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Re: [microhydro] Capacitors

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  • Nando
    Jake: Where are you located , In USA and where ?. what is the expected generated voltage ?. and current ?. For the Induction motor conversion capacitors, you
    Message 1 of 23 , May 30, 2008
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      Jake:

      Where are you located , In USA and where ?.

      what is the expected generated voltage ?. and current ?.

      For the Induction motor conversion capacitors, you should look the surplus houses that sell them at much lower cost.

      Did you calculate the capacitor values or are you estimating what is needed ?.

      Can you detail your system ?. and Use ?.

      What type of ELC do you plan to use ?.

      There are several ways how you could attain the needed values, series ( lower voltage) or parallel at the needed voltage.

      Nando

      ----- Original Message -----
      From: jakester_the
      To: microhydro@yahoogroups.com
      Sent: Friday, May 30, 2008 2:30 AM
      Subject: [microhydro] Capacitors



      I was wondering where i could get some cheap capacitors i need a 90
      micro farad system at 600V around about and was wondering if anybody
      had any easy appliances or places to get high voltage capacitors from
      if i buy them they'll be about $100 which is quite hefty.
      It is for a conversion of an induction motor into a generator
      Thanks Jake





      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • Jack Kepakali
      Hi Jake, I know of a place in Lower Hutt - NZ (address below) which engages in dismantling big machineries (industrial type) and sells of good parts cheaply. I
      Message 2 of 23 , May 31, 2008
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        Hi Jake,

        I know of a place in Lower Hutt - NZ (address below)
        which engages in dismantling big machineries
        (industrial type) and sells of good parts cheaply. I
        have found a few good bits and pieces. I have seen a
        few capacitors of various sizes, shapes, ratings, etc.
        I have actually bought a few myself trying to do the
        same sort of thing you are doing with a smaller size
        motor over the weekends but did not get around to
        completing it as I moved to Christchurch to study.
        However, am still interested and would take it up from
        where I left. If you hapeen to be heading down
        Wellington way then I suggest you visit this place:

        New Age Materials Computer Wreckers
        32 Seaview Road
        Seaview
        Lower Hutt City
        Wellington

        I am sure you will find the kind of capacitors you are
        looking for there. Since I did not have time to
        complete my little project with the capacitors I
        bought (price ranged from $5 to $7) I cannot guarantee
        you that they will work.

        I am thinking of heading up to the North Island this
        coming semester (June/July) break and would be pleased
        to pop in and see what you are doing if that is OK
        with you.

        Cheers
        Jack

        --- jakester_the <jakester_the@...> wrote:

        > I have bought a 11kw induction motor and was told
        > that you need around
        > 2.5uf per kilowatt for C but i want to hook it up as
        > a 2C-C system so
        > i need 90uf could i get away with less i only want
        > to draw about 3kw
        > of power from it.
        > Jake Martin
        >
        >
        >
        >
      • jakester_the
        ... Hi Mark Yep it can but normally two strokes are very small and must run at 3600RPM so they wear down very quickly also wood gas has a very slow flame front
        Message 3 of 23 , May 31, 2008
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          > Jake......an off topic quick question........can a two stroke engine
          > run off of wood gas as well as a 4 stroke?.........mark in NH

          Hi Mark
          Yep it can but normally two strokes are very small and must run at
          3600RPM so they wear down very quickly also wood gas has a very slow
          flame front compared to petrol so you want to run it around 1500RPM
          also you must put a tiny amount of two stroke oil which is harder to
          do than i first expected making a GEET on a two stroke i put a drip
          feed into it but it just blew blue smoke i know im not the best
          example but you could try a venturi for ease it makes sense to use a 4
          stroke and if you are producing any tar (which everyone does) when it
          cools then the entire engine will seize. Producer gas also derates the
          engine about 60% so a small engine will be able to do very little work
          this effiecy decrease is engines at 1500RPM and depends on many factors
          Can be done, but why bother?
          Jake Martin
          p.s. I'm sure a better place to discuss this is at the WoodGas group
          if you want to post it there.
        • jakester_the
          In relation to Nando s very informative reply ... electronic level controller if the motor is well regulated capable to respond to the load variations Its not
          Message 4 of 23 , May 31, 2008
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            In relation to Nando's very informative reply

            > Since you are using a steam motor ( right) then you may not need an
            electronic level controller if the motor is well regulated capable to
            respond to the load variations

            Its not steam it is running partially burnt wood into a internal
            combustion engine and fully combusting it but it will have a belt
            governor on it so yes it will be well regulated

            > If just 3 KW production this motor is too big and may use too many
            idle watts -- around 300 to 600 watts
            >
            > For 3 KW a better one would be 5 or 6 KW

            Yeah unfortunately it was the best one to buy at the time as this is
            the experimental version it will have to do but when i upscale it i
            can use the same generator which will be handy.

            Thank you so much for working the capacitance needed as i was about to
            go out and buy a lot capacitors that would have been the wrong size.

            In relation to the Marks post

            > Jake......an off topic quick question........can a two stroke engine
            > run off of wood gas as well as a 4 stroke?.........mark in NH

            Yep it can but normally two strokes are very small and must run at
            3600RPM so they wear down very quickly.

            Wood gas has a very slow flame front compared to petrol so you want to
            run it around 1500RPM

            You must put a tiny amount of two stroke oil which is harder to do
            than i first expected making a GEET on a two stroke i put a drip feed
            into it but it just blew blue smoke i know im not the best example

            You could try a venturi if you can work out the vescosity and the
            fluid mechanics
            It makes sense to use a 4 stroke and if you are producing any tar
            (which everyone does) when it cools in a 2 stroke then the entire
            engine will seize.

            Producer gas also derates the engine about 60% so a small engine will
            be able to do very little work this efficiency decrease is engines at
            1500RPM and depends on many factors

            Can be done, but why bother?

            Jake Martin

            p.s. I'm sure a better place to discuss this is at the WoodGas group
            if you want to post it there.

            Thanks to all that helped was a lot of help special thanks to Nando
          • jakester_the
            In response to Jacks Reply ... Thanks i will defiantly see if i can get in touch with them thanks for the tip. ... That would be cool no probs it will probably
            Message 5 of 23 , Jun 1, 2008
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              In response to Jacks Reply
              >
              > New Age Materials Computer Wreckers
              > 32 Seaview Road
              > Seaview
              > Lower Hutt City
              > Wellington
              >
              Thanks i will defiantly see if i can get in touch with them thanks for
              the tip.

              > I am thinking of heading up to the North Island this
              > coming semester (June/July) break and would be pleased
              > to pop in and see what you are doing if that is OK
              > with you.

              That would be cool no probs it will probably be a school the gasifier
              by then and the generator at home and the engines are down at
              Wilkinson's transport engineers but if you want to see the plans i
              send out my newsletter detailing what I've been up to each month i
              could email you due to me entering a couple of competition i need to
              detail everything.

              My email is
              just.cause.im.short@...
              My plan is to study in Canterbury as well but Auckland uni seem to
              want me to do some fluid mechanics course which looks a bit boring.

              Hope to hear from you soon
              Jake Martin
            • jakester_the
              In response to Nando s questions ... I think i posted this previously Im not in the USA im in New Zealand a small island country next to Austrailia or just
              Message 6 of 23 , Jun 2, 2008
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                In response to Nando's questions
                >
                > Where are you located , In USA and where ?.

                I think i posted this previously Im not in the USA im in New Zealand a
                small island country next to Austrailia or just under it.
                We came up with bungy jumping, climbed Mt everest first and invented
                the electric fence and much more not bad for a country of 4 million.

                > what is the expected generated voltage ?. and current ?.

                Alright now according to the engine charts a fluidyne here
                http://www.fluidynenz.250x.com/enginetables.htm
                my gasifier is made to the fluidyne specifications
                my engine running at 1500Rpm (which it must for the size of the
                gasifier and for the flame front speed of producer gas which is carbon
                monoxide and hydrogen) can produce when hooked up to a generator 3Kw
                of power. In New Zealand the voltage is 230/240 volts (50 hertz) and
                im not sure how many amps i want to generate as i really don't know
                the purpose of the electricity yet possibly feed it into the grid and
                wind the meter back would be cool but im guessing that if i want to
                generate 240V then watts is volts times amps so if watts is 3000 then
                amps are 12.5. correct me if im wrong

                > For the Induction motor conversion capacitors, you should look the
                surplus houses that sell them at much lower cost.

                Thanks i will defiantly look into it

                > Did you calculate the capacitor values or are you estimating what is
                needed ?.

                but didn't you just work that out in a previous post


                > Can you detail your system ?. and Use ?.

                Well my system is a wood gasifier that feeds the producer gas into a
                ICE and then runs a generator

                > What type of ELC do you plan to use ?.

                Is ELC an electric logic controller well i have no idea what that is
                my plan for testing was to put a bar of metal in a drum to water and
                use it as a load dump so i could test how well it works.
                If i was to plug it into the main grid i would need one but if i do
                ill probably see if an electrition could do it because my interest is
                in chemistry and mechanics not so much electrical things i can do some
                basic code though and program basic Pic Axe but little kids can do that.

                > There are several ways how you could attain the needed values,
                series ( lower voltage) or parallel at the needed voltage.

                I do know know how capacitors add and subtract when added in either
                series or parallel but I'm more interested in what voltage it needs to
                handle before i wonder the arrangement.

                im guessing you sent a post but it didn't show up till ages so you
                resent it did the same thing to me it was very slow yesterday so i
                answered your question again.

                Jake Martin
              • Jopu Tharappel
                Hi Jake, An ELC is an electronic load controller. It is used in Small hydro systems to keep the voltage and frequency within limits. The way it works is that:
                Message 7 of 23 , Jun 2, 2008
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                  Hi Jake,
                  An ELC is an electronic load controller. It is used in Small hydro systems to keep the voltage and frequency within limits.
                  The way it works is that: for example in your case you have 3kW so the generator needs to see 3kW all the time to have the same voltage and frequency. Suppose if you switch off a few of your appliances it will result is a lower load for the generator. This will cause the generator to speed up and the result will be higher voltage and frequency. This higher voltage may burn up some of your other appliances. In order to prevent this the ELC will switch on dummy loads to keep the generator at constant load. The ELC will also switch off dummy loads when you have more loads. This is done automatically to keep the systems balanced.
                  I hope this explanation is useful.

                  You can contact Mr. Malcolm of fastec . They manufacture ELC's


                  3 Rex Street,

                  Miramar,

                  Wellington

                  New Zealand

                  Telephone 64 4 939 6061

                  Fax 64 4 939 6062



                  Email elg@...

                  http://www.faststarts.co.nz





                  With regards
                  Jopu Tharappel




                  ----- Original Message -----
                  From: jakester_the
                  To: microhydro@yahoogroups.com
                  Sent: Monday, June 02, 2008 3:08 PM
                  Subject: [microhydro] Re: Capacitors


                  In response to Nando's questions
                  >
                  > Where are you located , In USA and where ?.

                  I think i posted this previously Im not in the USA im in New Zealand a
                  small island country next to Austrailia or just under it.
                  We came up with bungy jumping, climbed Mt everest first and invented
                  the electric fence and much more not bad for a country of 4 million.

                  > what is the expected generated voltage ?. and current ?.

                  Alright now according to the engine charts a fluidyne here
                  http://www.fluidynenz.250x.com/enginetables.htm
                  my gasifier is made to the fluidyne specifications
                  my engine running at 1500Rpm (which it must for the size of the
                  gasifier and for the flame front speed of producer gas which is carbon
                  monoxide and hydrogen) can produce when hooked up to a generator 3Kw
                  of power. In New Zealand the voltage is 230/240 volts (50 hertz) and
                  im not sure how many amps i want to generate as i really don't know
                  the purpose of the electricity yet possibly feed it into the grid and
                  wind the meter back would be cool but im guessing that if i want to
                  generate 240V then watts is volts times amps so if watts is 3000 then
                  amps are 12.5. correct me if im wrong

                  > For the Induction motor conversion capacitors, you should look the
                  surplus houses that sell them at much lower cost.

                  Thanks i will defiantly look into it

                  > Did you calculate the capacitor values or are you estimating what is
                  needed ?.

                  but didn't you just work that out in a previous post

                  > Can you detail your system ?. and Use ?.

                  Well my system is a wood gasifier that feeds the producer gas into a
                  ICE and then runs a generator

                  > What type of ELC do you plan to use ?.

                  Is ELC an electric logic controller well i have no idea what that is
                  my plan for testing was to put a bar of metal in a drum to water and
                  use it as a load dump so i could test how well it works.
                  If i was to plug it into the main grid i would need one but if i do
                  ill probably see if an electrition could do it because my interest is
                  in chemistry and mechanics not so much electrical things i can do some
                  basic code though and program basic Pic Axe but little kids can do that.

                  > There are several ways how you could attain the needed values,
                  series ( lower voltage) or parallel at the needed voltage.

                  I do know know how capacitors add and subtract when added in either
                  series or parallel but I'm more interested in what voltage it needs to
                  handle before i wonder the arrangement.

                  im guessing you sent a post but it didn't show up till ages so you
                  resent it did the same thing to me it was very slow yesterday so i
                  answered your question again.

                  Jake Martin





                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                • jakester_the
                  In response to Jopu Tharappel s comment ... systems to keep the voltage and frequency within limits. ... the generator needs to see 3kW all the time to have
                  Message 8 of 23 , Jun 5, 2008
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                    In response to Jopu Tharappel's comment

                    > Hi Jake,
                    > An ELC is an electronic load controller. It is used in Small hydro
                    systems to keep the voltage and frequency within limits.
                    > The way it works is that: for example in your case you have 3kW so
                    the generator needs to see 3kW all the time to have the same voltage
                    and frequency. Suppose if you switch off a few of your appliances it
                    will result is a lower load for the generator. This will cause the
                    generator to speed up and the result will be higher voltage and
                    frequency. This higher voltage may burn up some of your other
                    appliances. In order to prevent this the ELC will switch on dummy
                    loads to keep the generator at constant load. The ELC will also switch
                    off dummy loads when you have more loads. This is done automatically
                    to keep the systems balanced.
                    > I hope this explanation is useful.

                    Yes very helpful but as my engine will have a governor which will keep
                    it at the right speed there will be no need

                    But i am still interested to find out how high the voltage on my
                    capacitors should be rated DC or AC should it be 240DC I'd really like
                    to know so i can go and buy some and maybe even do some series and
                    stuff but i need to know what voltage it needs to be rated at

                    Thanks Jake Martin
                  • Nando
                    Jake: The capacitors should be the RUN type, do not use STARTING type, do not last . Also, since you have a 415 Volts Motor, you need at least a 500 Volts AC
                    Message 9 of 23 , Jun 5, 2008
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                      Jake:

                      The capacitors should be the RUN type, do not use STARTING type, do not last .

                      Also, since you have a 415 Volts Motor, you need at least a 500 Volts AC rated -- 600 volts should be available in your country -- visit the scrap dealers -- other wise you may pay a high price.

                      Nando


                      ----- Original Message -----
                      From: jakester_the
                      To: microhydro@yahoogroups.com
                      Sent: Thursday, June 05, 2008 6:43 AM
                      Subject: [microhydro] Re: Capacitors


                      In response to Jopu Tharappel's comment

                      > Hi Jake,
                      > An ELC is an electronic load controller. It is used in Small hydro
                      systems to keep the voltage and frequency within limits.
                      > The way it works is that: for example in your case you have 3kW so
                      the generator needs to see 3kW all the time to have the same voltage
                      and frequency. Suppose if you switch off a few of your appliances it
                      will result is a lower load for the generator. This will cause the
                      generator to speed up and the result will be higher voltage and
                      frequency. This higher voltage may burn up some of your other
                      appliances. In order to prevent this the ELC will switch on dummy
                      loads to keep the generator at constant load. The ELC will also switch
                      off dummy loads when you have more loads. This is done automatically
                      to keep the systems balanced.
                      > I hope this explanation is useful.

                      Yes very helpful but as my engine will have a governor which will keep
                      it at the right speed there will be no need

                      But i am still interested to find out how high the voltage on my
                      capacitors should be rated DC or AC should it be 240DC I'd really like
                      to know so i can go and buy some and maybe even do some series and
                      stuff but i need to know what voltage it needs to be rated at

                      Thanks Jake Martin





                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    • jakester_the
                      Hi I was wondering if buying 6 of these capacitors would do the job i could wire two of them up to make 66uF but would the voltage and capacitance be enough.
                      Message 10 of 23 , Jun 20, 2008
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                        Hi
                        I was wondering if buying 6 of these capacitors would do the job i
                        could wire two of them up to make 66uF but would the voltage and
                        capacitance be enough.

                        http://www.trademe.co.nz/Electronics-photography/Electronic-components/auction-160674055.htm

                        Thanks good to hear an answer back

                        Jake Martin
                      • Nando
                        JAKE: You have asked a question that does not have a head -- even though you may have presented your case before -- many may not remember the past messages,, I
                        Message 11 of 23 , Jun 20, 2008
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                          JAKE:

                          You have asked a question that does not have a head -- even though you may have presented your case before -- many may not remember the past messages,, I for one may not, and don't have the time to search for those past messages to be able to respond properly to your question.

                          I am assuming that you are needing these capacitors for biasing an induction motor into a generator --though no power is indicated.--

                          So this is, as well, for all members that place questions to the group,that a thread of the messages should be included to know what to respond and to get the proper and right answer to your needs. SO INFORM IN DETAIL and do not try to say that some many days past I presented a question -- there are too many messages with diverse questions -

                          These capacitors are not the type to be used for such -- the use of these capacitors is for power supplies that have low carrying current .

                          Capacitors for converting induction motors into generators NEED to be the type used for MOTOR RUNNING and not for STARTING motor capacitors --these motor capacitors are more expensive and most of the time are oil filled and capable of carrying heavy currents - in the area of more than 10 amps .

                          Also, the breakdown voltage NEEDS TO BE greater than the generated voltage and construction needs to be for AC voltage operation -

                          Like for a 415 volts generator , the capacitor rating Volts >600 Volts AC,

                          These are usually rectangular cans with the terminals, though many have cylindrical bodies.

                          You may not be able to get the right value , so you may need to have a group of capacitors to be able to adjust the generated frequency is such is what is needed --

                          Life for a 66 Uf -- you may get 50 Uf + 10 + 10 + 5 + 5 for each leg needed --

                          This because the motor parameters are not well defined ( correct inductance at the desired RPM) plus the manufacturing variations from manufacturer to manufacturer and motor HP size --.

                          Nando


                          ----- Original Message -----
                          From: jakester_the
                          To: microhydro@yahoogroups.com
                          Sent: Friday, June 20, 2008 5:45 AM
                          Subject: [microhydro] Re: Capacitors


                          Hi
                          I was wondering if buying 6 of these capacitors would do the job i
                          could wire two of them up to make 66uF but would the voltage and
                          capacitance be enough.

                          http://www.trademe.co.nz/Electronics-photography/Electronic-components/auction-160674055.htm

                          Thanks good to hear an answer back

                          Jake Martin





                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                        • Rob Linschoten
                          Jake I won t get into the math, just a quick note that those are not the capacitors type you need. You are looking for the metal can types... Rob ... From:
                          Message 12 of 23 , Jun 20, 2008
                          • 0 Attachment
                            Jake

                            I won't get into the math, just a quick note that those are not the capacitors type you need. You are looking for the metal can types...

                            Rob


                            ----- Original Message -----
                            From: jakester_the
                            To: microhydro@yahoogroups.com
                            Sent: Friday, June 20, 2008 3:45 AM
                            Subject: [microhydro] Re: Capacitors


                            Hi
                            I was wondering if buying 6 of these capacitors would do the job i
                            could wire two of them up to make 66uF but would the voltage and
                            capacitance be enough.

                            http://www.trademe.co.nz/Electronics-photography/Electronic-components/auction-160674055.htm

                            Thanks good to hear an answer back

                            Jake Martin





                            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                          • Manfred Mornhinweg
                            Hi Jake, Rob, ... No, it s not mandatory that the capacitors have a metal can. In fact, many capacitors suitable for AC use these days come in plastic cans,
                            Message 13 of 23 , Jun 22, 2008
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                              Hi Jake, Rob,

                              > I won't get into the math, just a quick note that those are not the
                              > capacitors type you need. You are looking for the metal can types...

                              No, it's not mandatory that the capacitors have a metal can. In fact,
                              many capacitors suitable for AC use these days come in plastic cans, and
                              most (unsuitable) electrolytic capacitors have metal cans. The important
                              thing is, as Nando wrote, that the capacitors must be specified for
                              continuous work at AC, at the proper line voltage plus some safety
                              margin. No electrolytic capacitors can do that. The capacitors that do
                              that used to be oil filled, typically with some paper dielectric, but
                              that's obsolete technology. Nowadays the capacitors for this use
                              typically are build from aluminized polypropylene foil, which is rolled
                              into coils, the ends of the coil are further aluminized to eliminate the
                              inductance of the film coil by connecting to the aluminization at many
                              spots, then wires are attached and the whole thing is placed in a
                              plastic can and held in place with some glue. It's rare to see oil
                              filled capacitors these days.

                              You can buy these capacitors in any electrical supplies store that also
                              carries motors. You have to ask for them as "motor running capacitors".
                              The "motor starting capacitors" instead are electrolytic, and are not
                              suitable for continuous use at AC.

                              In my neck of the woods, the most common brand of motor running
                              capacitors is COMAR, from Italy. On this web page you can find pictures,
                              technical data and general information on such capacitors, so that you
                              can see what you should be looking for.

                              http://www.comarcond.com/inglese/prodotti_2.html

                              Of course, many more companies exist that make such capacitors! Just go
                              to any electrical supplies store and ask for motor running capacitors.

                              Manfred.

                              ========================
                              Visit my hobby homepage!
                              http://ludens.cl
                              ========================
                            • Rob Linschoten
                              Hi Manfred Thanks for the info. I ve been following your adventures with interest. A few years back I put in my own system using 300 feet of 6 PVC schedule 40
                              Message 14 of 23 , Jun 22, 2008
                              • 0 Attachment
                                Hi Manfred

                                Thanks for the info. I've been following your adventures with interest. A few years back I put in my own system using 300 feet of 6" PVC schedule 40 in a very remote place. It was one the hardest bits of work I've ever undertaken. Once I had electric hot water on a cold winter day all that effort became easy to forget.

                                This is one of the interesting aspects of this group. it cover the whole world! It may be that here in Canada we're a little behind the times on this matter. I believe we are allowed to use non-metal cased capacitors for motor-starting, but not for running. I have a sizeable collection for trouble-shooting various induction generator setups. However, approved electrical equipment imported from other countries do come with the polypropylene types. Both my washing machine (Japan) and my fridge (Korea) sport the polypropylene start and run caps. They would certainly be easier to mount. Perhaps a more knowledgeable Canadian can chime in here and advise.

                                Regards to all.

                                Rob

                                ----- Original Message -----
                                From: Manfred Mornhinweg
                                To: microhydro@yahoogroups.com
                                Sent: Sunday, June 22, 2008 9:04 AM
                                Subject: [microhydro] Re: Capacitors


                                Hi Jake, Rob,

                                > I won't get into the math, just a quick note that those are not the
                                > capacitors type you need. You are looking for the metal can types...

                                No, it's not mandatory that the capacitors have a metal can. In fact,
                                many capacitors suitable for AC use these days come in plastic cans, and
                                most (unsuitable) electrolytic capacitors have metal cans. The important
                                thing is, as Nando wrote, that the capacitors must be specified for
                                continuous work at AC, at the proper line voltage plus some safety
                                margin. No electrolytic capacitors can do that. The capacitors that do
                                that used to be oil filled, typically with some paper dielectric, but
                                that's obsolete technology. Nowadays the capacitors for this use
                                typically are build from aluminized polypropylene foil, which is rolled
                                into coils, the ends of the coil are further aluminized to eliminate the
                                inductance of the film coil by connecting to the aluminization at many
                                spots, then wires are attached and the whole thing is placed in a
                                plastic can and held in place with some glue. It's rare to see oil
                                filled capacitors these days.

                                You can buy these capacitors in any electrical supplies store that also
                                carries motors. You have to ask for them as "motor running capacitors".
                                The "motor starting capacitors" instead are electrolytic, and are not
                                suitable for continuous use at AC.

                                In my neck of the woods, the most common brand of motor running
                                capacitors is COMAR, from Italy. On this web page you can find pictures,
                                technical data and general information on such capacitors, so that you
                                can see what you should be looking for.

                                http://www.comarcond.com/inglese/prodotti_2.html

                                Of course, many more companies exist that make such capacitors! Just go
                                to any electrical supplies store and ask for motor running capacitors.

                                Manfred.

                                ========================
                                Visit my hobby homepage!
                                http://ludens.cl
                                ========================





                                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
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