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CONF: NPMMvYa, 28.02.2009, doklad B. H. Partee

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  • Mati Pentus
    Sm. nizhe transliteraciyu. Продолжает работу семинар Некоторые применения математических
    Message 1 of 1 , Feb 17, 2009
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      Sm. nizhe transliteraciyu.

      Продолжает работу семинар
      "Некоторые применения математических методов в языкознании"
      под руководством В. А. Успенского и М. Р. Пентуса.

      Занятия семинара проходят по субботам
      в ауд. 956 филологического факультета МГУ.
      Начало занятий - 14 ч. 30 мин.

      На 129-м занятии семинара, 28 февраля 2009 г., выступит
      Барбара Парти (Barbara H. Partee,
      University of Massachusetts, Amherst and MGU)
      с докладом
      "Symmetry and Symmetrical Predicates" (Симметрия и симметричные предикаты)
      на английском языке (но вопросы можно задавать и на русском).


      "Symmetrical predicates" have distinctive linguistic
      properties in many languages. But the concept of
      "symmetry" merits closer examination. The psychologist
      Amos Tversky [1] claimed that even the concept 'similar'
      is in fact not symmetrical. Tversky's experimental
      subjects generally rated (1a) as holding to a higher
      degree than (1b).

      (1) a. North Korea is similar to Red China.
      b. Red China is similar to North Korea.

      Lila Gleitman and colleagues argue [2] that 'similar' is
      symmetrical, and that the judgments reflect figure-ground
      differences encoded in the syntax. They find a robust
      linguistic distinction between symmetrical and
      "asymmetrical" predicates, using a semantic paraphrase
      test illustrated below: (2a) and (2b), with symmetrical
      'meet', are close in meaning, but (3a) and (3b), with the
      "asymmetrical" 'drown', are not.

      (2) a. John and Bill meet.
      b. John and Bill meet each other.
      (3) a. John and Bill drown.
      b. John and Bill drown each other.

      Gleitman et al's paper analyzes symmetrical and what I
      will call "quasi-symmetrical" or "sometimes-symmetrical"
      verbs ('meet', 'kiss'), and adjectives ('similar'), to
      which I will add nouns ('sibling', 'brother'). Their paper
      solves the mysteries raised by Tversky concerning the
      apparent non-symmetrical behavior of symmetrical
      predicates like 'similar'. At the same time, Gleitman et
      al's uses of the terms "symmetrical" and "asymmetrical" do
      not always fit the standard mathematical definitions.

      A goal of this talk (as of [3,4]) is to see how the
      standard mathematical definitions of symmetry could be
      modified to better fit the linguistic facts. This requires
      looking at the linguistic facts more carefully as well,
      especially at the role of the event argument with verbs
      and at nouns like 'brother' that are symmetrical on
      naturally-delimited domains.


      [1] Tversky, Amos. 1977. Features of similarity.
      Psychological Review 84:327-352.

      [2] Gleitman, Lila R., Gleitman, Henry, Miller, Carol, and
      Ostrin, Ruth. 1996. Similar, and similar concepts.
      Cognition 58:321-376.

      [3] Partee, Barbara H. 2008. Symmetry and symmetrical
      predicates. In Computational Linguistics and Intellectual
      Technologies: Papers from the International Conference
      "DIALOGUE" (2008), ed. A. E. Kibrik et al, 606-611. Moscow.

      [4] Schwarz, Bernhard. 2006. Covert reciprocity and
      Strawson-symmetry [June 2006]. Snippets 13.

      Prodolzhaet rabotu seminar "Nekotorye primenenija matematicheskih metodov v
      jazykoznanii" pod rukovodstvom V. A. Uspenskogo i M. R. Pentusa. Zanjatija
      seminara prohodjat po subbotam v aud. 956 filologicheskogo fakul'teta MGU.
      Nachalo zanjatij - 14 ch. 30 min. Na 129-m zanjatii seminara, 28 fevralja
      2009 g., vystupit Barbara H. Partee (University of Massachusetts, Amherst
      and MGU) s dokladom "Symmetry and Symmetrical Predicates"
      na anglijskom jazyke (no voprosy mozhno zadavat' i na russkom).
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