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[mp1] Linking confusion

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  • William McKee
    Hi folks, I m trying to recompile Perl and Apache/mod_perl on a Debian Sarge system using the following versions: Perl 5.8.6 Apache 1.3.33 mod_perl 1.29 I am
    Message 1 of 14 , Dec 30, 2004
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      Hi folks,

      I'm trying to recompile Perl and Apache/mod_perl on a Debian Sarge
      system using the following versions:

      Perl 5.8.6
      Apache 1.3.33
      mod_perl 1.29

      I am compiling mod_perl statically (using Apachetoolbox) with the
      following options:

      APACHE_PREFIX=/usr/local/apache
      APACHE_SRC=/usr/local/src/Apachetoolbox-1.5.72/apache_1.3.33/src
      SSL_BASE=
      APACI_ARGS='--enable-module=rewrite'
      DO_HTTPD=1
      USE_APACI=1
      EVERYTHING=1

      During compilation of mod_perl, I was seeing undefined reference errors
      which are nicely described on the install page[1]. The prescription
      suggests rebuilding Perl with dynamic linking; apparently the version
      that's shipped with Debian is not dynamically linked(?). Sounds fine,
      but I'm not a C programmer so am not sure exactly what this means.

      From what I could find reading the INSTALL document that comes with the
      Perl source, I need to recompile with the -Duseshrplib compile-time
      option. My understanding is that this option will build a libperl.so
      file. Is this correct? Am I taking the right action to build a dynamic
      Perl?

      With that option, I am able to compile Apache with mod_perl. Now though,
      when starting the newly compiled server, I'm receiving relocation errors
      which appear to be due to multiple versions of libperl.so/libperl.a (not
      sure which).

      While browsing the net for possible solutions, I came across the
      troubleshooting document[2]. It seems to say that if 'perl
      -V:useshrplib' returns true, then Perl is statically linked. Is this
      correct? It seems opposite of what I'd expect from reading the INSTALL
      document.

      I'm pretty much at wits end as to why I'm receiving relocation errors.
      The best I can figure is some kind of binary incompatibility between the
      version of Perl that I've compiled and previously compiled libraries.
      I've tried reinstalling some of the XS modules such as DBI which seems
      to clear up these errors.

      Any other suggestions or pointers, esp. in light of the differences
      between dynamic and static linking and libperl.so/libperl.a, would be
      much appreciated.


      Thanks,
      William

      [1] http://perl.apache.org/docs/1.0/guide/install.html#Undefined_reference_to__PL_perl_destruct_level_
      [2] http://perl.apache.org/docs/1.0/guide/troubleshooting.html#_relocation_errors__or__undefined_symbol_

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    • Stas Bekman
      ... Now that you know what does it take, please send a patch that extends [1] to explain how to do that. ... That s correct. ... Right, it s a docbug, fixed in
      Message 2 of 14 , Dec 30, 2004
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        William McKee wrote:
        > Hi folks,
        >
        > I'm trying to recompile Perl and Apache/mod_perl on a Debian Sarge
        > system using the following versions:
        >
        > Perl 5.8.6
        > Apache 1.3.33
        > mod_perl 1.29
        >
        > I am compiling mod_perl statically (using Apachetoolbox) with the
        > following options:
        >
        > APACHE_PREFIX=/usr/local/apache
        > APACHE_SRC=/usr/local/src/Apachetoolbox-1.5.72/apache_1.3.33/src
        > SSL_BASE=
        > APACI_ARGS='--enable-module=rewrite'
        > DO_HTTPD=1
        > USE_APACI=1
        > EVERYTHING=1
        >
        > During compilation of mod_perl, I was seeing undefined reference errors
        > which are nicely described on the install page[1]. The prescription
        > suggests rebuilding Perl with dynamic linking; apparently the version
        > that's shipped with Debian is not dynamically linked(?). Sounds fine,
        > but I'm not a C programmer so am not sure exactly what this means.

        Now that you know what does it take, please send a patch that extends [1]
        to explain how to do that.

        >>From what I could find reading the INSTALL document that comes with the
        > Perl source, I need to recompile with the -Duseshrplib compile-time
        > option. My understanding is that this option will build a libperl.so
        > file. Is this correct? Am I taking the right action to build a dynamic
        > Perl?

        That's correct.

        > With that option, I am able to compile Apache with mod_perl. Now though,
        > when starting the newly compiled server, I'm receiving relocation errors
        > which appear to be due to multiple versions of libperl.so/libperl.a (not
        > sure which).
        >
        > While browsing the net for possible solutions, I came across the
        > troubleshooting document[2]. It seems to say that if 'perl
        > -V:useshrplib' returns true, then Perl is statically linked. Is this
        > correct? It seems opposite of what I'd expect from reading the INSTALL
        > document.

        Right, it's a docbug, fixed in svn.

        > I'm pretty much at wits end as to why I'm receiving relocation errors.
        > The best I can figure is some kind of binary incompatibility between the
        > version of Perl that I've compiled and previously compiled libraries.
        > I've tried reinstalling some of the XS modules such as DBI which seems
        > to clear up these errors.
        >
        > Any other suggestions or pointers, esp. in light of the differences
        > between dynamic and static linking and libperl.so/libperl.a, would be
        > much appreciated.

        As [2] explains you have more than one libperl.so and the wrong one gets
        loaded. libperl.so should *not* be in /usr/lib or any other globally seen
        loader path if you want to have more than one perl on the same system.
        Unfortunately some distros don't get it and install libperl.(so|a) into
        /usr/lib :(

        > [1] http://perl.apache.org/docs/1.0/guide/install.html#Undefined_reference_to__PL_perl_destruct_level_
        > [2] http://perl.apache.org/docs/1.0/guide/troubleshooting.html#_relocation_errors__or__undefined_symbol_
        >


        --
        __________________________________________________________________
        Stas Bekman JAm_pH ------> Just Another mod_perl Hacker
        http://stason.org/ mod_perl Guide ---> http://perl.apache.org
        mailto:stas@... http://use.perl.org http://apacheweek.com
        http://modperlbook.org http://apache.org http://ticketmaster.com

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      • William McKee
        ... I m guessing that this goes for any libperl.so, e.g. libperl.so.5.6 or libperl.so.5.8. If so then it would explain the weird behavior that I ve been
        Message 3 of 14 , Dec 30, 2004
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          On Thu, Dec 30, 2004 at 05:57:07PM -0500, Stas Bekman wrote:
          > As [2] explains you have more than one libperl.so and the wrong one gets
          > loaded. libperl.so should *not* be in /usr/lib or any other globally seen
          > loader path if you want to have more than one perl on the same system.
          > Unfortunately some distros don't get it and install libperl.(so|a) into
          > /usr/lib :(

          I'm guessing that this goes for any libperl.so, e.g. libperl.so.5.6 or
          libperl.so.5.8. If so then it would explain the weird behavior that I've
          been getting when compiling mod_perl.


          Thanks,
          William

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        • Stas Bekman
          ... Normally in addition to libperl.so.5.8 there will be a symlink to libperl.so. Applications normally link against .so and not .so.x.y, so an upgrade of that
          Message 4 of 14 , Dec 30, 2004
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            William McKee wrote:
            > On Thu, Dec 30, 2004 at 05:57:07PM -0500, Stas Bekman wrote:
            >
            >>As [2] explains you have more than one libperl.so and the wrong one gets
            >>loaded. libperl.so should *not* be in /usr/lib or any other globally seen
            >>loader path if you want to have more than one perl on the same system.
            >>Unfortunately some distros don't get it and install libperl.(so|a) into
            >>/usr/lib :(
            >
            >
            > I'm guessing that this goes for any libperl.so, e.g. libperl.so.5.6 or
            > libperl.so.5.8. If so then it would explain the weird behavior that I've
            > been getting when compiling mod_perl.

            Normally in addition to libperl.so.5.8 there will be a symlink to
            libperl.so. Applications normally link against .so and not .so.x.y, so an
            upgrade of that library will be possible w/o requiring the compilation of
            the former.


            --
            __________________________________________________________________
            Stas Bekman JAm_pH ------> Just Another mod_perl Hacker
            http://stason.org/ mod_perl Guide ---> http://perl.apache.org
            mailto:stas@... http://use.perl.org http://apacheweek.com
            http://modperlbook.org http://apache.org http://ticketmaster.com

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          • William McKee
            ... Hmm, that s what I thought too and was creating a symlink from /usr/lib/libperl.so to the newly created one. I was still getting strange behavior though so
            Message 5 of 14 , Dec 30, 2004
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              On Thu, Dec 30, 2004 at 07:00:36PM -0500, Stas Bekman wrote:
              > >I'm guessing that this goes for any libperl.so, e.g. libperl.so.5.6 or
              > >libperl.so.5.8. If so then it would explain the weird behavior that I've
              > >been getting when compiling mod_perl.
              >
              > Normally in addition to libperl.so.5.8 there will be a symlink to
              > libperl.so. Applications normally link against .so and not .so.x.y, so an
              > upgrade of that library will be possible w/o requiring the compilation of
              > the former.

              Hmm, that's what I thought too and was creating a symlink from
              /usr/lib/libperl.so to the newly created one. I was still getting
              strange behavior though so moved them all out of /usr/lib. Seems a bit
              better now.


              Thanks,
              William

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            • Stas Bekman
              ... If the application links against a specific libperl.so.x.y that would explain that behavior. --
              Message 6 of 14 , Dec 30, 2004
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                William McKee wrote:
                > On Thu, Dec 30, 2004 at 07:00:36PM -0500, Stas Bekman wrote:
                >
                >>>I'm guessing that this goes for any libperl.so, e.g. libperl.so.5.6 or
                >>>libperl.so.5.8. If so then it would explain the weird behavior that I've
                >>>been getting when compiling mod_perl.
                >>
                >>Normally in addition to libperl.so.5.8 there will be a symlink to
                >>libperl.so. Applications normally link against .so and not .so.x.y, so an
                >>upgrade of that library will be possible w/o requiring the compilation of
                >>the former.
                >
                >
                > Hmm, that's what I thought too and was creating a symlink from
                > /usr/lib/libperl.so to the newly created one. I was still getting
                > strange behavior though so moved them all out of /usr/lib. Seems a bit
                > better now.

                If the application links against a specific libperl.so.x.y that would
                explain that behavior.

                --
                __________________________________________________________________
                Stas Bekman JAm_pH ------> Just Another mod_perl Hacker
                http://stason.org/ mod_perl Guide ---> http://perl.apache.org
                mailto:stas@... http://use.perl.org http://apacheweek.com
                http://modperlbook.org http://apache.org http://ticketmaster.com

                --
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              • William McKee
                ... And ldd is the best tool to use to check the links (at least on Unix)? William -- Knowmad Services Inc. http://www.knowmad.com -- Report problems:
                Message 7 of 14 , Dec 30, 2004
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                  On Thu, Dec 30, 2004 at 07:32:19PM -0500, Stas Bekman wrote:
                  > >Hmm, that's what I thought too and was creating a symlink from
                  > >/usr/lib/libperl.so to the newly created one. I was still getting
                  > >strange behavior though so moved them all out of /usr/lib. Seems a bit
                  > >better now.
                  >
                  > If the application links against a specific libperl.so.x.y that would
                  > explain that behavior.

                  And ldd is the best tool to use to check the links (at least on Unix)?


                  William

                  --
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                • William McKee
                  ... I ve started working on a patch for the install doc[1] but have come across a couple of questions that I m sure someone on the list could answer for me. 1)
                  Message 8 of 14 , Dec 31, 2004
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                    On Thu, Dec 30, 2004 at 05:57:07PM -0500, Stas Bekman wrote:
                    > >During compilation of mod_perl, I was seeing undefined reference errors
                    > >which are nicely described on the install page[1]. The prescription
                    > >suggests rebuilding Perl with dynamic linking; apparently the version
                    > >that's shipped with Debian is not dynamically linked(?). Sounds fine,
                    > >but I'm not a C programmer so am not sure exactly what this means.
                    >
                    > Now that you know what does it take, please send a patch that extends [1]
                    > to explain how to do that.

                    I've started working on a patch for the install doc[1] but have come
                    across a couple of questions that I'm sure someone on the list could
                    answer for me.

                    1) The docs refer to building a "dynamically linked Perl." Shouldn't
                    the Perl be lowercase since we're talking about the interpreter, not
                    the language?

                    2) In the same sentence, it says that a dynamically linked perl will
                    have a libperl.a. Isn't that a libperl.so? Could someone describe the
                    differences between libperl.a and libperl.so? I see that it exists in
                    the apache source directory which makes me think it is used when
                    building modperl. If I'm building mp statically linked, I shouldn't
                    need libperl.a after I've installed, right? Is this the library that
                    has been more appropriately named modperl.a in MP2?


                    Cheers!
                    William

                    [1] http://perl.apache.org/docs/1.0/guide/install.html#Undefined_reference_to__PL_perl_destruct_level_

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                  • Stas Bekman
                    ... +1 ... You are correct. ... libfoo.a is an archive used at linking time - it s completely included in the final application that linked it. libperl.so is a
                    Message 9 of 14 , Dec 31, 2004
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                      William McKee wrote:
                      > On Thu, Dec 30, 2004 at 05:57:07PM -0500, Stas Bekman wrote:
                      >
                      >>>During compilation of mod_perl, I was seeing undefined reference errors
                      >>>which are nicely described on the install page[1]. The prescription
                      >>>suggests rebuilding Perl with dynamic linking; apparently the version
                      >>>that's shipped with Debian is not dynamically linked(?). Sounds fine,
                      >>>but I'm not a C programmer so am not sure exactly what this means.
                      >>
                      >>Now that you know what does it take, please send a patch that extends [1]
                      >>to explain how to do that.
                      >
                      >
                      > I've started working on a patch for the install doc[1] but have come
                      > across a couple of questions that I'm sure someone on the list could
                      > answer for me.
                      >
                      > 1) The docs refer to building a "dynamically linked Perl." Shouldn't
                      > the Perl be lowercase since we're talking about the interpreter, not
                      > the language?

                      +1

                      > 2) In the same sentence, it says that a dynamically linked perl will
                      > have a libperl.a. Isn't that a libperl.so?

                      You are correct.

                      > Could someone describe the
                      > differences between libperl.a and libperl.so?

                      libfoo.a is an archive used at linking time - it's completely included in
                      the final application that linked it.

                      libperl.so is a shared library. At the linking time the application only
                      knows which library it wants. Only at the loading time (runtime) that
                      library will be loaded.

                      One of the benefits of using a shared library, is that only it's loaded by
                      one application, any other application using the same library will not
                      need load it, it'll be shared (a service provided by the kernel). In the
                      case of static libfoo.a, it'll be loaded as many times as there are
                      applications that included it, thus consuming more memory. Of course this
                      is not the only benefit of using shared libs.

                      > I see that it exists in
                      > the apache source directory which makes me think it is used when
                      > building modperl. If I'm building mp statically linked, I shouldn't
                      > need libperl.a after I've installed, right? Is this the library that
                      > has been more appropriately named modperl.a in MP2?

                      Yes, that's the result of the unfortunate naming scheme in Apache 1.3. So
                      you have libperl.(so|a) which is perl, and you have libperl.(so|a) which
                      is modperl. You are certainly looking at the modperl version of libperl.a
                      if you find it in the apache directory. perl's libperl.(so|a) lives under
                      something like 5.8.6/i686-linux/CORE/

                      And yes, mp2's lib is mod_perl.(so|a).

                      > [1] http://perl.apache.org/docs/1.0/guide/install.html#Undefined_reference_to__PL_perl_destruct_level_
                      >


                      --
                      __________________________________________________________________
                      Stas Bekman JAm_pH ------> Just Another mod_perl Hacker
                      http://stason.org/ mod_perl Guide ---> http://perl.apache.org
                      mailto:stas@... http://use.perl.org http://apacheweek.com
                      http://modperlbook.org http://apache.org http://ticketmaster.com

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                    • William McKee
                      Thanks for the clear explanation of *.a and *.so files, Stas. I m starting to grok how it works together. I ve attached the diff to the install docs to this
                      Message 10 of 14 , Dec 31, 2004
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                        Thanks for the clear explanation of *.a and *.so files, Stas. I'm
                        starting to grok how it works together.

                        I've attached the diff to the install docs to this message which
                        incorporates some of your notes about .so and .a files. I found this
                        information hard to find while browsing Google, Perlmonks and the
                        modperl docs. I hope that you will include them in some form.


                        Thanks,
                        William

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                      • Stas Bekman
                        ... Thanks William, I ve committed that with a few tweaks. Especially the last para. Please check that it still makes sense. --
                        Message 11 of 14 , Dec 31, 2004
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                          William McKee wrote:
                          > Thanks for the clear explanation of *.a and *.so files, Stas. I'm
                          > starting to grok how it works together.
                          >
                          > I've attached the diff to the install docs to this message which
                          > incorporates some of your notes about .so and .a files. I found this
                          > information hard to find while browsing Google, Perlmonks and the
                          > modperl docs. I hope that you will include them in some form.

                          Thanks William, I've committed that with a few tweaks. Especially the last
                          para. Please check that it still makes sense.

                          --
                          __________________________________________________________________
                          Stas Bekman JAm_pH ------> Just Another mod_perl Hacker
                          http://stason.org/ mod_perl Guide ---> http://perl.apache.org
                          mailto:stas@... http://use.perl.org http://apacheweek.com
                          http://modperlbook.org http://apache.org http://ticketmaster.com

                          --
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                        • William McKee
                          ... Looks fine except for a couple of typos (dangling quote mark and mispelled should ). Also, now that I m a bit more knowledgeable about the subject matter,
                          Message 12 of 14 , Dec 31, 2004
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                            On Fri, Dec 31, 2004 at 02:02:59PM -0500, Stas Bekman wrote:
                            > Thanks William, I've committed that with a few tweaks. Especially the last
                            > para. Please check that it still makes sense.

                            Looks fine except for a couple of typos (dangling quote mark and
                            mispelled 'should'). Also, now that I'm a bit more knowledgeable about
                            the subject matter, I was able to find this reference[1] in your docs
                            which I've added to the attached patch.


                            William

                            [1] http://perl.apache.org/docs/1.0/guide/install.html#libperl_so_and_libperl_a

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                          • Stas Bekman
                            ... Thanks William, committed. For the future please note that internal links are done like so: Also see L
                            Message 13 of 14 , Dec 31, 2004
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                              William McKee wrote:
                              > On Fri, Dec 31, 2004 at 02:02:59PM -0500, Stas Bekman wrote:
                              >
                              >>Thanks William, I've committed that with a few tweaks. Especially the last
                              >>para. Please check that it still makes sense.
                              >
                              >
                              > Looks fine except for a couple of typos (dangling quote mark and
                              > mispelled 'should'). Also, now that I'm a bit more knowledgeable about
                              > the subject matter, I was able to find this reference[1] in your docs
                              > which I've added to the attached patch.

                              Thanks William, committed.

                              For the future please note that internal links are done like so:

                              Also see L<libperl.so and
                              libperl.a|docs::1.0::guide::install/libperl_so_and_libperl_a">.

                              I've adjusted that.

                              also your patch was reverted :)

                              --
                              __________________________________________________________________
                              Stas Bekman JAm_pH ------> Just Another mod_perl Hacker
                              http://stason.org/ mod_perl Guide ---> http://perl.apache.org
                              mailto:stas@... http://use.perl.org http://apacheweek.com
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                            • Michael Robinton
                              ... Try... in apache directory make distclean ./configure --with-layout=Apache then in mod perl source directory Run: perl Makefile.PL
                              Message 14 of 14 , Jan 1, 2005
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                                On Thu, 30 Dec 2004, William McKee wrote:

                                > Hi folks,
                                >
                                > I'm trying to recompile Perl and Apache/mod_perl on a Debian Sarge
                                > system using the following versions:
                                >
                                > Perl 5.8.6
                                > Apache 1.3.33
                                > mod_perl 1.29
                                >
                                > I am compiling mod_perl statically (using Apachetoolbox) with the
                                > following options:
                                >
                                > APACHE_PREFIX=/usr/local/apache
                                > APACHE_SRC=/usr/local/src/Apachetoolbox-1.5.72/apache_1.3.33/src
                                > SSL_BASE=
                                > APACI_ARGS='--enable-module=rewrite'
                                > DO_HTTPD=1
                                > USE_APACI=1
                                > EVERYTHING=1
                                >

                                Try...

                                in apache directory

                                make distclean

                                ./configure --with-layout=Apache

                                then

                                in mod perl source directory
                                Run:
                                perl Makefile.PL \
                                APACHE_SRC=/usr/src/apache/src \
                                DO_HTTPD=1 \
                                USE_APACI=1 \
                                PREP_HTTPD=1 \
                                EVERYTHING=1 \

                                make
                                make test # broken ??
                                make install

                                back in apache directory
                                ./configure --with-layout=Apache \
                                --activate-module=src/modules/perl/libperl.a
                                make
                                make install




                                > During compilation of mod_perl, I was seeing undefined reference errors
                                > which are nicely described on the install page[1]. The prescription
                                > suggests rebuilding Perl with dynamic linking; apparently the version
                                > that's shipped with Debian is not dynamically linked(?). Sounds fine,
                                > but I'm not a C programmer so am not sure exactly what this means.
                                >
                                > >From what I could find reading the INSTALL document that comes with the
                                > Perl source, I need to recompile with the -Duseshrplib compile-time
                                > option. My understanding is that this option will build a libperl.so
                                > file. Is this correct? Am I taking the right action to build a dynamic
                                > Perl?
                                >
                                > With that option, I am able to compile Apache with mod_perl. Now though,
                                > when starting the newly compiled server, I'm receiving relocation errors
                                > which appear to be due to multiple versions of libperl.so/libperl.a (not
                                > sure which).
                                >
                                > While browsing the net for possible solutions, I came across the
                                > troubleshooting document[2]. It seems to say that if 'perl
                                > -V:useshrplib' returns true, then Perl is statically linked. Is this
                                > correct? It seems opposite of what I'd expect from reading the INSTALL
                                > document.
                                >
                                > I'm pretty much at wits end as to why I'm receiving relocation errors.
                                > The best I can figure is some kind of binary incompatibility between the
                                > version of Perl that I've compiled and previously compiled libraries.
                                > I've tried reinstalling some of the XS modules such as DBI which seems
                                > to clear up these errors.
                                >
                                > Any other suggestions or pointers, esp. in light of the differences
                                > between dynamic and static linking and libperl.so/libperl.a, would be
                                > much appreciated.
                                >
                                >
                                > Thanks,
                                > William
                                >
                                > [1] http://perl.apache.org/docs/1.0/guide/install.html#Undefined_reference_to__PL_perl_destruct_level_
                                > [2] http://perl.apache.org/docs/1.0/guide/troubleshooting.html#_relocation_errors__or__undefined_symbol_
                                >
                                > --
                                > Knowmad Services Inc.
                                > http://www.knowmad.com
                                >
                                > --
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