projects) that could be be used to finance and build
                                        > > the equipment for a large metal-working shop or small factory in the
                                        > > developing world.
                                        > >
                                        > > Projects 1 and 2 are for simple, badly needed products that could be
                                        > > made and sold to get the few hundred dollars needed to buy the materials
                                        > > needed to build an accurate screw cutting lathe. This lathe (Project 3)
                                        > > would be central to the making of dedicated milling machines, drills and
                                        > > rolling and bending machines.
                                        > >
                                        > > Project 1
                                        > > A very inexpensive tool that can drill holes the hardest steel. The 140
                                        > > year old drill that we have modeled on can easily drill 1" holes, using
                                        > > a masonry bit, in something as hard as a file. We designed ours to drill
                                        > > holes, without using electricity, in steel plate that is to be used in
                                        > > making farm implements. These holes allow a steel tip attached to a
                                        > > wooden plow making it much more efficient than a plow that is entirely
                                        > > made of wood.
                                        > > From the 1870's to the 1930's blacksmiths used a now almost forgotten
                                        > > technique that was often called "racheting" a hole. Instead of turning
                                        > > the bit at high speed,they turned the bit with a ratcheted crank while
                                        > > 500 to 1000 pounds of downward pressure was applied. An example is the
                                        > > "Cole" drill (link below). A Cole type drill is now too expensive for
                                        > > low income artizens because it's frame is a steel forging that has been
                                        > > internally threaded with a large, fine thread. This project involves
                                        > > replacing this forged and threaded device with a simple lever that can
                                        > > be used exert the needed high pressure on the bit while still alowing it
                                        > > to be turned easily. Design problems include a simple method to attach
                                        > > the bit, a simple thrust bearing design and a way to steady the spindle.
                                        > > Crude but succesful experiments are here
                                        > > (http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Cole+drill+project)
                                        > >
                                        > > Project 2
                                        > > A WD 40 like penetrating oil for the developing world. If there any
                                        > > constant in metal work in many developing countries, it is rust. Heavily
                                        > > rusted parts often hold a otherwise unavailable treasure trove of vital
                                        > > but unavailable fasteners. A project starting point could be used
                                        > > (filtered) automatic transmission oil that could be mixed with some kind
                                        > > of a locally available solvent. Acetone is claimed to work well in
                                        > > practice (but seemingly not in theory!).
                                        > >
                                        > > Project 3, An accurate screw cutting metal lathe.
                                        > > The MultiMachine concrete lathe project is a design for building the
                                        > > essential tools of a basic machine shop -- a screw cutting metal lathe,
                                        > > drill press and milling machine -- out of inexpensive materials easily
                                        > > available anywhere. Metalworking lathes in particular are necessary for
                                        > > the production of almost all tools and other manufactured goods but are
                                        > > often too expensive to be widely available.
                                        > > In 1915, special lathes made from concrete were developed to quickly and
                                        > > cheaply produce millions of cannon shells needed for World War I. Lucien
                                        > > Yeomans, the inventor, won America's highest engineering award for this
                                        > > invention, but sadly the technique was almost forgotten after the war.
                                        > > We re-discovered it and recognized it as a way to quickly make
                                        > > inexpensive but accurate machine tools for use in developing countries
                                        > > and in trade schools and shops everywhere. Besides concrete, the
                                        > > MultiMachine lathe requires only a steel bar, used pipe and a few
                                        > > discarded engine pistons that are used as a source of metal used in
                                        > > simple castings. The machine can be built by anyone with good mechanical
                                        > > skills, common mechanic's tools and a hand or powered drill. The
                                        > > machines can be built in sizes that will fit on a desktop or can be
                                        > > scaled up many times. Some Yeomans lathes weighed 10 tons and were able
                                        > > to accurately machine 3200 pound cannon projectiles.
                                        > >
                                        > > NOTE:
                                        > > The Multimachine project needs to have a lathe built and it's
                                        > > construction documented so that we improve the existing plans and
                                        > > design.
                                        > >
                                        > > The latest version of the plans are at:
                                        > > http://makeprojects.com/Project/The-Multimachine-150-12-Inch-swing-metal-lathe-and-mill/1751/1
                                        > >
                                        > > Important upporting files are at:
                                        > > http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Current+Design+Drawings
                                        > >
                                        > > Project 4
                                        > > An easily built and affordable lathe will be of little use if it is too
                                        > > difficult to train workers to machine the poor quality steel that is
                                        > > commonly available in developing countries. Needed is a machinist
                                        > > training method that could replace the normally long machining
                                        > > apprenticeship with training that takes much less time. We suggest a
                                        > > method of using conventional metal turning to only rough out a slightly
                                        > > oversized workpiece followed by grinding to a proper fit and finish.
                                        > > Turning steel to an exact size and finish can be quite difficult while
                                        > > roughing out is easily taught. Grinding is usually discouraged on a
                                        > > lathe because the grit can cause excessive wear but our concrete lathe
                                        > > has been expressly designed to be easily repaired or upgraded.
                                        > > Teaching the "old" skills of shaping and grinding cutting tools is a
                                        > > needed way to replace the use of the carbide tipped tools which are
                                        > > commonly used in the Western world. These are often too expensive to
                                        > > use, or even unavailable in many areas.
                                        > > The use of 3-D graphics to show otherwise difficult to explain tool
                                        > > shapes should be carefully explored. 3-D PDFs would be a great
                                        > > improvement over the older types of drawings that are often used for
                                        > > instruction in this critical skill.
                                        > >
                                        > > Project 5
                                        > > Coolant/lubricants are necessary for metal machining but normally used
                                        > > chemicals are unaffordable or unavailable in many parts of the world. A
                                        > > project to develop a coolant for machining steel that can be made from
                                        > > locally available ingredients could have great value. A starting point
                                        > > for such a project could be an "old-timers" trick of using 90% water,
                                        > > 10% motor oil (used and filtered?) and enough dishwasher detergent to
                                        > > mix them together. A device for testing effectiveness of different
                                        > > mixtures should be made.
                                        > >
                                        > > Project 6
                                        > > Welding rods are very expensive in many parts of the world. Developing a
                                        > > welding rod that could be made in rural areas is an important project.
                                        > > Welding rods made from concrete re-inforcing wire coated with lime and
                                        > > using commercial wallpaper paste as an adhesive is one possible
                                        > > answer.(I can put project members in touch with a Latin American
                                        > > blacksmith who has done this)
                                        > >
                                        > > Project 7
                                        > > Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical
                                        > > problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more
                                        > > effective welders eye protection and can cause permanent eye damage
                                        > > after a just a few years. The development of a welding lens that would
                                        > > be cheap enough to include in boxes of welding rods could be an answer
                                        > > to the problem.
                                        > > It is hard to imagine economic development with welding.
                                        > >
                                        > > My question is: Someone here (I hope I can find his name!) suggested
                                        > > using the thin aluminum foil that is used to line packages of chips. I
                                        > > really tried but I can't peel the foil off. Can someone suggest a way of
                                        > > separating the foil from the plastic with a solvent?
                                        > >
                                        > > Pat
                                        > >
                                        >




                                        ------------------------------------

                                        -------------
                                        We have a sister site for files and pictures dedicated to concrete machine
                                        framed machine tools. You will find a great deal of information about
                                        concrete based machines and the inventor of the concrete frame lathe, Lucian
                                        Ingraham Yeomans. Go to
                                        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Multimachine-Concrete-Machine-Tools/

                                        Also visit the Joseph V. Romig group for even more concrete tool
                                        construction, shop notes, stories, and wisdom from the early 20th Century.
                                        http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/romig_designs/
                                        -------------Yahoo! Groups Links
                                      • David G. LeVine
                                        Larry Bentley is right, eye damage is not the friend of welders. Another old trick that was used by the Eskimos, was to make opaque glasses (out of wood or
                                        Message 19 of 27 , Jul 1, 2012
                                          Larry Bentley is right, eye damage is not the friend of welders.

                                          Another old trick that was used by the Eskimos, was to make opaque glasses (out of wood or bone), and cut a small slit or bore a small hole, winding up with a pinhole lens.  This does two good things:  It reduces the light coming in (protecting the retina), and reduces the risk of a spark damaging the cornea.  If the slit/pinhole is small enough, the risk is minimal, but I don't have a clue about how to make that small a pinhole (a few thousandths in diameter.) 

                                          The only thing I have seen is a thin sheet of metal and a pointed pick, put the metal on a steel plate and gently tap the pick until a small hole is formed in the sheet (often of brass.)  As a plus, the hole should plug with any spark big enough to damage the cornea, but it still may be too big when welding.

                                          Dave  8{)

                                          --
                                          "Political Correctness is a doctrine, fostered by a delusional, illogical minority and rabidly promoted by an unscrupulous mainstream media, which holds forth the proposition that it is entirely possible to pick up a turd by the clean end."
                                          (quoted from http://www.wattflyer.com/forums/showthread.php?t=30060)

                                          NOTE TO ALL:

                                          When forwarding emails, please use only "Blind Carbon Copy" or "Bcc" for all recipients. Please "delete" or "highlight & cut" any forwarding history which includes my email address! It is a courtesy to me and others who may not wish to have their email addresses sent all over the world! Erasing the history helps prevent Spammers from mining addresses and viruses from being propagated.

                                          THANK YOU!
                                        • louis richardson
                                          here in USA new welers are sold wth cheap flat welding eye sheild that nobody uses, they can be gathered up and shipped  africa ,in stead of gathering dust
                                          Message 20 of 27 , Jul 1, 2012
                                            here in USA new welers are sold wth cheap flat welding eye sheild that nobody uses, they can be gathered up and shipped  africa ,in stead of gathering dust here on a shelf..  

                                            --- On Sun, 7/1/12, David G. LeVine <dlevine@...> wrote:

                                            From: David G. LeVine <dlevine@...>
                                            Subject: [multimachine] Re: To Michael Ugbo
                                            To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                                            Date: Sunday, July 1, 2012, 9:16 AM

                                             
                                            Larry Bentley is right, eye damage is not the friend of welders.

                                            Another old trick that was used by the Eskimos, was to make opaque glasses (out of wood or bone), and cut a small slit or bore a small hole, winding up with a pinhole lens.  This does two good things:  It reduces the light coming in (protecting the retina), and reduces the risk of a spark damaging the cornea.  If the slit/pinhole is small enough, the risk is minimal, but I don't have a clue about how to make that small a pinhole (a few thousandths in diameter.) 

                                            The only thing I have seen is a thin sheet of metal and a pointed pick, put the metal on a steel plate and gently tap the pick until a small hole is formed in the sheet (often of brass.)  As a plus, the hole should plug with any spark big enough to damage the cornea, but it still may be too big when welding.

                                            Dave  8{)

                                            --
                                            "Political Correctness is a doctrine, fostered by a delusional, illogical minority and rabidly promoted by an unscrupulous mainstream media, which holds forth the proposition that it is entirely possible to pick up a turd by the clean end."
                                            (quoted from http://www.wattflyer.com/forums/showthread.php?t=30060)

                                            NOTE TO ALL:

                                            When forwarding emails, please use only "Blind Carbon Copy" or "Bcc" for all recipients. Please "delete" or "highlight & cut" any forwarding history which includes my email address! It is a courtesy to me and others who may not wish to have their email addresses sent all over the world! Erasing the history helps prevent Spammers from mining addresses and viruses from being propagated.

                                            THANK YOU!
                                          • HB
                                                  Pat wrote: Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more
                                            Message 21 of 27 , Jul 1, 2012

                                               
                                               
                                               
                                              Pat wrote:
                                              "Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more effective welders eye protection and can cause permanent eye damage after a just a few years. The development of a welding lens that would be cheap enough to include in boxes of welding rods could be an answer to the problem.
                                              It is hard to imagine economic development with welding.

                                              My question is: Someone here (I hope I can find his name!) suggested using the thin aluminum foil that is used to line packages of chips. I really tried but I can't peel the foil off. Can someone suggest a way of separating the foil from the plastic with a solvent?"
                                               
                                               
                                              Instead of going through the trouble of peeling off the foil from packages why not just use several layers window tints? There are even one-way viewing types of tints ( similar to those employed on security windows) for vehicles and household use.
                                              Those are available for tinting car window glasses to reduce UVA and UBV lights that produce heat.
                                              An experiment using several layers should determine the proper number of layers required for an acceptable safe eye protection in welding.
                                               
                                              Another very cheap alternative is to use the middle sandwiched shinny material layer used on DVD optical disks as a filter medium. Just split the disk in half with a razor blade to get to it. Use as many layers as appropriate.
                                               
                                               
                                               
                                               

                                                
                                                                                              
                                                
                                            • mika ugbo
                                              Hi Local, Who is  Steve Chastain? Please give me more information about his work. Thanks for your wonderful contributions.   Michael Ugbo ... From: Local
                                              Message 22 of 27 , Jul 1, 2012
                                                Hi Local,
                                                Who is  Steve Chastain? Please give me more information about his work.
                                                Thanks for your wonderful contributions.
                                                 
                                                Michael Ugbo
                                                --- On Sun, 7/1/12, Local <charcad2006@...> wrote:

                                                From: Local <charcad2006@...>
                                                Subject: [multimachine] Re: To Michael Ugbo
                                                To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                                                Received: Sunday, July 1, 2012, 8:46 AM

                                                 
                                                1. Metallurgical charcoal making.

                                                2. Iron melting cupola furnace construction and operation. I know Steve Chastain has book customers in Africa who've built and operate cupola furnaces. One (I think in Kenya) has done so well he mentioned adding employees solely to break up scrap iron.

                                                3. Hand scraping tools.

                                                Scrap aluminum will likely be too expensive. The far lower average incomes and the world price for Al ingot means it will be far more valuable as a % of the salvager's income.

                                                Suitable silica sand and high alumina clays for making refractories and casting sands are available almost everywhere on Earth on land. One just needs to consult local geologists to find out where the closest deposits are. A silicon dioxide / alumina phase diagram shows the possibilities with these two materials. These include mullite phase crucibles and foundry ware.

                                                The same charcoal fueled cupola furnaces can also fuel hi-temperature kilns to fire ceramics.

                                                This will allow use of more abundant, cheaper and locally available scrap iron and steel.

                                                This would also likely lead to a spin off ceramics and pottery trade. This trade could also make other items such as sinks, toilets and kitchenware.

                                                If the idea is real community economic development then I think this is the direction to go.

                                                --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, "Pat" <rigmatch@...> wrote:
                                                >
                                                > Guys, what can you add to this?
                                                >
                                                > Suggestions for starting a metal shop/small factory/trade school in Africa
                                                >
                                                > You will need the occasional use of a small truck.
                                                >
                                                > Skills needed to start:
                                                > Basic metal machining, grinding cutting tools skills, basic stick welding. Parhaps you can be taught these skills in return for shop cleaning etc while you are in Canada. If your project is sucessful, you will eventually need someone with good machining and engineering skills.
                                                > Aluminum alloy casting (is there a local cooking pan re-caster?)
                                                >
                                                > Tools
                                                > If you have access to good junk, a concrete screw cutting can be built at a very low cost. Only basic mechanic's and carpenters tools are needed.
                                                >
                                                > Other possible sources of income as the project develops:
                                                >
                                                > Sales of our penetrating oil formula.
                                                > Parts for a Cole drill, sale of drill bits or complete drills (the drill was developed at the request of an engineering professor in Kenya).
                                                > A treadle powered wooden wood turning lathe. Wood should be acquired with drying time in mind.
                                                > The Genny cell phone charger, charging and sales (developed at the request of a Peace Corps worker)
                                                > Machining clutches and brakes, especially for trucks (suggested by a missionaries in Kenya and Mexico)
                                                > Production of small concrete machine tools for schools and small shops.
                                                > Production of a general purpose/truck brake lathe.
                                                >
                                                > Additional funding
                                                > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowd_funding You will have to have a good start first so people will take you seriously. The Nigerian 911 scam has made people wary.
                                                >
                                                > Business plan
                                                > Show people that you are serious by working hard (and doccumenting it)to learn the basic skills that are needed.
                                                >
                                                > Accumulate the basic tools needed.
                                                >
                                                > By the time that you do this, I think several lathes will have been built and doccumented.
                                                >
                                                > Start with your own clutch and brake lathe then build a very accurate lathe that can be used to make more lathes and milling machines.
                                                >
                                                >
                                                >
                                                > --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, mika ugbo <iyinbor@> wrote:
                                                > >
                                                > > Hi Pat,
                                                > > May the good Lord bless your efforts and those of others in this forum for all your works to bring industrial revolution to developing countries. I happen to be from rural/agricultural areas of Nigeria although I presently live in Canada.
                                                > >  
                                                > > Please, how can I build a sustainable rural Technical school/business on these works of yours. Can anyone in the group help me with the technical/business plan? The concrete multimachine is really detail enough but had any body build one yet?
                                                > >  
                                                > > I am serious. I saved every message I received from this forum. Is there any member of our group that lives in Alberta,Canada? Pls. contact me.
                                                > >  
                                                > > You are one of those people that should be ruling my country's men. Africa need practical ideals that work not just aids.
                                                > >  
                                                > > Thanks.
                                                > >  
                                                > > Sincerely yours,
                                                > > Michael Ugbo
                                                > > Fort Mcmurray, Alberta
                                                > > Tel: 780-531-1993
                                                > >
                                                > > --- On Fri, 3/30/12, Pat <rigmatch@> wrote:
                                                > >
                                                > >
                                                > > From: Pat <rigmatch@>
                                                > > Subject: [multimachine] Need some chemical knowledge
                                                > > To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                                                > > Received: Friday, March 30, 2012, 4:52 PM
                                                > >
                                                > >
                                                > >
                                                > >  
                                                > >
                                                > >
                                                > >
                                                > > Drexel University is going to list 7 of our projects as engineering class projects. A real honor! I need suggestions about project 7.
                                                > >
                                                > > This is what I sent to a professor there:
                                                > >
                                                > > A series of steps (projects) that could be be used to finance and build the equipment for a large metal-working shop or small factory in the developing world.
                                                > >
                                                > > Projects 1 and 2 are for simple, badly needed products that could be made and sold to get the few hundred dollars needed to buy the materials needed to build an accurate screw cutting lathe. This lathe (Project 3) would be central to the making of dedicated milling machines, drills and rolling and bending machines.
                                                > >
                                                > > Project 1
                                                > > A very inexpensive tool that can drill holes the hardest steel. The 140 year old drill that we have modeled on can easily drill 1" holes, using a masonry bit, in something as hard as a file. We designed ours to drill holes, without using electricity, in steel plate that is to be used in making farm implements. These holes allow a steel tip attached to a wooden plow making it much more efficient than a plow that is entirely made of wood.
                                                > > From the 1870's to the 1930's blacksmiths used a now almost forgotten technique that was often called "racheting" a hole. Instead of turning the bit at high speed,they turned the bit with a ratcheted crank while 500 to 1000 pounds of downward pressure was applied. An example is the "Cole" drill (link below). A Cole type drill is now too expensive for low income artizens because it's frame is a steel forging that has been internally threaded with a large, fine thread. This project involves replacing this forged and threaded device with a simple lever that can be used exert the needed high pressure on the bit while still alowing it to be turned easily. Design problems include a simple method to attach the bit, a simple thrust bearing design and a way to steady the spindle. Crude but succesful experiments are here (http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Cole+drill+project)
                                                > >
                                                > > Project 2
                                                > > A WD 40 like penetrating oil for the developing world. If there any constant in metal work in many developing countries, it is rust. Heavily rusted parts often hold a otherwise unavailable treasure trove of vital but unavailable fasteners. A project starting point could be used (filtered) automatic transmission oil that could be mixed with some kind of a locally available solvent. Acetone is claimed to work well in practice (but seemingly not in theory!).
                                                > >
                                                > > Project 3, An accurate screw cutting metal lathe.
                                                > > The MultiMachine concrete lathe project is a design for building the essential tools of a basic machine shop -- a screw cutting metal lathe, drill press and milling machine -- out of inexpensive materials easily available anywhere. Metalworking lathes in particular are necessary for the production of almost all tools and other manufactured goods but are often too expensive to be widely available.
                                                > > In 1915, special lathes made from concrete were developed to quickly and cheaply produce millions of cannon shells needed for World War I. Lucien Yeomans, the inventor, won America's highest engineering award for this invention, but sadly the technique was almost forgotten after the war. We re-discovered it and recognized it as a way to quickly make inexpensive but accurate machine tools for use in developing countries and in trade schools and shops everywhere. Besides concrete, the MultiMachine lathe requires only a steel bar, used pipe and a few discarded engine pistons that are used as a source of metal used in simple castings. The machine can be built by anyone with good mechanical skills, common mechanic's tools and a hand or powered drill. The machines can be built in sizes that will fit on a desktop or can be scaled up many times. Some Yeomans lathes weighed 10 tons and were able to accurately machine 3200 pound cannon projectiles.
                                                > >
                                                > > NOTE:
                                                > > The Multimachine project needs to have a lathe built and it's construction documented so that we improve the existing plans and design.
                                                > >
                                                > > The latest version of the plans are at: http://makeprojects.com/Project/The-Multimachine-150-12-Inch-swing-metal-lathe-and-mill/1751/1
                                                > >
                                                > > Important upporting files are at:
                                                > > http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Current+Design+Drawings
                                                > >
                                                > > Project 4
                                                > > An easily built and affordable lathe will be of little use if it is too difficult to train workers to machine the poor quality steel that is commonly available in developing countries. Needed is a machinist training method that could replace the normally long machining apprenticeship with training that takes much less time. We suggest a method of using conventional metal turning to only rough out a slightly oversized workpiece followed by grinding to a proper fit and finish. Turning steel to an exact size and finish can be quite difficult while roughing out is easily taught. Grinding is usually discouraged on a lathe because the grit can cause excessive wear but our concrete lathe has been expressly designed to be easily repaired or upgraded.
                                                > > Teaching the "old" skills of shaping and grinding cutting tools is a needed way to replace the use of the carbide tipped tools which are commonly used in the Western world. These are often too expensive to use, or even unavailable in many areas.
                                                > > The use of 3-D graphics to show otherwise difficult to explain tool shapes should be carefully explored. 3-D PDFs would be a great improvement over the older types of drawings that are often used for instruction in this critical skill.
                                                > >
                                                > > Project 5
                                                > > Coolant/lubricants are necessary for metal machining but normally used chemicals are unaffordable or unavailable in many parts of the world. A project to develop a coolant for machining steel that can be made from locally available ingredients could have great value. A starting point for such a project could be an "old-timers" trick of using 90% water, 10% motor oil (used and filtered?) and enough dishwasher detergent to mix them together. A device for testing effectiveness of different mixtures should be made.
                                                > >
                                                > > Project 6
                                                > > Welding rods are very expensive in many parts of the world. Developing a welding rod that could be made in rural areas is an important project. Welding rods made from concrete re-inforcing wire coated with lime and using commercial wallpaper paste as an adhesive is one possible answer.(I can put project members in touch with a Latin American blacksmith who has done this)
                                                > >
                                                > > Project 7
                                                > > Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more effective welders eye protection and can cause permanent eye damage after a just a few years. The development of a welding lens that would be cheap enough to include in boxes of welding rods could be an answer to the problem.
                                                > > It is hard to imagine economic development with welding.
                                                > >
                                                > > My question is: Someone here (I hope I can find his name!) suggested using the thin aluminum foil that is used to line packages of chips. I really tried but I can't peel the foil off. Can someone suggest a way of separating the foil from the plastic with a solvent?
                                                > >
                                                > > Pat
                                                > >
                                                >

                                              • Jose Manuel Luis
                                                http://stephenchastain.com/store/ I must say I ve never heard of him before, but now I got my eye on most of his books. José. From: mika ugbo Sent: Monday,
                                                Message 23 of 27 , Jul 2, 2012
                                                   
                                                  I must say I've never heard of him before, but now I got my eye on most of his books.
                                                   
                                                   
                                                  José.

                                                  From: mika ugbo
                                                  Sent: Monday, July 02, 2012 2:56 AM
                                                  Subject: Re: [multimachine] Re: To Michael Ugbo

                                                   

                                                  Hi Local,
                                                  Who is  Steve Chastain? Please give me more information about his work.
                                                  Thanks for your wonderful contributions.
                                                   
                                                  Michael Ugbo
                                                  --- On Sun, 7/1/12, Local <charcad2006@...> wrote:

                                                  From: Local <charcad2006@...>
                                                  Subject: [multimachine] Re: To Michael Ugbo
                                                  To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                                                  Received: Sunday, July 1, 2012, 8:46 AM

                                                   
                                                  1. Metallurgical charcoal making.

                                                  2. Iron melting cupola furnace construction and operation. I know Steve Chastain has book customers in Africa who've built and operate cupola furnaces. One (I think in Kenya) has done so well he mentioned adding employees solely to break up scrap iron.

                                                  3. Hand scraping tools.

                                                  Scrap aluminum will likely be too expensive. The far lower average incomes and the world price for Al ingot means it will be far more valuable as a % of the salvager's income.

                                                  Suitable silica sand and high alumina clays for making refractories and casting sands are available almost everywhere on Earth on land. One just needs to consult local geologists to find out where the closest deposits are. A silicon dioxide / alumina phase diagram shows the possibilities with these two materials. These include mullite phase crucibles and foundry ware.

                                                  The same charcoal fueled cupola furnaces can also fuel hi-temperature kilns to fire ceramics.

                                                  This will allow use of more abundant, cheaper and locally available scrap iron and steel.

                                                  This would also likely lead to a spin off ceramics and pottery trade. This trade could also make other items such as sinks, toilets and kitchenware.

                                                  If the idea is real community economic development then I think this is the direction to go.

                                                  --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, "Pat" <rigmatch@...> wrote:
                                                  >
                                                  > Guys, what can you add to this?
                                                  >
                                                  > Suggestions for starting a metal shop/small factory/trade school in Africa
                                                  >
                                                  > You will need the occasional use of a small truck.
                                                  >
                                                  > Skills needed to start:
                                                  > Basic metal machining, grinding cutting tools skills, basic stick welding. Parhaps you can be taught these skills in return for shop cleaning etc while you are in Canada. If your project is sucessful, you will eventually need someone with good machining and engineering skills.
                                                  > Aluminum alloy casting (is there a local cooking pan re-caster?)
                                                  >
                                                  > Tools
                                                  > If you have access to good junk, a concrete screw cutting can be built at a very low cost. Only basic mechanic's and carpenters tools are needed.
                                                  >
                                                  > Other possible sources of income as the project develops:
                                                  >
                                                  > Sales of our penetrating oil formula.
                                                  > Parts for a Cole drill, sale of drill bits or complete drills (the drill was developed at the request of an engineering professor in Kenya).
                                                  > A treadle powered wooden wood turning lathe. Wood should be acquired with drying time in mind.
                                                  > The Genny cell phone charger, charging and sales (developed at the request of a Peace Corps worker)
                                                  > Machining clutches and brakes, especially for trucks (suggested by a missionaries in Kenya and Mexico)
                                                  > Production of small concrete machine tools for schools and small shops.
                                                  > Production of a general purpose/truck brake lathe.
                                                  >
                                                  > Additional funding
                                                  > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowd_funding You will have to have a good start first so people will take you seriously. The Nigerian 911 scam has made people wary.
                                                  >
                                                  > Business plan
                                                  > Show people that you are serious by working hard (and doccumenting it)to learn the basic skills that are needed.
                                                  >
                                                  > Accumulate the basic tools needed.
                                                  >
                                                  > By the time that you do this, I think several lathes will have been built and doccumented.
                                                  >
                                                  > Start with your own clutch and brake lathe then build a very accurate lathe that can be used to make more lathes and milling machines.
                                                  >
                                                  >
                                                  >
                                                  > --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, mika ugbo <iyinbor@> wrote:
                                                  > >
                                                  > > Hi Pat,
                                                  > > May the good Lord bless your efforts and those of others in this forum for all your works to bring industrial revolution to developing countries. I happen to be from rural/agricultural areas of Nigeria although I presently live in Canada.
                                                  > >  
                                                  > > Please, how can I build a sustainable rural Technical school/business on these works of yours. Can anyone in the group help me with the technical/business plan? The concrete multimachine is really detail enough but had any body build one yet?
                                                  > >  
                                                  > > I am serious. I saved every message I received from this forum. Is there any member of our group that lives in Alberta,Canada? Pls. contact me.
                                                  > >  
                                                  > > You are one of those people that should be ruling my country's men. Africa need practical ideals that work not just aids.
                                                  > >  
                                                  > > Thanks.
                                                  > >  
                                                  > > Sincerely yours,
                                                  > > Michael Ugbo
                                                  > > Fort Mcmurray, Alberta
                                                  > > Tel: 780-531-1993
                                                  > >
                                                  > > --- On Fri, 3/30/12, Pat <rigmatch@> wrote:
                                                  > >
                                                  > >
                                                  > > From: Pat <rigmatch@>
                                                  > > Subject: [multimachine] Need some chemical knowledge
                                                  > > To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                                                  > > Received: Friday, March 30, 2012, 4:52 PM
                                                  > >
                                                  > >
                                                  > >
                                                  > >  
                                                  > >
                                                  > >
                                                  > >
                                                  > > Drexel University is going to list 7 of our projects as engineering class projects. A real honor! I need suggestions about project 7.
                                                  > >
                                                  > > This is what I sent to a professor there:
                                                  > >
                                                  > > A series of steps (projects) that could be be used to finance and build the equipment for a large metal-working shop or small factory in the developing world.
                                                  > >
                                                  > > Projects 1 and 2 are for simple, badly needed products that could be made and sold to get the few hundred dollars needed to buy the materials needed to build an accurate screw cutting lathe. This lathe (Project 3) would be central to the making of dedicated milling machines, drills and rolling and bending machines.
                                                  > >
                                                  > > Project 1
                                                  > > A very inexpensive tool that can drill holes the hardest steel. The 140 year old drill that we have modeled on can easily drill 1" holes, using a masonry bit, in something as hard as a file. We designed ours to drill holes, without using electricity, in steel plate that is to be used in making farm implements. These holes allow a steel tip attached to a wooden plow making it much more efficient than a plow that is entirely made of wood.
                                                  > > From the 1870's to the 1930's blacksmiths used a now almost forgotten technique that was often called "racheting" a hole. Instead of turning the bit at high speed,they turned the bit with a ratcheted crank while 500 to 1000 pounds of downward pressure was applied. An example is the "Cole" drill (link below). A Cole type drill is now too expensive for low income artizens because it's frame is a steel forging that has been internally threaded with a large, fine thread. This project involves replacing this forged and threaded device with a simple lever that can be used exert the needed high pressure on the bit while still alowing it to be turned easily. Design problems include a simple method to attach the bit, a simple thrust bearing design and a way to steady the spindle. Crude but succesful experiments are here (http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Cole+drill+project)
                                                  > >
                                                  > > Project 2
                                                  > > A WD 40 like penetrating oil for the developing world. If there any constant in metal work in many developing countries, it is rust. Heavily rusted parts often hold a otherwise unavailable treasure trove of vital but unavailable fasteners. A project starting point could be used (filtered) automatic transmission oil that could be mixed with some kind of a locally available solvent. Acetone is claimed to work well in practice (but seemingly not in theory!).
                                                  > >
                                                  > > Project 3, An accurate screw cutting metal lathe.
                                                  > > The MultiMachine concrete lathe project is a design for building the essential tools of a basic machine shop -- a screw cutting metal lathe, drill press and milling machine -- out of inexpensive materials easily available anywhere. Metalworking lathes in particular are necessary for the production of almost all tools and other manufactured goods but are often too expensive to be widely available.
                                                  > > In 1915, special lathes made from concrete were developed to quickly and cheaply produce millions of cannon shells needed for World War I. Lucien Yeomans, the inventor, won America's highest engineering award for this invention, but sadly the technique was almost forgotten after the war. We re-discovered it and recognized it as a way to quickly make inexpensive but accurate machine tools for use in developing countries and in trade schools and shops everywhere. Besides concrete, the MultiMachine lathe requires only a steel bar, used pipe and a few discarded engine pistons that are used as a source of metal used in simple castings. The machine can be built by anyone with good mechanical skills, common mechanic's tools and a hand or powered drill. The machines can be built in sizes that will fit on a desktop or can be scaled up many times. Some Yeomans lathes weighed 10 tons and were able to accurately machine 3200 pound cannon projectiles.
                                                  > >
                                                  > > NOTE:
                                                  > > The Multimachine project needs to have a lathe built and it's construction documented so that we improve the existing plans and design.
                                                  > >
                                                  > > The latest version of the plans are at: http://makeprojects.com/Project/The-Multimachine-150-12-Inch-swing-metal-lathe-and-mill/1751/1
                                                  > >
                                                  > > Important upporting files are at:
                                                  > > http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Current+Design+Drawings
                                                  > >
                                                  > > Project 4
                                                  > > An easily built and affordable lathe will be of little use if it is too difficult to train workers to machine the poor quality steel that is commonly available in developing countries. Needed is a machinist training method that could replace the normally long machining apprenticeship with training that takes much less time. We suggest a method of using conventional metal turning to only rough out a slightly oversized workpiece followed by grinding to a proper fit and finish. Turning steel to an exact size and finish can be quite difficult while roughing out is easily taught. Grinding is usually discouraged on a lathe because the grit can cause excessive wear but our concrete lathe has been expressly designed to be easily repaired or upgraded.
                                                  > > Teaching the "old" skills of shaping and grinding cutting tools is a needed way to replace the use of the carbide tipped tools which are commonly used in the Western world. These are often too expensive to use, or even unavailable in many areas.
                                                  > > The use of 3-D graphics to show otherwise difficult to explain tool shapes should be carefully explored. 3-D PDFs would be a great improvement over the older types of drawings that are often used for instruction in this critical skill.
                                                  > >
                                                  > > Project 5
                                                  > > Coolant/lubricants are necessary for metal machining but normally used chemicals are unaffordable or unavailable in many parts of the world. A project to develop a coolant for machining steel that can be made from locally available ingredients could have great value. A starting point for such a project could be an "old-timers" trick of using 90% water, 10% motor oil (used and filtered?) and enough dishwasher detergent to mix them together. A device for testing effectiveness of different mixtures should be made.
                                                  > >
                                                  > > Project 6
                                                  > > Welding rods are very expensive in many parts of the world. Developing a welding rod that could be made in rural areas is an important project. Welding rods made from concrete re-inforcing wire coated with lime and using commercial wallpaper paste as an adhesive is one possible answer.(I can put project members in touch with a Latin American blacksmith who has done this)
                                                  > >
                                                  > > Project 7
                                                  > > Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more effective welders eye protection and can cause permanent eye damage after a just a few years. The development of a welding lens that would be cheap enough to include in boxes of welding rods could be an answer to the problem.
                                                  > > It is hard to imagine economic development with welding.
                                                  > >
                                                  > > My question is: Someone here (I hope I can find his name!) suggested using the thin aluminum foil that is used to line packages of chips. I really tried but I can't peel the foil off. Can someone suggest a way of separating the foil from the plastic with a solvent?
                                                  > >
                                                  > > Pat
                                                  > >
                                                  >

                                                • mika ugbo
                                                  Hi Jose, Thanks Jose. I did googled the name which took me to his website. Mike Ugbo ... From: Jose Manuel Luis Subject: Re: [multimachine]
                                                  Message 24 of 27 , Jul 2, 2012
                                                    Hi Jose,
                                                    Thanks Jose. I did googled the name which took me to his website.
                                                    Mike Ugbo


                                                    --- On Mon, 7/2/12, Jose Manuel Luis <zmdluis@...> wrote:

                                                    From: Jose Manuel Luis <zmdluis@...>
                                                    Subject: Re: [multimachine] Re: To Michael Ugbo
                                                    To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                                                    Received: Monday, July 2, 2012, 3:59 AM

                                                     
                                                     
                                                    I must say I've never heard of him before, but now I got my eye on most of his books.
                                                     
                                                     
                                                    José.

                                                    From: mika ugbo
                                                    Sent: Monday, July 02, 2012 2:56 AM
                                                    Subject: Re: [multimachine] Re: To Michael Ugbo

                                                     
                                                    Hi Local,
                                                    Who is  Steve Chastain? Please give me more information about his work.
                                                    Thanks for your wonderful contributions.
                                                     
                                                    Michael Ugbo
                                                    --- On Sun, 7/1/12, Local <charcad2006@...> wrote:

                                                    From: Local <charcad2006@...>
                                                    Subject: [multimachine] Re: To Michael Ugbo
                                                    To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                                                    Received: Sunday, July 1, 2012, 8:46 AM

                                                     
                                                    1. Metallurgical charcoal making.

                                                    2. Iron melting cupola furnace construction and operation. I know Steve Chastain has book customers in Africa who've built and operate cupola furnaces. One (I think in Kenya) has done so well he mentioned adding employees solely to break up scrap iron.

                                                    3. Hand scraping tools.

                                                    Scrap aluminum will likely be too expensive. The far lower average incomes and the world price for Al ingot means it will be far more valuable as a % of the salvager's income.

                                                    Suitable silica sand and high alumina clays for making refractories and casting sands are available almost everywhere on Earth on land. One just needs to consult local geologists to find out where the closest deposits are. A silicon dioxide / alumina phase diagram shows the possibilities with these two materials. These include mullite phase crucibles and foundry ware.

                                                    The same charcoal fueled cupola furnaces can also fuel hi-temperature kilns to fire ceramics.

                                                    This will allow use of more abundant, cheaper and locally available scrap iron and steel.

                                                    This would also likely lead to a spin off ceramics and pottery trade. This trade could also make other items such as sinks, toilets and kitchenware.

                                                    If the idea is real community economic development then I think this is the direction to go.

                                                    --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, "Pat" <rigmatch@...> wrote:
                                                    >
                                                    > Guys, what can you add to this?
                                                    >
                                                    > Suggestions for starting a metal shop/small factory/trade school in Africa
                                                    >
                                                    > You will need the occasional use of a small truck.
                                                    >
                                                    > Skills needed to start:
                                                    > Basic metal machining, grinding cutting tools skills, basic stick welding. Parhaps you can be taught these skills in return for shop cleaning etc while you are in Canada. If your project is sucessful, you will eventually need someone with good machining and engineering skills.
                                                    > Aluminum alloy casting (is there a local cooking pan re-caster?)
                                                    >
                                                    > Tools
                                                    > If you have access to good junk, a concrete screw cutting can be built at a very low cost. Only basic mechanic's and carpenters tools are needed.
                                                    >
                                                    > Other possible sources of income as the project develops:
                                                    >
                                                    > Sales of our penetrating oil formula.
                                                    > Parts for a Cole drill, sale of drill bits or complete drills (the drill was developed at the request of an engineering professor in Kenya).
                                                    > A treadle powered wooden wood turning lathe. Wood should be acquired with drying time in mind.
                                                    > The Genny cell phone charger, charging and sales (developed at the request of a Peace Corps worker)
                                                    > Machining clutches and brakes, especially for trucks (suggested by a missionaries in Kenya and Mexico)
                                                    > Production of small concrete machine tools for schools and small shops.
                                                    > Production of a general purpose/truck brake lathe.
                                                    >
                                                    > Additional funding
                                                    > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowd_funding You will have to have a good start first so people will take you seriously. The Nigerian 911 scam has made people wary.
                                                    >
                                                    > Business plan
                                                    > Show people that you are serious by working hard (and doccumenting it)to learn the basic skills that are needed.
                                                    >
                                                    > Accumulate the basic tools needed.
                                                    >
                                                    > By the time that you do this, I think several lathes will have been built and doccumented.
                                                    >
                                                    > Start with your own clutch and brake lathe then build a very accurate lathe that can be used to make more lathes and milling machines.
                                                    >
                                                    >
                                                    >
                                                    > --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, mika ugbo <iyinbor@> wrote:
                                                    > >
                                                    > > Hi Pat,
                                                    > > May the good Lord bless your efforts and those of others in this forum for all your works to bring industrial revolution to developing countries. I happen to be from rural/agricultural areas of Nigeria although I presently live in Canada.
                                                    > >  
                                                    > > Please, how can I build a sustainable rural Technical school/business on these works of yours. Can anyone in the group help me with the technical/business plan? The concrete multimachine is really detail enough but had any body build one yet?
                                                    > >  
                                                    > > I am serious. I saved every message I received from this forum. Is there any member of our group that lives in Alberta,Canada? Pls. contact me.
                                                    > >  
                                                    > > You are one of those people that should be ruling my country's men. Africa need practical ideals that work not just aids.
                                                    > >  
                                                    > > Thanks.
                                                    > >  
                                                    > > Sincerely yours,
                                                    > > Michael Ugbo
                                                    > > Fort Mcmurray, Alberta
                                                    > > Tel: 780-531-1993
                                                    > >
                                                    > > --- On Fri, 3/30/12, Pat <rigmatch@> wrote:
                                                    > >
                                                    > >
                                                    > > From: Pat <rigmatch@>
                                                    > > Subject: [multimachine] Need some chemical knowledge
                                                    > > To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                                                    > > Received: Friday, March 30, 2012, 4:52 PM
                                                    > >
                                                    > >
                                                    > >
                                                    > >  
                                                    > >
                                                    > >
                                                    > >
                                                    > > Drexel University is going to list 7 of our projects as engineering class projects. A real honor! I need suggestions about project 7.
                                                    > >
                                                    > > This is what I sent to a professor there:
                                                    > >
                                                    > > A series of steps (projects) that could be be used to finance and build the equipment for a large metal-working shop or small factory in the developing world.
                                                    > >
                                                    > > Projects 1 and 2 are for simple, badly needed products that could be made and sold to get the few hundred dollars needed to buy the materials needed to build an accurate screw cutting lathe. This lathe (Project 3) would be central to the making of dedicated milling machines, drills and rolling and bending machines.
                                                    > >
                                                    > > Project 1
                                                    > > A very inexpensive tool that can drill holes the hardest steel. The 140 year old drill that we have modeled on can easily drill 1" holes, using a masonry bit, in something as hard as a file. We designed ours to drill holes, without using electricity, in steel plate that is to be used in making farm implements. These holes allow a steel tip attached to a wooden plow making it much more efficient than a plow that is entirely made of wood.
                                                    > > From the 1870's to the 1930's blacksmiths used a now almost forgotten technique that was often called "racheting" a hole. Instead of turning the bit at high speed,they turned the bit with a ratcheted crank while 500 to 1000 pounds of downward pressure was applied. An example is the "Cole" drill (link below). A Cole type drill is now too expensive for low income artizens because it's frame is a steel forging that has been internally threaded with a large, fine thread. This project involves replacing this forged and threaded device with a simple lever that can be used exert the needed high pressure on the bit while still alowing it to be turned easily. Design problems include a simple method to attach the bit, a simple thrust bearing design and a way to steady the spindle. Crude but succesful experiments are here (http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Cole+drill+project)
                                                    > >
                                                    > > Project 2
                                                    > > A WD 40 like penetrating oil for the developing world. If there any constant in metal work in many developing countries, it is rust. Heavily rusted parts often hold a otherwise unavailable treasure trove of vital but unavailable fasteners. A project starting point could be used (filtered) automatic transmission oil that could be mixed with some kind of a locally available solvent. Acetone is claimed to work well in practice (but seemingly not in theory!).
                                                    > >
                                                    > > Project 3, An accurate screw cutting metal lathe.
                                                    > > The MultiMachine concrete lathe project is a design for building the essential tools of a basic machine shop -- a screw cutting metal lathe, drill press and milling machine -- out of inexpensive materials easily available anywhere. Metalworking lathes in particular are necessary for the production of almost all tools and other manufactured goods but are often too expensive to be widely available.
                                                    > > In 1915, special lathes made from concrete were developed to quickly and cheaply produce millions of cannon shells needed for World War I. Lucien Yeomans, the inventor, won America's highest engineering award for this invention, but sadly the technique was almost forgotten after the war. We re-discovered it and recognized it as a way to quickly make inexpensive but accurate machine tools for use in developing countries and in trade schools and shops everywhere. Besides concrete, the MultiMachine lathe requires only a steel bar, used pipe and a few discarded engine pistons that are used as a source of metal used in simple castings. The machine can be built by anyone with good mechanical skills, common mechanic's tools and a hand or powered drill. The machines can be built in sizes that will fit on a desktop or can be scaled up many times. Some Yeomans lathes weighed 10 tons and were able to accurately machine 3200 pound cannon projectiles.
                                                    > >
                                                    > > NOTE:
                                                    > > The Multimachine project needs to have a lathe built and it's construction documented so that we improve the existing plans and design.
                                                    > >
                                                    > > The latest version of the plans are at: http://makeprojects.com/Project/The-Multimachine-150-12-Inch-swing-metal-lathe-and-mill/1751/1
                                                    > >
                                                    > > Important upporting files are at:
                                                    > > http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Current+Design+Drawings
                                                    > >
                                                    > > Project 4
                                                    > > An easily built and affordable lathe will be of little use if it is too difficult to train workers to machine the poor quality steel that is commonly available in developing countries. Needed is a machinist training method that could replace the normally long machining apprenticeship with training that takes much less time. We suggest a method of using conventional metal turning to only rough out a slightly oversized workpiece followed by grinding to a proper fit and finish. Turning steel to an exact size and finish can be quite difficult while roughing out is easily taught. Grinding is usually discouraged on a lathe because the grit can cause excessive wear but our concrete lathe has been expressly designed to be easily repaired or upgraded.
                                                    > > Teaching the "old" skills of shaping and grinding cutting tools is a needed way to replace the use of the carbide tipped tools which are commonly used in the Western world. These are often too expensive to use, or even unavailable in many areas.
                                                    > > The use of 3-D graphics to show otherwise difficult to explain tool shapes should be carefully explored. 3-D PDFs would be a great improvement over the older types of drawings that are often used for instruction in this critical skill.
                                                    > >
                                                    > > Project 5
                                                    > > Coolant/lubricants are necessary for metal machining but normally used chemicals are unaffordable or unavailable in many parts of the world. A project to develop a coolant for machining steel that can be made from locally available ingredients could have great value. A starting point for such a project could be an "old-timers" trick of using 90% water, 10% motor oil (used and filtered?) and enough dishwasher detergent to mix them together. A device for testing effectiveness of different mixtures should be made.
                                                    > >
                                                    > > Project 6
                                                    > > Welding rods are very expensive in many parts of the world. Developing a welding rod that could be made in rural areas is an important project. Welding rods made from concrete re-inforcing wire coated with lime and using commercial wallpaper paste as an adhesive is one possible answer.(I can put project members in touch with a Latin American blacksmith who has done this)
                                                    > >
                                                    > > Project 7
                                                    > > Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more effective welders eye protection and can cause permanent eye damage after a just a few years. The development of a welding lens that would be cheap enough to include in boxes of welding rods could be an answer to the problem.
                                                    > > It is hard to imagine economic development with welding.
                                                    > >
                                                    > > My question is: Someone here (I hope I can find his name!) suggested using the thin aluminum foil that is used to line packages of chips. I really tried but I can't peel the foil off. Can someone suggest a way of separating the foil from the plastic with a solvent?
                                                    > >
                                                    > > Pat
                                                    > >
                                                    >

                                                  • Local
                                                    Hello Michael, Steve is a mechanical engineer. He s published a number of books documenting his work with small scale foundries. He s also designed and
                                                    Message 25 of 27 , Jul 6, 2012
                                                      Hello Michael,

                                                      Steve is a mechanical engineer. He's published a number of books documenting his work with small scale foundries. He's also designed and published on small generators and converting waste oil to diesel fuel.

                                                      I have most of his foundry books. The three books probably of most interest to you are:


                                                      1. Metal Casting Vol. 1

                                                      2. Metal Casting Vol. 2

                                                      3. Iron Melting Cupola Furnaces

                                                      These cover sand casting and related areas. All are written from the viewpoint of the small foundry and shop.

                                                      Notice that Steve uses coal coke to fuel his cupola furnace. You (and almost everyone else) likely don't have coal coke available.

                                                      Metallurgical grade charcoal can be used instead to fuel iron melting cupolas:

                                                      See this UN FAO paper on charcoal making:

                                                      Simple technologies for charcoal making
                                                      http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5328e/X5328e00.htm

                                                      Metallurgical char was used to fuel cupolas before coal coke was developed.

                                                      Mark



                                                      --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, mika ugbo <iyinbor@...> wrote:
                                                      >
                                                      > Hi Local,
                                                      > Who is  Steve Chastain? Please give me more information about his work.
                                                      > Thanks for your wonderful contributions.
                                                      >  
                                                      > Michael Ugbo
                                                      > --- On Sun, 7/1/12, Local <charcad2006@...> wrote:
                                                      >
                                                      >
                                                      > From: Local <charcad2006@...>
                                                      > Subject: [multimachine] Re: To Michael Ugbo
                                                      > To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                                                      > Received: Sunday, July 1, 2012, 8:46 AM
                                                      >
                                                      >
                                                      >
                                                      >  
                                                      >
                                                      >
                                                      >
                                                      > 1. Metallurgical charcoal making.
                                                      >
                                                      > 2. Iron melting cupola furnace construction and operation. I know Steve Chastain has book customers in Africa who've built and operate cupola furnaces. One (I think in Kenya) has done so well he mentioned adding employees solely to break up scrap iron.
                                                      >
                                                      > 3. Hand scraping tools.
                                                      >
                                                      > Scrap aluminum will likely be too expensive. The far lower average incomes and the world price for Al ingot means it will be far more valuable as a % of the salvager's income.
                                                      >
                                                      > Suitable silica sand and high alumina clays for making refractories and casting sands are available almost everywhere on Earth on land. One just needs to consult local geologists to find out where the closest deposits are. A silicon dioxide / alumina phase diagram shows the possibilities with these two materials. These include mullite phase crucibles and foundry ware.
                                                      >
                                                      > The same charcoal fueled cupola furnaces can also fuel hi-temperature kilns to fire ceramics.
                                                      >
                                                      > This will allow use of more abundant, cheaper and locally available scrap iron and steel.
                                                      >
                                                      > This would also likely lead to a spin off ceramics and pottery trade. This trade could also make other items such as sinks, toilets and kitchenware.
                                                      >
                                                      > If the idea is real community economic development then I think this is the direction to go.
                                                      >
                                                      > --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, "Pat" <rigmatch@> wrote:
                                                      > >
                                                      > > Guys, what can you add to this?
                                                      > >
                                                      > > Suggestions for starting a metal shop/small factory/trade school in Africa
                                                      > >
                                                      > > You will need the occasional use of a small truck.
                                                      > >
                                                      > > Skills needed to start:
                                                      > > Basic metal machining, grinding cutting tools skills, basic stick welding. Parhaps you can be taught these skills in return for shop cleaning etc while you are in Canada. If your project is sucessful, you will eventually need someone with good machining and engineering skills.
                                                      > > Aluminum alloy casting (is there a local cooking pan re-caster?)
                                                      > >
                                                      > > Tools
                                                      > > If you have access to good junk, a concrete screw cutting can be built at a very low cost. Only basic mechanic's and carpenters tools are needed.
                                                      > >
                                                      > > Other possible sources of income as the project develops:
                                                      > >
                                                      > > Sales of our penetrating oil formula.
                                                      > > Parts for a Cole drill, sale of drill bits or complete drills (the drill was developed at the request of an engineering professor in Kenya).
                                                      > > A treadle powered wooden wood turning lathe. Wood should be acquired with drying time in mind.
                                                      > > The Genny cell phone charger, charging and sales (developed at the request of a Peace Corps worker)
                                                      > > Machining clutches and brakes, especially for trucks (suggested by a missionaries in Kenya and Mexico)
                                                      > > Production of small concrete machine tools for schools and small shops.
                                                      > > Production of a general purpose/truck brake lathe.
                                                      > >
                                                      > > Additional funding
                                                      > > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowd_funding You will have to have a good start first so people will take you seriously. The Nigerian 911 scam has made people wary.
                                                      > >
                                                      > > Business plan
                                                      > > Show people that you are serious by working hard (and doccumenting it)to learn the basic skills that are needed.
                                                      > >
                                                      > > Accumulate the basic tools needed.
                                                      > >
                                                      > > By the time that you do this, I think several lathes will have been built and doccumented.
                                                      > >
                                                      > > Start with your own clutch and brake lathe then build a very accurate lathe that can be used to make more lathes and milling machines.
                                                      > >
                                                      > >
                                                      > >
                                                      > > --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, mika ugbo <iyinbor@> wrote:
                                                      > > >
                                                      > > > Hi Pat,
                                                      > > > May the good Lord bless your efforts and those of others in this forum for all your works to bring industrial revolution to developing countries. I happen to be from rural/agricultural areas of Nigeria although I presently live in Canada.
                                                      > > >  
                                                      > > > Please, how can I build a sustainable rural Technical school/business on these works of yours. Can anyone in the group help me with the technical/business plan? The concrete multimachine is really detail enough but had any body build one yet?
                                                      > > >  
                                                      > > > I am serious. I saved every message I received from this forum. Is there any member of our group that lives in Alberta,Canada? Pls. contact me.
                                                      > > >  
                                                      > > > You are one of those people that should be ruling my country's men. Africa need practical ideals that work not just aids.
                                                      > > >  
                                                      > > > Thanks.
                                                      > > >  
                                                      > > > Sincerely yours,
                                                      > > > Michael Ugbo
                                                      > > > Fort Mcmurray, Alberta
                                                      > > > Tel: 780-531-1993
                                                      > > >
                                                      > > > --- On Fri, 3/30/12, Pat <rigmatch@> wrote:
                                                      > > >
                                                      > > >
                                                      > > > From: Pat <rigmatch@>
                                                      > > > Subject: [multimachine] Need some chemical knowledge
                                                      > > > To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                                                      > > > Received: Friday, March 30, 2012, 4:52 PM
                                                      > > >
                                                      > > >
                                                      > > >
                                                      > > >  
                                                      > > >
                                                      > > >
                                                      > > >
                                                      > > > Drexel University is going to list 7 of our projects as engineering class projects. A real honor! I need suggestions about project 7.
                                                      > > >
                                                      > > > This is what I sent to a professor there:
                                                      > > >
                                                      > > > A series of steps (projects) that could be be used to finance and build the equipment for a large metal-working shop or small factory in the developing world.
                                                      > > >
                                                      > > > Projects 1 and 2 are for simple, badly needed products that could be made and sold to get the few hundred dollars needed to buy the materials needed to build an accurate screw cutting lathe. This lathe (Project 3) would be central to the making of dedicated milling machines, drills and rolling and bending machines.
                                                      > > >
                                                      > > > Project 1
                                                      > > > A very inexpensive tool that can drill holes the hardest steel. The 140 year old drill that we have modeled on can easily drill 1" holes, using a masonry bit, in something as hard as a file. We designed ours to drill holes, without using electricity, in steel plate that is to be used in making farm implements. These holes allow a steel tip attached to a wooden plow making it much more efficient than a plow that is entirely made of wood.
                                                      > > > From the 1870's to the 1930's blacksmiths used a now almost forgotten technique that was often called "racheting" a hole. Instead of turning the bit at high speed,they turned the bit with a ratcheted crank while 500 to 1000 pounds of downward pressure was applied. An example is the "Cole" drill (link below). A Cole type drill is now too expensive for low income artizens because it's frame is a steel forging that has been internally threaded with a large, fine thread. This project involves replacing this forged and threaded device with a simple lever that can be used exert the needed high pressure on the bit while still alowing it to be turned easily. Design problems include a simple method to attach the bit, a simple thrust bearing design and a way to steady the spindle. Crude but succesful experiments are here (http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Cole+drill+project)
                                                      > > >
                                                      > > > Project 2
                                                      > > > A WD 40 like penetrating oil for the developing world. If there any constant in metal work in many developing countries, it is rust. Heavily rusted parts often hold a otherwise unavailable treasure trove of vital but unavailable fasteners. A project starting point could be used (filtered) automatic transmission oil that could be mixed with some kind of a locally available solvent. Acetone is claimed to work well in practice (but seemingly not in theory!).
                                                      > > >
                                                      > > > Project 3, An accurate screw cutting metal lathe.
                                                      > > > The MultiMachine concrete lathe project is a design for building the essential tools of a basic machine shop -- a screw cutting metal lathe, drill press and milling machine -- out of inexpensive materials easily available anywhere. Metalworking lathes in particular are necessary for the production of almost all tools and other manufactured goods but are often too expensive to be widely available.
                                                      > > > In 1915, special lathes made from concrete were developed to quickly and cheaply produce millions of cannon shells needed for World War I. Lucien Yeomans, the inventor, won America's highest engineering award for this invention, but sadly the technique was almost forgotten after the war. We re-discovered it and recognized it as a way to quickly make inexpensive but accurate machine tools for use in developing countries and in trade schools and shops everywhere. Besides concrete, the MultiMachine lathe requires only a steel bar, used pipe and a few discarded engine pistons that are used as a source of metal used in simple castings. The machine can be built by anyone with good mechanical skills, common mechanic's tools and a hand or powered drill. The machines can be built in sizes that will fit on a desktop or can be scaled up many times. Some Yeomans lathes weighed 10 tons and were able to accurately machine 3200 pound cannon projectiles.
                                                      > > >
                                                      > > > NOTE:
                                                      > > > The Multimachine project needs to have a lathe built and it's construction documented so that we improve the existing plans and design.
                                                      > > >
                                                      > > > The latest version of the plans are at: http://makeprojects.com/Project/The-Multimachine-150-12-Inch-swing-metal-lathe-and-mill/1751/1
                                                      > > >
                                                      > > > Important upporting files are at:
                                                      > > > http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Current+Design+Drawings
                                                      > > >
                                                      > > > Project 4
                                                      > > > An easily built and affordable lathe will be of little use if it is too difficult to train workers to machine the poor quality steel that is commonly available in developing countries. Needed is a machinist training method that could replace the normally long machining apprenticeship with training that takes much less time. We suggest a method of using conventional metal turning to only rough out a slightly oversized workpiece followed by grinding to a proper fit and finish. Turning steel to an exact size and finish can be quite difficult while roughing out is easily taught. Grinding is usually discouraged on a lathe because the grit can cause excessive wear but our concrete lathe has been expressly designed to be easily repaired or upgraded.
                                                      > > > Teaching the "old" skills of shaping and grinding cutting tools is a needed way to replace the use of the carbide tipped tools which are commonly used in the Western world. These are often too expensive to use, or even unavailable in many areas.
                                                      > > > The use of 3-D graphics to show otherwise difficult to explain tool shapes should be carefully explored. 3-D PDFs would be a great improvement over the older types of drawings that are often used for instruction in this critical skill.
                                                      > > >
                                                      > > > Project 5
                                                      > > > Coolant/lubricants are necessary for metal machining but normally used chemicals are unaffordable or unavailable in many parts of the world. A project to develop a coolant for machining steel that can be made from locally available ingredients could have great value. A starting point for such a project could be an "old-timers" trick of using 90% water, 10% motor oil (used and filtered?) and enough dishwasher detergent to mix them together. A device for testing effectiveness of different mixtures should be made.
                                                      > > >
                                                      > > > Project 6
                                                      > > > Welding rods are very expensive in many parts of the world. Developing a welding rod that could be made in rural areas is an important project. Welding rods made from concrete re-inforcing wire coated with lime and using commercial wallpaper paste as an adhesive is one possible answer.(I can put project members in touch with a Latin American blacksmith who has done this)
                                                      > > >
                                                      > > > Project 7
                                                      > > > Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more effective welders eye protection and can cause permanent eye damage after a just a few years. The development of a welding lens that would be cheap enough to include in boxes of welding rods could be an answer to the problem.
                                                      > > > It is hard to imagine economic development with welding.
                                                      > > >
                                                      > > > My question is: Someone here (I hope I can find his name!) suggested using the thin aluminum foil that is used to line packages of chips. I really tried but I can't peel the foil off. Can someone suggest a way of separating the foil from the plastic with a solvent?
                                                      > > >
                                                      > > > Pat
                                                      > > >
                                                      > >
                                                      >
                                                    • Local
                                                      p.s. to Michael Ugbo The 1958 US Navy Foundry manual is also a first class source of how-to information on small foundry operations. It s now free online
                                                      Message 26 of 27 , Jul 6, 2012
                                                        p.s. to Michael Ugbo

                                                        The 1958 US Navy Foundry manual is also a first class source of how-to information on small foundry operations. It's now free online here:

                                                        http://www.hnsa.org/doc/foundry/index.htm

                                                        --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, "Local" <charcad2006@...> wrote:
                                                        >
                                                        > Hello Michael,
                                                        >
                                                        > Steve is a mechanical engineer. He's published a number of books documenting his work with small scale foundries. He's also designed and published on small generators and converting waste oil to diesel fuel.
                                                        >
                                                        > I have most of his foundry books. The three books probably of most interest to you are:
                                                        >
                                                        >
                                                        > 1. Metal Casting Vol. 1
                                                        >
                                                        > 2. Metal Casting Vol. 2
                                                        >
                                                        > 3. Iron Melting Cupola Furnaces
                                                        >
                                                        > These cover sand casting and related areas. All are written from the viewpoint of the small foundry and shop.
                                                        >
                                                        > Notice that Steve uses coal coke to fuel his cupola furnace. You (and almost everyone else) likely don't have coal coke available.
                                                        >
                                                        > Metallurgical grade charcoal can be used instead to fuel iron melting cupolas:
                                                        >
                                                        > See this UN FAO paper on charcoal making:
                                                        >
                                                        > Simple technologies for charcoal making
                                                        > http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5328e/X5328e00.htm
                                                        >
                                                        > Metallurgical char was used to fuel cupolas before coal coke was developed.
                                                        >
                                                        > Mark
                                                        >
                                                        >
                                                        >
                                                        > --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, mika ugbo <iyinbor@> wrote:
                                                        > >
                                                        > > Hi Local,
                                                        > > Who is  Steve Chastain? Please give me more information about his work.
                                                        > > Thanks for your wonderful contributions.
                                                        > >  
                                                        > > Michael Ugbo
                                                        > > --- On Sun, 7/1/12, Local <charcad2006@> wrote:
                                                        > >
                                                        > >
                                                        > > From: Local <charcad2006@>
                                                        > > Subject: [multimachine] Re: To Michael Ugbo
                                                        > > To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                                                        > > Received: Sunday, July 1, 2012, 8:46 AM
                                                        > >
                                                        > >
                                                        > >
                                                        > >  
                                                        > >
                                                        > >
                                                        > >
                                                        > > 1. Metallurgical charcoal making.
                                                        > >
                                                        > > 2. Iron melting cupola furnace construction and operation. I know Steve Chastain has book customers in Africa who've built and operate cupola furnaces. One (I think in Kenya) has done so well he mentioned adding employees solely to break up scrap iron.
                                                        > >
                                                        > > 3. Hand scraping tools.
                                                        > >
                                                        > > Scrap aluminum will likely be too expensive. The far lower average incomes and the world price for Al ingot means it will be far more valuable as a % of the salvager's income.
                                                        > >
                                                        > > Suitable silica sand and high alumina clays for making refractories and casting sands are available almost everywhere on Earth on land. One just needs to consult local geologists to find out where the closest deposits are. A silicon dioxide / alumina phase diagram shows the possibilities with these two materials. These include mullite phase crucibles and foundry ware.
                                                        > >
                                                        > > The same charcoal fueled cupola furnaces can also fuel hi-temperature kilns to fire ceramics.
                                                        > >
                                                        > > This will allow use of more abundant, cheaper and locally available scrap iron and steel.
                                                        > >
                                                        > > This would also likely lead to a spin off ceramics and pottery trade. This trade could also make other items such as sinks, toilets and kitchenware.
                                                        > >
                                                        > > If the idea is real community economic development then I think this is the direction to go.
                                                        > >
                                                        > > --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, "Pat" <rigmatch@> wrote:
                                                        > > >
                                                        > > > Guys, what can you add to this?
                                                        > > >
                                                        > > > Suggestions for starting a metal shop/small factory/trade school in Africa
                                                        > > >
                                                        > > > You will need the occasional use of a small truck.
                                                        > > >
                                                        > > > Skills needed to start:
                                                        > > > Basic metal machining, grinding cutting tools skills, basic stick welding. Parhaps you can be taught these skills in return for shop cleaning etc while you are in Canada. If your project is sucessful, you will eventually need someone with good machining and engineering skills.
                                                        > > > Aluminum alloy casting (is there a local cooking pan re-caster?)
                                                        > > >
                                                        > > > Tools
                                                        > > > If you have access to good junk, a concrete screw cutting can be built at a very low cost. Only basic mechanic's and carpenters tools are needed.
                                                        > > >
                                                        > > > Other possible sources of income as the project develops:
                                                        > > >
                                                        > > > Sales of our penetrating oil formula.
                                                        > > > Parts for a Cole drill, sale of drill bits or complete drills (the drill was developed at the request of an engineering professor in Kenya).
                                                        > > > A treadle powered wooden wood turning lathe. Wood should be acquired with drying time in mind.
                                                        > > > The Genny cell phone charger, charging and sales (developed at the request of a Peace Corps worker)
                                                        > > > Machining clutches and brakes, especially for trucks (suggested by a missionaries in Kenya and Mexico)
                                                        > > > Production of small concrete machine tools for schools and small shops.
                                                        > > > Production of a general purpose/truck brake lathe.
                                                        > > >
                                                        > > > Additional funding
                                                        > > > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowd_funding You will have to have a good start first so people will take you seriously. The Nigerian 911 scam has made people wary.
                                                        > > >
                                                        > > > Business plan
                                                        > > > Show people that you are serious by working hard (and doccumenting it)to learn the basic skills that are needed.
                                                        > > >
                                                        > > > Accumulate the basic tools needed.
                                                        > > >
                                                        > > > By the time that you do this, I think several lathes will have been built and doccumented.
                                                        > > >
                                                        > > > Start with your own clutch and brake lathe then build a very accurate lathe that can be used to make more lathes and milling machines.
                                                        > > >
                                                        > > >
                                                        > > >
                                                        > > > --- In multimachine@yahoogroups.com, mika ugbo <iyinbor@> wrote:
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > > > Hi Pat,
                                                        > > > > May the good Lord bless your efforts and those of others in this forum for all your works to bring industrial revolution to developing countries. I happen to be from rural/agricultural areas of Nigeria although I presently live in Canada.
                                                        > > > >  
                                                        > > > > Please, how can I build a sustainable rural Technical school/business on these works of yours. Can anyone in the group help me with the technical/business plan? The concrete multimachine is really detail enough but had any body build one yet?
                                                        > > > >  
                                                        > > > > I am serious. I saved every message I received from this forum. Is there any member of our group that lives in Alberta,Canada? Pls. contact me.
                                                        > > > >  
                                                        > > > > You are one of those people that should be ruling my country's men. Africa need practical ideals that work not just aids.
                                                        > > > >  
                                                        > > > > Thanks.
                                                        > > > >  
                                                        > > > > Sincerely yours,
                                                        > > > > Michael Ugbo
                                                        > > > > Fort Mcmurray, Alberta
                                                        > > > > Tel: 780-531-1993
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > > > --- On Fri, 3/30/12, Pat <rigmatch@> wrote:
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > > > From: Pat <rigmatch@>
                                                        > > > > Subject: [multimachine] Need some chemical knowledge
                                                        > > > > To: multimachine@yahoogroups.com
                                                        > > > > Received: Friday, March 30, 2012, 4:52 PM
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > > >  
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > > > Drexel University is going to list 7 of our projects as engineering class projects. A real honor! I need suggestions about project 7.
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > > > This is what I sent to a professor there:
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > > > A series of steps (projects) that could be be used to finance and build the equipment for a large metal-working shop or small factory in the developing world.
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > > > Projects 1 and 2 are for simple, badly needed products that could be made and sold to get the few hundred dollars needed to buy the materials needed to build an accurate screw cutting lathe. This lathe (Project 3) would be central to the making of dedicated milling machines, drills and rolling and bending machines.
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > > > Project 1
                                                        > > > > A very inexpensive tool that can drill holes the hardest steel. The 140 year old drill that we have modeled on can easily drill 1" holes, using a masonry bit, in something as hard as a file. We designed ours to drill holes, without using electricity, in steel plate that is to be used in making farm implements. These holes allow a steel tip attached to a wooden plow making it much more efficient than a plow that is entirely made of wood.
                                                        > > > > From the 1870's to the 1930's blacksmiths used a now almost forgotten technique that was often called "racheting" a hole. Instead of turning the bit at high speed,they turned the bit with a ratcheted crank while 500 to 1000 pounds of downward pressure was applied. An example is the "Cole" drill (link below). A Cole type drill is now too expensive for low income artizens because it's frame is a steel forging that has been internally threaded with a large, fine thread. This project involves replacing this forged and threaded device with a simple lever that can be used exert the needed high pressure on the bit while still alowing it to be turned easily. Design problems include a simple method to attach the bit, a simple thrust bearing design and a way to steady the spindle. Crude but succesful experiments are here (http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Cole+drill+project)
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > > > Project 2
                                                        > > > > A WD 40 like penetrating oil for the developing world. If there any constant in metal work in many developing countries, it is rust. Heavily rusted parts often hold a otherwise unavailable treasure trove of vital but unavailable fasteners. A project starting point could be used (filtered) automatic transmission oil that could be mixed with some kind of a locally available solvent. Acetone is claimed to work well in practice (but seemingly not in theory!).
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > > > Project 3, An accurate screw cutting metal lathe.
                                                        > > > > The MultiMachine concrete lathe project is a design for building the essential tools of a basic machine shop -- a screw cutting metal lathe, drill press and milling machine -- out of inexpensive materials easily available anywhere. Metalworking lathes in particular are necessary for the production of almost all tools and other manufactured goods but are often too expensive to be widely available.
                                                        > > > > In 1915, special lathes made from concrete were developed to quickly and cheaply produce millions of cannon shells needed for World War I. Lucien Yeomans, the inventor, won America's highest engineering award for this invention, but sadly the technique was almost forgotten after the war. We re-discovered it and recognized it as a way to quickly make inexpensive but accurate machine tools for use in developing countries and in trade schools and shops everywhere. Besides concrete, the MultiMachine lathe requires only a steel bar, used pipe and a few discarded engine pistons that are used as a source of metal used in simple castings. The machine can be built by anyone with good mechanical skills, common mechanic's tools and a hand or powered drill. The machines can be built in sizes that will fit on a desktop or can be scaled up many times. Some Yeomans lathes weighed 10 tons and were able to accurately machine 3200 pound cannon projectiles.
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > > > NOTE:
                                                        > > > > The Multimachine project needs to have a lathe built and it's construction documented so that we improve the existing plans and design.
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > > > The latest version of the plans are at: http://makeprojects.com/Project/The-Multimachine-150-12-Inch-swing-metal-lathe-and-mill/1751/1
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > > > Important upporting files are at:
                                                        > > > > http://concretelathe.wikispaces.com/Current+Design+Drawings
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > > > Project 4
                                                        > > > > An easily built and affordable lathe will be of little use if it is too difficult to train workers to machine the poor quality steel that is commonly available in developing countries. Needed is a machinist training method that could replace the normally long machining apprenticeship with training that takes much less time. We suggest a method of using conventional metal turning to only rough out a slightly oversized workpiece followed by grinding to a proper fit and finish. Turning steel to an exact size and finish can be quite difficult while roughing out is easily taught. Grinding is usually discouraged on a lathe because the grit can cause excessive wear but our concrete lathe has been expressly designed to be easily repaired or upgraded.
                                                        > > > > Teaching the "old" skills of shaping and grinding cutting tools is a needed way to replace the use of the carbide tipped tools which are commonly used in the Western world. These are often too expensive to use, or even unavailable in many areas.
                                                        > > > > The use of 3-D graphics to show otherwise difficult to explain tool shapes should be carefully explored. 3-D PDFs would be a great improvement over the older types of drawings that are often used for instruction in this critical skill.
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > > > Project 5
                                                        > > > > Coolant/lubricants are necessary for metal machining but normally used chemicals are unaffordable or unavailable in many parts of the world. A project to develop a coolant for machining steel that can be made from locally available ingredients could have great value. A starting point for such a project could be an "old-timers" trick of using 90% water, 10% motor oil (used and filtered?) and enough dishwasher detergent to mix them together. A device for testing effectiveness of different mixtures should be made.
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > > > Project 6
                                                        > > > > Welding rods are very expensive in many parts of the world. Developing a welding rod that could be made in rural areas is an important project. Welding rods made from concrete re-inforcing wire coated with lime and using commercial wallpaper paste as an adhesive is one possible answer.(I can put project members in touch with a Latin American blacksmith who has done this)
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > > > Project 7
                                                        > > > > Welder eye safety in the developing world seems to be a critical problem. Regular sunglasses are commonly used as a substitute for more effective welders eye protection and can cause permanent eye damage after a just a few years. The development of a welding lens that would be cheap enough to include in boxes of welding rods could be an answer to the problem.
                                                        > > > > It is hard to imagine economic development with welding.
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > > > My question is: Someone here (I hope I can find his name!) suggested using the thin aluminum foil that is used to line packages of chips. I really tried but I can't peel the foil off. Can someone suggest a way of separating the foil from the plastic with a solvent?
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > > > Pat
                                                        > > > >
                                                        > > >
                                                        > >
                                                        >
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