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Fw: dry ice info

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  • Tessa
    Thought I d pass this article along for anyone else who is interested. ... atmosphere. ... in ... soda ... is ... as ... Ice! ... goods. ... water ... 5 ...
    Message 1 of 1 , Sep 1, 2001
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      Thought I'd pass this article along for anyone else who is interested.



      > >From dryiceinfo.com
      > The Web's leading source of
      > Information about Dry Ice
      >
      >
      > Dry Ice is frozen carbon dioxide, a normal part of our earth's
      atmosphere.
      > It is the gas that we exhale during breathing and the gas that plants use
      in
      > photosynthesis. It is also the same gas commonly added to water to make
      soda
      > water. Dry Ice is particularly useful for freezing, and keeping things
      > frozen because of its very cold temperature: -109.3°F or -78.5°C. Dry Ice
      is
      > widely used because it is simple to convert to its frozen form and easy to
      > handle using insulated gloves. Dry Ice changes directly from a solid to a
      > gas -sublimation- in normal atmospheric conditions without going through a
      > wet liquid stage.
      >
      > As a general rule, Dry Ice will sublimate at a rate of five to ten pounds
      > every 24 hours in a typical ice chest. This sublimation continues from the
      > time of purchase, therefore, pick up Dry Ice as close to the time needed
      as
      > possible. Bring an ice chest or some other insulated container to hold the
      > Dry Ice and slow the sublimation rate. Dry Ice sublimates faster than
      > regular ice melts but will extend the life of regular ice.
      >
      > It is best not to store Dry Ice in your freezer because your freezer's
      > thermostat will shut off the freezer due to the extreme cold of the Dry
      Ice!
      > Of course if the freezer is broken, Dry Ice will save all your frozen
      goods.
      > ***
      > "SPECIAL EFFECTS"
      >
      > DRY ICE FOG
      >
      > Dry Ice when combined with hot tap water can produce vigorous bubbling
      water
      > and voluminous flowing fog. For example, with 5 pounds of Dry Ice in 4 to
      5
      > gallons of hot water, the greatest amount of fog will be produced the
      first
      > 5 to 10 minutes. There will be far less fog for the next 5 to 10 minutes
      as
      > the water cools down and the volume of Dry Ice diminishes. As the water
      > cools, the fog becomes wispier. Dry Ice makes fog because of its cold
      > temperature, -109.3°F or -78.5°C, immersed in hot water, creates a true
      > water vapor cloud of fog. When the water gets colder than 50°F, the Dry
      Ice
      > stops making fog, but continues to sublimate and bubble. The fog will last
      > longer on a damp day than on a dry day.
      >
      >
      > HOW TO MAKE FOG
      >
      > For each 15-minute period put 5 to 10 pounds of Dry Ice into 4 to 8
      gallons
      > of hot water. This will make lots of fog depending upon the temperature of
      > the water and the size of the pieces of Dry Ice. Hotter water will make
      more
      > fog. Very hot water will add its own rising steam to the vapor cloud. If
      > there is no steam the fog will flow down hill and in the direction of any
      > air movement. A small fan can help control the direction. Smaller pieces
      of
      > Dry Ice with more surface area produce more volume of fog and cool the
      water
      > down much faster. In both cases the result is more fog for a shorter
      amount
      > of time. Keep the water hot with a hot plate, electric skillet, or some
      > other heat source to produce fog for a longer time. Otherwise when the
      water
      > gets too cold it must be replaced to continue the fog effects. If the
      > container is completely filled with water the fog will flow over the sides
      > the best. But the Dry Ice sublimation will vigorously bubble the water and
      > splash it out. Even a 3/4 filled container will splash some so place the
      > container where spilled water will not ruin anything. The water vapor fog
      > will also dampen the area it flows across. Be careful because in time
      floors
      > could get slippery.
      > ***
      > POOL & JACUZZI
      >
      > 50 to 100 pounds of Dry Ice dropped directly into a heated swimming pool
      > will make fog for several hours depending on the water temperature and the
      > size of the Dry Ice pieces. Because of the Jacuzzi's hot water, it makes
      the
      > most fog the quickest. As long as the water is kept hot, it can take 50 to
      > 100 pounds per hour. The Dry Ice will carbonate the water for several
      days.
      > If possible drain the Jacuzzi. The swimming pool will read more alkaline
      > during this time so wait to add acid until the carbonation has dissipated.
      > If the temperature of the water in a swimming pool, fountain, waterfall,
      or
      > birdbath is too cold (less than 60°F) the Dry Ice will bubble but produce
      > much less fog.
      >
      >
      >
      > Application
      > Amount
      > Duration
      >
      > Witches Punch 3 to 5 lbs Up to 1/2 an hour
      > Pumpkins 3 to 5 lbs Up to 1/2 an hour
      > Witches Pot 5 to 15 lbs Up to an 3/4 hour
      >
      > Small Room (Use 2 Pots) 15 to 30 lbs Up to an hour
      > Large Room (Use 3-4 Pots) 50 lb package Up to an hour
      > Swimming Pool (unheated) 50 lb package 1 to 2 hours
      > Patio (No Wind) 50 to 100 lbs 1 to 2 hours
      >
      > HOW TO TRANSPORT AND STORE DRY ICE UNTIL READY TO USE
      >
      > The best container to transport and store Dry Ice is an ice chest. It will
      > still sublimate 5 to 10 pounds each 24 hours, so plan to pick up the Dry
      Ice
      > as close as possible to the time it will be used. Dry Ice is very cold so
      > use insulated gloves to handle it. Do not store Dry Ice in your
      refrigerator
      > freezer. The extremely cold temperature will cause your thermostat to turn
      > off your freezer. (But it will keep things frozen if your refrigerator
      > breaks down in an emergency.) Do not store Dry Ice in a completely
      airtight
      > container. The sublimation of Dry Ice to Carbon Dioxide gas will cause any
      > airtight container to expand until a hole opens or it explodes.
      >
      >
      > ADD DRY ICE TO BEVERAGES
      > It is OK to put Dry Ice into beverages for drinking. Use 2 to 4 pounds of
      > Dry Ice for each gallon of room temperature punch. Use large pieces of Dry
      > Ice not small pieces. The Dry Ice is heavier than ice and will sink to the
      > bottom. Do not use any regular ice! The Dry Ice will do the cooling and
      must
      > not be eaten or swallowed. Too much Dry Ice will freeze the beverage so
      have
      > extra standing by. It will bubble and give off the most fog when the
      > beverage is room temperature. When most of the Dry Ice has sublimated, it
      > will surround itself with ice and float to the top. There is still a small
      > piece of Dry Ice in the center of these ice pieces so do not serve or eat
      > them. Carefully ladle the beverage into drinking glasses without any Dry
      > Ice. Add regular ice to glasses for cooler drinks.
      >
      >
      > WITCHES BREW
      > A first grade teacher gave me the best recipe for "witches brew": 1 can
      > Grape Juice. (Dark color) 1 can Pineapple Juice. (Strange pulpy texture)
      3-5
      > pounds of Dry Ice. (Do not use regular ice) Mix room temperature juices
      > together. When ready for special brew add the Dry Ice. Do not touch Dry
      Ice
      > directly, but use insulated gloves or tongs. Ladle juice into cups without
      > any Dry Ice and it will be perfectly safe. If you want cooler drinks add
      ice
      > to the cups not the punch bowl.
      >
      >
      > STAGE PRODUCTIONS
      > Using a fog machine or buckets of hot water and a fan, many shows are
      > enhanced by adding flowing fog. I have seen it most often in the dance of
      > the snowflake fairies in the Nutcracker Suite, and it is frequently used
      in
      > Brigadoon and Oklahoma for their dream scenes.
      >
      >
      > FOG MACHINES
      > A theater fog machine is generally a 30 to 55-gallon metal or plastic
      water
      > barrel with a 110-volt or a 220-volt hot water heater to keep the water
      hot.
      > Dry Ice is placed in a bucket with holes to allow hot water to enter. When
      > the bucket is lowered into the hot water fog is instantly produced. The
      > resulting water vapor fog is gently blown by a fan and directed to the
      > desired area by an air duct tube. Fog stops whenever the bucket of Dry Ice
      > is pulled out of the water.
      >
      >
      >
      > VOLCANO
      > A fantastic simulated volcano can be made in a sink with a garbage
      disposal.
      > Run hot water and put one to three pound pieces Dry Ice into your garbage
      > disposal. When you turn the disposal on it will make a marvelous eruption.
      > See also Volcano in our "Science/School Projects" section.
      >
      >
      > DRY ICE "FIRECRACKERS"
      > Small pieces of Dry Ice placed in an empty one liter plastic soda bottle
      and
      > then filled 1/4 to 1/2 with hot water may explode 2 to 120 seconds after
      the
      > top
      > is tightly screwed on. It also may crack anywhere and just fizzle. Ware
      > gloves and eye protection because the resulting explosion may dangerously
      > push out pieces of the plastic bottle or the bottle top. A woman in
      Houston
      > standing too close lost her eye from the ejected bottle top, so make sure
      no
      > one is holding the bottle nor anyone is near it when it explodes. Although
      > the explosion sprays mostly carbon dioxide gas and water, many
      > municipalities classify them with more dangerous firecrackers and outlaw
      > them. Sometimes they are even called "terrorist devices" and people using
      > them are arrested. In our area several teenagers were jailed for three
      days
      > for setting off these Dry Ice firecrackers. The logical defense explains
      > there is no chemical reaction - only a change in the state of matter -
      from
      > a solid to a gas. Unfortunately there may be a high cost in lawyers fees
      to
      > persuade a DA or judge of this fact. Therefore DO NOT DO THIS IF IT IS
      > ILLEGAL IN YOUR COMMUNITY! For safety DO NOT EVER ALLOW CHILDREN TO DO
      THIS.
      > Always supervise children around Dry Ice. Of course using anything other
      > than plastic bottles is even more dangerous and by no means should ever be
      > allowed!
      >
      >
      >
      > STORIES
      >
      > HONDA'S GULL WING CAR
      > Honda put on a spectacular introduction of a concept car for their
      Southern
      > California car dealers. I created a wall of fog with four fog machines by
      > placing two hoses three feet and two six feet above the ground five feet
      > apart. The fog was so thick no one could see through it. A Newport Beach
      > motorcycle policeman with lights flashing and siren blaring slowly drove
      > through the wall of fog emerging in front of the dealers stand. The custom
      > car came through next and stopped. The gull wing doors opened and a James
      > Bond look-a-like in a full tux emerged from the car. An impeccably dressed
      > cocktail waitress walked up and served him a martini. The applause and
      > thanks afterward showed how much everyone was impressed.
      >
      >
      > I STORED DRY ICE FOR ONE YEAR!
      > One customer told us how sure she was that the paper bag full of left over
      > Dry Ice from last year's Halloween would be available this year because
      she
      > had never opened the bag for the whole year. Unfortunately there was no
      dry
      > ice left - empty inside - but there was plenty of hardened frost around
      the
      > outside of the bag frozen solid in the shape of a brick.
      >
      >
      > BAR MITZVAH
      > I placed two fog machines at each corner of a wooden dance floor. When
      they
      > were turned on the floor was filled with fog. The kids came in and
      sashayed
      > around for ten minutes until the fog machines were turned off. They were
      > completely delighted. Later for several special dances the fog machines
      were
      > turned on again filling the dance floor with fog.
      >
      >
      > SHIP ON STAGE
      > Laguna Playhouse built a large 15-foot long ship for the final scene of a
      > play. It was rolled out on stage with four actors on it. A mechanical
      devise
      > rocked this ship back and forth. When the stage filled with fog and the
      > curtains opened, it really looked like the ship was in the water gently
      > rocking back and forth. The fog flowed around the ship and poured off the
      > stage into the audience.
      > ***
      >
      > CAMPING WITH DRY ICE
      >
      >
      > Plan on using 10 to 20 pounds of dry ice for every 24-hour period
      > depending upon the size of the ice chest. Dry Ice will keep everything
      > frozen in this ice chest, including extra ice, so keep non-frozen goods to
      > be refrigerated with regular ice in a separate ice chest. Dry Ice normally
      > comes in 10-inch squares, 2 inches thick weighing about 10 pounds each
      > square. Plan to put one square per each 15 inches of ice chest length.
      This
      > will work out to 2 squares (20 pounds) for an average 40-quart cooler. For
      > larger containers and longer camping or traveling times, multiply dry ice
      > quantities by these rates. Dry Ice, at -109.0°F or -78.5°C, will freeze
      and
      > keep frozen everything in its container until it is completely sublimated.
      > These frozen items will take some extra time to thaw because they have
      been
      > so cold.
      >
      >
      > HOW TO PACK DRY ICE
      >
      > If the Dry Ice is placed on top of the food (cold sinks), it will work
      > better. However it is sometimes in the way so many people prefer to keep
      the
      > Dry Ice on the bottom of the ice chest for convenience. When packing items
      > in the container fill the empty space with wadded newspaper or other
      filler.
      > Any "dead-air-space" will cause the Dry Ice to sublimate faster. The best
      > storage container is a three-inch thick urethane insulated box. Lining the
      > inside of your ice chest with sheets of Styrofoam will double the life of
      > Dry Ice. Dry Ice sublimation (changing from a solid to a gas) will vary
      > depending on the temperature, air pressure and thickness of insulation.
      The
      > more Dry Ice you have stored in the container, the longer it will last.
      >
      >
      > TRANSPORTING BY AUTO OR VAN
      >
      > Plan to pick up the Dry Ice as close to the time it is needed as possible.
      > If possible pack insulating items such as sleeping bags around the ice
      > chest. This will stretch the time of the Dry Ice lasts. If it is
      transported
      > inside a car or van (not in the trunk) for more than 10 minutes make sure
      > there is fresh air. After 15 minutes with Dry Ice only in its paper bag in
      > the passenger seat next to me, I started to breathe faster and faster as
      > though I were running a race. I couldn't figure out why I was so out of
      > breath until I saw the car air system was set in the re-circulated
      position,
      > not fresh outside air.
      > ***
      > HOW TO KEEP ICE FOR WEEKS
      >
      > I have a 100-quart Coleman that I pack before leaving with a 50-pound
      block
      > of dry ice and two 25-pound blocks of wet ice on either side of the dry.
      The
      > dry ice is wrapped in many layers of newspaper, which is a marvelous
      > insulator. If the cooler is kept in the shade and covered with a heavy
      > blanket, the dry ice will last from 8-10 days at which time the wet ice
      > first begins to melt. This will then last another 4-5 days. I would be
      > willing to bet that using David's method (burying the ice chest in sand)
      in
      > conjunction with mine would keep the wet ice available for 2-3 weeks.
      > However, there is a downside. (1) Only frozen foods can be kept in the
      > cooler until the dry ice is gone (no beer). (2) Lots of weight -- the
      whole
      > shebang weighs 100 lbs. sans food. Dry Ice is very dense --- a 50 lb.
      block
      > is the same size as a 25 lb. block of wet ice.
      > ***
      >
      > SCIENCE
      >
      >
      > PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
      >
      > Dry Ice is frozen carbon dioxide, a normal part of our earth's atmosphere.
      > It is the gas that we exhale during breathing and the gas that plants use
      in
      > photosynthesis. It is also the same gas added to water to make soda water.
      > Dry Ice is particularly useful for freezing, and keeping things frozen
      > because of its very cold temperature: -109.3°F or -78.5°C. Dry Ice is
      widely
      > used because it is simple to convert to its frozen form and easy to handle
      > using insulated gloves. Dry Ice changes directly from a solid to a
      > gas -sublimating- in normal atmospheric conditions without going through a
      > wet liquid stage.
      >
      >
      > HOW DRY ICE IS MADE
      >
      > The first step in making dry ice is to compress carbon dioxide gas until
      it
      > liquefies, at the same time removing the excess heat. The C02 gas will
      > liquefy at a pressure of approximately 870 pounds per square inch at room
      > temperature. Next, the pressure is reduced over the liquid carbon dioxide
      by
      > sending it through an expansion valve. Part of the liquid evaporates,
      > causing the remainder to cool. As the temperature drops to -109.3°F, the
      > temperature of frozen CO2, some of it will freeze into snowflakes. This
      dry
      > ice snow is then compressed together under a large press to form blocks.
      Dry
      > Ice is much heavier than traditional ice, weighing about double.
      >
      >
      > DRY ICE MAKERS
      >
      > Dry Ice machines are available in all sizes and use liquid CO2. Hand held
      > ones make very soft Dry Ice that dissipates rapidly. Large commercial
      > machines use hydraulic presses to compress the Dry Ice snow with up to 60
      > Tons of pressure. It can produce a 50-pound block in 60 seconds.
      >
      >
      > PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      >
      > Critical Density
      > 28.9855 LB/FT³
      >
      > Critical Pressure 1066.3 PSIA
      > Critical Temperature 87.8°F
      > Density Gas 0.1234 LB/FT³@32°F
      > Density Liquid 63.69 LB/FT³@0°F
      > Latent Heat of Vaporization 241 BTU/LB 0°F
      > Molecular Weight 44.004
      > Sublimation Temperature -109.3°F or -78.5°C
      > Solubility in H20 79FT³ CO2 GAS/FT³ ( when H2O is at 32°F )
      > Triple Point -69°F 75.1 PSIA
      > Viscosity Gas 0.015 Centipoises @32°F
      > Viscosity Liquid 0.14 Centipoises @0°F
      > Chemical Formula CO2
      > Chemical Family Inorganic
      > Sublimation A pound of Dry Ice will sublimate into 8.3 cubic feet of
      carbon
      > dioxide gas.
      > DOT Shipping Class: ORM-A UN-1845 Pkg. Group III Class Nonflammable Gas
      > UN2187
      >
      >
      >
      > SCHOOL PROJECTS
      >
      >
      > VOLCANO
      >
      > Dry Ice can add the right touch to the typical school volcano. The "smoke"
      > will come out the top and flow down the sides for several minutes. Inside
      > the volcano must be a container to hold hot water. If hot water is not
      > immediately available use a thermos to store it. The hotter the water is
      > (nearly boiling if under adult supervision) the better. The bottom must be
      > sealed tightly. Otherwise Dry Ice fog will leak out the bottom. Use putty
      or
      > some other sealant. At the time of eruption, use gloves and put small
      pieces
      > of Dry Ice into the hot water. The volcano will bubble and "smoke" for
      > several minutes.
      >
      >
      > CLOUD CHAMBER
      >
      > An easy to make cloud chamber can be used to observe Alpha or Beta
      > particles. Use a clear Pyrex or Corning shallow glass container that will
      > not break in a freezer. Cover the bottom inside of the dish with black
      felt
      > or black paper. Cut a piece of cardboard larger than the top of the dish.
      > Pour alcohol on one side of the cardboard. Place the cardboard on the dish
      > with the wet side down. Heat the top cardboard with your hand or something
      > else warm. Place the dish on a slab of Dry Ice. The alcohol will form a
      > cloud. Shine a light through the side of the dish to observe vapor trails.
      > Some natural vapor trails can be seen in time although you may have to put
      > alcohol on the cardboard several times. Place an alpha ray source such as
      an
      > old fashion illuminated watch dial or a Coleman lantern mantel inside to
      see
      > more ion trails in the cloud chamber. Use a light source such as a bright
      > flashlight to see the cloud tracks better.
      >
      > A more sophisticated CLOUD CHAMBER is included in "Bizarre Stuff" . . . a
      > great site for classic home science experiments.
      > http://www.freeweb.pdq.net/headstrong/cloud.htm
      >
      >
      > BAKING SODA
      >
      > Sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3), also called Sodium bicarbonate,
      > bicarbonate of soda, and baking soda, is an important chemical. Hundred of
      > thousands of tons are produced each year for use in baking and in
      producing
      > other chemicals. One way to make this compound at home or in the school
      > chemistry laboratory is to use Dry Ice, salt, ammonium carbonate, and
      > vinegar.
      >
      >
      > COMET
      >
      > You can make a miniature comet and watch as it sublimates--just like a
      real
      > comet being heated by the Sun! Make sure you have adult supervision. The
      > materials you will need are Dry Ice (solid carbon dioxide), a large bowl,
      a
      > garbage bag, several smaller plastic bags, gloves, a hammer, water, sand,
      > and a few drops of ammonia. Buy about 3 pounds of Dry Ice. Be very careful
      > in handling Dry Ice, and always wear gloves. Solid carbon dioxide is much
      > colder than ice, and if it touches your skin it will hurt as if you had
      been
      > burned by fire. Use a plastic garbage bag to line a bowl big enough to
      hold
      > a quart of water. Put two cups of water into the lined bowl. Add a couple
      > spoonfuls of sand. Sprinkle in a few drops of ammonia and stir the mixture
      > well. Wearing gloves, wrap the dry ice in several plastic bags. Use a
      hammer
      > to pound the dry ice into small pieces. When the dry ice is crushed add
      > about two cups of it while stirring your comet "soup". Keep stirring while
      > the dry ice freezes the water. When the mixture is almost completely
      frozen,
      > lift it up using the plastic liner of your bowl and shape the wrapped
      > mixture into a ball. When the "comet" is frozen and can hold its shape on
      > its own, unwrap it and set it somewhere you can watch it. The dry ice will
      > sublimate into a gas. You may see jets of carbon dioxide shoot from your
      > comet. After a while, your comet will shrink and become pitted, like a
      comet
      > that has been eroded by the Sun. (Based on a Recipe by Dennis Schatz,
      > Pacific Science Center, Seattle, WA.)
      >
      > Another COMET project developed by UC Berkeley is called "Make a Comet in
      > the Classroom"
      > http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/comod/mmcom.html
      >
      >
      >
      > "DRY ICE INVESTIGATIONS" ** A Teachers Guide
      >
      > "This unit revolves around the intriguing nature of dry ice and the
      > incessant curiosity it provokes in all those who have the opportunity to
      > interact with it. Whenever science (especially chemistry) is depicted on
      > film or television, you can almost guarantee that you'll see dry ice
      > bubbling away in a colorful liquid. Music videos, scary movies, theatrical
      > plays, and Halloween frequently feature its eerie heavy fog slowly and
      > silently creeping across a surface. Although it is perhaps the ultimate
      > symbol of "fun science," students rarely have the opportunity to explore
      it
      > themselves in science class, most likely because many teachers often don't
      > know where to get it, don't know what to do with it, and are intimidated
      by
      > safety issues. This guide hopes to deal thoroughly with all these issues,
      > and to build on the wondrous appeal of dry ice to provide a highly
      memorable
      > and powerful science learning experience."
      > ***
      >
      > OTHER USES
      >
      >
      > CARBONATE LIQUIDS
      > When CO2 is added to plain water it will make sparkling mineral water. CO2
      > is extensively used throughout the world in the beverage industry for
      making
      > soda pop.
      >
      >
      > HOME MADE ROOT BEER
      > To make one gallon of root beer: One pound sugar One gallon water Two
      ounces
      > root beer extract Add 1 to 2 pounds of Dry Ice to carbonate Tip for
      > carbonation: put in a triple size plastic container (1/3 liquid and 2/3
      air)
      > and put the lid on tight. The pressure will dissolve more into the mix and
      > make it fizzier. Otherwise have Club soda to add for carbonation. If you
      let
      > the root beer fog too much you will loose the carbonation. Bring several
      > pounds extra dry ice and put in as you are serving in order to let the
      kids
      > see the fog affect. You must keep the root beer from freezing. Dry ice
      > is -109.3°F and it will freeze the liquid. Add extra water if freezing
      > starts. Do not ladle Dry Ice into cups. Put ice directly into cups for
      > additional cooling. For different ideas add dry ice to grape juice and
      > pineapple juice for a goolish witches brew.
      >
      >
      > DENTS & HAIL DAMAGE
      > Dry Ice will condense metal and thereby shrink small dents on your car.
      > Place the Dry Ice on the inside of the dent if possible. Use heavy gloves
      > and press flat sheet against dent. If it is not possible to get on the
      > inside concave part of the dent, then using heavy gloves hold the Dry Ice
      so
      > a corner can fit into the bottom lowest part of the cratered dent. Hold
      the
      > Dry Ice until the metal is frosted at least 2 inches beyond the dent. Let
      > the metal warm up (in the sun is the best) and repeat the procedure.
      > Sometimes the dent will pop out perfectly. More often it will not be
      > possible to get a flat smooth finish, but the dent will be reduced
      > noticeably. Creased metal will still show the crease line but the dent
      will
      > be far less pronounced. I have not seen any paint damage, but I'm sure if
      > the paint is not strongly adhered, it could peel away.
      >
      >
      > REMOVE FLOOR TILE
      > Dry Ice will loosen floor tile by freezing and slightly shrinking them
      > allowing easier removal. Place the Dry Ice sheets centered on the tile to
      be
      > removed and wait until it is completely frosted. If it has not popped off,
      > slight tapping with a hammer or prying with a screwdriver will allow it to
      > be lifted off easily. It is too time consuming to remove a whole floor,
      but
      > is ideal for removing a few tiles that need replacing.
      >
      >
      > GOPHER ERADICATION
      > Dry Ice is heavier than air so it will find its way to the bottom of
      gopher
      > dwellings. Place 1 to 2 inch pieces as deep into each hole as can be
      reached
      > without filling the front of the hole with dirt. If you miss some holes
      the
      > process may have to be repeated. Jerry Yamamoto of Hayward, California
      > reports that he successfully used Dry Ice to eradicate regular Argentine
      > ants from his front yard. Perhaps this could work on fire ants too.
      >
      >
      > PROTECT SPORT FISH AND GAME
      > Pack your trophy animal or fish in Dry Ice to minimize spoilage while
      > transporting or shipping it home. Do not let the Dry Ice touch the game
      > directly as it may cause superficial damage. For best results use an
      > insulated container.
      >
      >
      > BRANDING
      > Dry Ice is used to super cool alcohol for branding horses, cattle, and
      > hunting dogs. The alcohol must be 90% pure - not rubbing alcohol. Liquid
      > Nitrogen is too cold to work properly. This is now the second most common
      > way to brand according to Tony Clark of Basset, Nebraska.
      >
      >
      > MEDICAL
      > Doctors, to freeze skin for wart removal, use Dry Ice or liquid nitrogen.
      > Many medical offices ship biological specimens in Dry Ice for laboratory
      > testing or further processing.
      >
      >
      > TRANSPORTING PLANTS
      > Dry Ice will keep flowers cool and delay blooming. Maintaining ready to
      > flower plants at 34°F will retard blooming. Do not allow Dry Ice to get
      too
      > close and freeze plants.
      >
      >
      > PLANT GROWTH
      > Carbon Dioxide will increase the rate of plant growth.
      >
      > CHEMICAL RETARDANT
      > Its low temperature slows or stops some chemical reactions. It is used to
      > store and ship special adhesives It is also a neutralizing agent for
      > alkalis.
      >
      >
      > PRESSURIZING AGENT
      > When Dry Ice changes from a solid to a gas it absorbs heat and expands to
      > 800 times its original volume.
      >
      >
      > INERTING MEDIUM
      > Dry Ice will replace oxygen in a container preventing or putting out
      fires.
      > It is used to safely remove underground gas storage tanks.
      >
      >
      > SHRINK FITTINGS
      > Dry Ice will shrink metal to slide on sleeves, bushings or bearings. Add
      Dry
      > Ice to a 90% pure alcohol bath to create a cold liquid near -109.3°F. that
      > can be used like liquid nitrogen.
      >
      >
      > DEFLASHING MOLDED PLASTICS AND RUBBER
      > Dry Ice will cool and shrink whatever it touches. Rubber parts are tumbled
      > in a barrel with Dry Ice, making them brittle for easy flash removal. It
      is
      > used in cold grinding of Plexiglas, PVC resins and vinyl's.
      >
      >
      > FRESH MEAT PROCESSING
      > Dry Ice will keep the temperature cold and reduce spoilage while
      processing
      > meat. This is used in industrial processing of ground meats and sausages.
      >
      >
      > MOSQUITOES
      > CO2 may attract mosquitoes away from animals and people. Place pieces of
      Dry
      > Ice away from areas where people are congregating. This is an untested
      > report for me, so give me some feedback by e-mail if it works. The theory
      is
      > that mosquitoes find animals and people by their CO2 exhaled during
      > breathing. If heat isn't also an attracter then it might work. I am not
      sure
      > how, as cold as Dry Ice is, that it would work.
      >
      >
      > WELLS
      > Dry Ice combined with detergent, or alone, will improve porosity in
      > irrigation wells. No further information in this area is available to me.
      > Please e-mail me with process, quantities and results.
      >
      >
      > BAKING INDUSTRY
      > Dry Ice is used in mixing ingredients and retarding yeast growth until the
      > proper time.
      >
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