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Re: L.A. drought--4" to date, lowest year to date in record/hydrated view

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  • pawnfart
    Fred, I think you have to be careful with your analysis. I agree with the facts you state but not what it means to the feedbacks I am describing, and I think
    Message 1 of 7 , May 6, 2002
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      Fred,

      I think you have to be careful with your analysis. I agree with the
      facts you state but not what it means to the feedbacks I am
      describing, and I think you are leaving out some key facts.

      Leading up to the Black Sunday, Easter, 1935, there was a prolonged
      and sustained drought in the heartland, that dated back to the mid-
      1920s. The human activity on those rivers occurred in the 1920s and
      1930s and culminated with things like the Inner Harbor Navigation
      Canal in 1924 or the Lake Pontchartrain projects in 1931 and the
      Hoover in 1931. Also understand that if the Colorado causes low
      monsoonal air flow or a lowered sub tropical jet, the rain that would
      land in the heartland won't flow out the Mississippi and Rio
      floodplains--so that there is a sort of compounding impact from west
      to east with these rivers.

      But what I wanted you to notice from the link I provided was that
      there was a great struggle to settle riperian rights that ended in
      early 1920s. That means that the 7 states were then free to start
      piping off water BEFORE the 1930s, AND THEY DID!!!!

      This is key. It isn't what happened in Minnesota up river 1,500
      miles that matters to the microbrial biosphere in the GOM--but this
      biosphere IS impact with large man made delta lakes or massive
      concrete dams and million of acre feet siphoned off by 7 states.
      Don't you see?

      To show how this has happened before in history w/ the Colorado--
      check this out. In 1903 the Mexicans messed up w/ a diversion
      channel and the Imperial valley in Southern California was turned
      into a large salt lake! This occurred during an El Nino when
      rainfall is historically high in the SW AND HURRICANCE ACTIVITY IS
      REDUCED. Now, check out the ENSO PATTERN:

      ++++++++++++++++++++

      El Niño Years La Niña Years

      1900-1901 1903-1904

      1902-1903 1906-1907

      1905-1906 1908-1909


      And then look at the hurricane seasons:


      http://weather.unisys.com/hurricane/atlantic/1901/

      http://weather.unisys.com/hurricane/atlantic/1902/

      http://weather.unisys.com/hurricane/atlantic/1903/

      http://weather.unisys.com/hurricane/atlantic/1904/

      http://weather.unisys.com/hurricane/atlantic/1905/

      http://weather.unisys.com/hurricane/atlantic/1906/

      http://weather.unisys.com/hurricane/atlantic/1907/

      I think what you should notice is there is a decided drop off of near
      Texas TS after the Sultan Sea creation during La Nina years when
      historically TS activity in general increases! Likewise, this year,
      we seeing very dry conditions in much of western Texas--which feeds
      the Rio and gives us biological conditions in the GOM for tropical
      activity!

      --- In methanehydrateclub@y..., fredwx <no_reply@y...> wrote:
      > Regarding Hoover:
      > A diversion around the dam construction site was done in 1932. This
      > allowed the water to flow around the site but did not restrict the
      > total flow. Water was not restricted prior to 1935.
      >
      > RE The Mississippi:
      > There were a long series of dams along the Mississippi for many
      years
      > prior to as well as during the 1930's so you can not fix any of
      these
      > as the cause of the dust bowl.
      >
      > 1884 -- First major reservior system - Leech, Winnibigoshish,
      > Pokegama, Minnesota
      > 1910 -- First dam with a hydroelectric plant - Lock & Dam 1,
      > Minneapolis, Minnesota
      > 1907 Congress authorized a six-foot channel.
      > 1914 Dam built at Keokuk, Iowa to produce hydroelectric power.
      > 1924 Congress established the Upper Mississippi Wild Life and Fish
      > Refuge.
      > 1930's Dams built to deepen the main channel to nine feet, over
      > objection of Izaak Walton League.
      >
      > Fred
      >
      >
      >
      > --- In methanehydrateclub@y..., "pawnfart" <mike@u...> wrote:
      > > Fred,
      > >
      > > Let me respond to both of your posts.
      > >
      > > This link:
      > >
      > > http://crwua.mwd.dst.ca.us/lor/crwua_lor.htm
      > >
      > > gives some history of water use before the 1930s and it is clear
      > that
      > > there was diversions, including in 1932 for the Hoover dam. Then
      > > there is the Imperial Valley Salt Lake deal and the water use
      > issues
      > > of the 7 states and Mexico. Don't forget that there are two
      other
      > > main rivers--the Rio and the Mississippi. This history shows the
      > tie
      > > in between the Rio and the Colorado and the water use fight. But
      > the
      > > Mississippi is key, too. Understand at this point over the past
      10
      > > years or so the Mississippi is going the other way--with too much
      > sed
      > > and flow comparted to the Colorado and Rio.
      > >
      > > The Mississippi has changed its course numerous times by human
      > > activity in the past (there are, of course, natural changes).
      Many
      > of
      > > the man made changes occurred upstream before 1924, to prevent
      > local
      > > flooding and erosion. But on the delta itself a major change
      > occurred
      > > in 1924, when the comes as a result of
      > man-
      > > made operations. Then in 1931 the Corps of Engineers built the
      > Bonnet
      > > Carre Spillway.
      > >
      > > The timing of these major changes to the rivers matches perfectly
      > > with the Dust Bowl, only altered in minor ways by ENSO.
      > >
      > > As far as there being other factors, I again would point to the
      > > Keeling Whorf and Fu papers in terms of the inverse relationship
      > > between cloud wieghted SSTs and cirrus and say that the forcing
      > from
      > > clouds is extremely significant and controlling--otherwise no
      Gaia
      > > and we wouldn't be here. The forcing from cirrus also should be
      > > thought of as modulating. Therefore, the cold oceans and
      > > thermohaline is a product of modulation, not that STTs are a
      normal
      > > state where chaotic events alter them. So what we have here is a
      > > changing modulation based on a key forcing changing, not some
      > chaotic
      > > event in the context of chaotic behavior. The problem is much
      > > different than that.
      > >
      > > --- In methanehydrateclub@y..., fredwx <no_reply@y...> wrote:
      > > > You said "First, warmer oceans mean that they are more
      > specifically
      > > > conductive--less resistive to electrical currents. This is
      > related
      > > to
      > > > the cold SSTs to the top of the N. Pacific gyre, IMHO, and
      hence,
      > > > provides less rain to S. Cal."
      > > >
      > > > SST's are below normal over the eastern North Pacific and I
      agree
      > > > that the dry weather is a likely result.
      > > >
      > > >
      > >
      >
      http://psbsgi1.nesdis.noaa.gov:8080/PSB/EPS/SST/data/anomnight.4.30.20
      > > > 02.gif
      > > >
      > > > ....but there could be other reasons for this besides
      electrical
      > > > currents.
      > > >
      > > >
      > > >
      > > >
      > > >
      > > > --- In methanehydrateclub@y..., "pawnfart" <mike@u...> wrote:
      > > > > L.A. is having the driest year since records were recorded--
      > four
      > > > > inches of rain so far.
      > > > >
      > > > > Last year it was decided to take run off from excess spring
      > rains
      > > > > that over flow from Lake Mead and run them to California.
      This
      > > was
      > > > > despite the damage already caused by CAP--see
      > > > > http://www.geocities.com/NapaValley/8339/CAP.html That
      decision
      > > > looks
      > > > > pretty dumb from where I sit.
      > > > >
      > > > > But there is also an issue of warmer oceans. Warmer, again,
      > means
      > > > > more conductive, and for west to east moving currents, it
      means
      > > > less
      > > > > cirrus.
      > > > >
      > > > > No El Nino is also hard on S. Cal rain conditions.
      > > > >
      > > > > So is 30,000 dams built in Asia over the past 30 years,
      > > culminated
      > > > > with the Three Gorge diversion and relocation to the delta,
      and
      > > > delta
      > > > > sedimentation retention projects for land for these people to
      > > live.
      > > > >
      > > > >
      > > > >
      > > > > Here are some thoughts back, first in cryptic form and then
      > > perhaps
      > > > > some code breaking background--I hope it communicates. First,
      > > > warmer
      > > > > oceans mean that they are more specifically conductive--less
      > > > > resistive to electrical currents. This is related to the cold
      > > SSTs
      > > > to
      > > > > the top of the N. Pacific gyre, IMHO, and hence, provides
      less
      > > rain
      > > > > to S. Cal. That is because a more conductive ocean cuts both
      > > ways,
      > > > > including an idea that currents moving from west to east will
      > > > induct
      > > > > against cirrus enhancement per the IR measures discussed in
      > > Lindzen
      > > > > and Fu's papers (yes, they ignore direction of current in
      their
      > > > > papers but their data is solid if not their mechanism
      > > conclusions).
      > > > > Second, 30,000 dams have been built in Asia over the past 30
      > > years,
      > > > > culminated by Three Gorge. That means more electrical leakage
      > or
      > > > less
      > > > > Gaia insulation. Third, recent changes in output from Lake
      > Mead,
      > > > > although not the same as building Hoover and creating a Dust
      > > Bowl,
      > > > > have had significant impact on SW climate. Specifically,
      > recently
      > > a
      > > > > controversy arose relative to the American Mexican treaty
      over
      > > > water
      > > > > to the Gulf of California and the health of the estuary as it
      > > > > pertained to these dolphins there, and the Mexicans asked
      that
      > > > > spring "overspill" from Lake Mead continue, and the Americans
      > > > elected
      > > > > to send this water to California via ducts. Not wise--as it
      has
      > > > > caused record dry conditions in the region--to include
      > mountains
      > > in
      > > > > S. Cal that eventually run off S. Cal rivers to methane
      hydrate
      > > > > fields along the S. Cal coast. From a biological standpoint,
      > > > > conditions are very electrically poor for S. Cal and it is
      > > starting
      > > > > to show in poor rainfall amounts
      > > > >
      > > > > .....
      > > > >
      > > > > The microbiology and chemistry of hydrate formation throws in
      > > great
      > > > > complexity in the methanogens role in climate. In my view, as
      > > most
      > > > of
      > > > > you know, the oceans and climate is much more of a living,
      > > > biological
      > > > > process than many consider it to be. The complexity confuses
      > many
      > > > > against seeing the biological aspect. One reason is that
      > methane
      > > > > hydrate only forms provided extreme conditions AND
      > CONCENTRATIONS
      > > > of
      > > > > methane are satisfied. This means there must be lots of
      methane
      > > > > concentrated in one place or the methane just dissolves in
      the
      > > > water
      > > > > without forming the ice crystal. There is a good example to
      see
      > > how
      > > > > this is true by experiment. CO2 also forms an additional gas
      > > > hydrate
      > > > > similar to methane hydrates, and researchers have designed,
      for
      > > > > instance, a torpedo shaped block of frozen CO2, which turns
      out
      > > to
      > > > be
      > > > > denser than ocean water, that when released from a ship, will
      > > fall
      > > > to
      > > > > the sand at the depths of the ocean and get wedged into it--
      > then
      > > > form
      > > > > CO2 hydrate, that although as a hydrate is less dense than
      the
      > > > water,
      > > > > as buried in sand will be 'heavy' enough to stay there. This
      is
      > > > > actually a patented idea as a way of carbon sequestration.
      > > Anyway,
      > > > > methane hydrate researchers looking into this type of thing
      > have
      > > > > taken CO2 down to the depths, under 1,280 feet, in robots and
      > > > > released it in concentrated form. The CO2 spills out and
      forms
      > a
      > > > gas
      > > > > hydrate. But right next to the hydrate is are fish swimming
      > > about--
      > > > in
      > > > > a picture taken of this process! So, the CO2 coming out of
      > their
      > > > > gills doesn't turn to hydrate, and the O2 they must breath
      into
      > > > their
      > > > > gills isn't ice! A type of protein has evolved in fish that
      > > > prevents
      > > > > hydrates from forming! Hence, the archaebacteria, in the
      > > symbiotic
      > > > > process to make methane for hydrates in the intermediate
      depths
      > > of
      > > > > the oceans, must make it in sufficient concentrations for it
      to
      > > > form.
      > > > > This sets up a more narrow set of parameters where sufficient
      > > > > biological conditions must first exist for the microbrial
      > > activity
      > > > to
      > > > > be sufficient to form sufficient concentrations for it to
      form.
      > > > This
      > > > > sets up a more narrow set of parameters where sufficient
      > > biological
      > > > > conditions must first exist for the microbrial activity to be
      > > > > sufficient to form significant hydrate activity.
      > > > >
      > > > > For instance, look at the history of the Younger Dryas and
      > > current
      > > > > dogma about its cause fresh water capping from the diversion
      of
      > > the
      > > > > Mississippi headwaters to the east to the N. Atlantic. A
      river
      > > > fresh
      > > > > off a glacier, I suspect, doesn't biologically cut it. And if
      a
      > > > river
      > > > > that once flowed out of huge glacial lakes then becomes
      > > > substantially
      > > > > less flowing, with less sedimentation and detritus, then the
      > > > hydrate
      > > > > activity will substantially decrease.
      > > > >
      > > > >
      > > > > In this case, the significant change is relative to the Gulf
      of
      > > > > California. Hydrates are located there:
      > > > >
      > > > > http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-
      pages/hydrates/where.html
      > > > >
      > > > > They don't form in shallows--they require 1,275 feet of water
      > or
      > > > > more.
      > > > >
      > > > > They are found on the US west coast as far south as off the
      > coast
      > > > of
      > > > > Santa Barbara. Understand the counter current would move
      > > NORTHWEST.
      > > > > So, applicable to what I am talking about, they are found IN
      > THE
      > > > GULF
      > > > > OF CALIFORNIA.
      > > > >
      > > > >
      > > > > http://www.dri.edu/Projects/Monsoon/3empirical.html
      > > > >
      > > > > The monsoon in the SW depends on the surface temperatures of
      > the
      > > > > waters in the Gulf of California.
      > > > >
      > > > > Waters from the tropics in that region tend to move along the
      > > coast
      > > > > in a NW manner and peel off west with the N. Pacific gyre.
      > > > >
      > > > > The study involved non-El Nino period so that wind direction
      of
      > > > > consequence is generally constant for the study. This leave a
      > > > > question what varied the SSTs. As I have tried to explain,
      SSTs
      > > are
      > > > > MODULATED by the biosphere with energies from IR movements by
      > > > cirrus
      > > > > cloud behavior that can change energies absorbed in the range
      > of
      > > > > between 50 and 200 watts per meter squared per Lindzen and
      Fu's
      > > > > papers. Over time scales of a few weeks, this kind of energy
      is
      > > > > sufficient to move SSTs!
      > > > >
      > > > > What I would like to do is talk for a moment about Keeling
      > Whorf
      > > > > (K/W) and tidal changes. IMHO, tides not only alter how the
      > > oceans
      > > > > move against the beaches, but also how currents move in the
      > > > > intermediate oceans. While K/W is not much of a factor right
      > now
      > > on
      > > > > these kind of timescales it is illistrative of the feedback
      > > > involved
      > > > > on shorter periods by way of example.
      > > > >
      > > > > I have talked about depressurization of hydrates from K/W
      > before,
      > > > but
      > > > > there is also an idea of simple melting from changes in ocean
      > > > > currents. If there is a lot of sloshing around, to put it
      > > crudely,
      > > > > than underneath the gyres, which are the warmest and hence
      most
      > > > > electrically significant aspect of climate, than the swath of
      > > > hydrate
      > > > > activity underneath the gyres is going to be melted to a
      larger
      > > > > extent. That means more electrical leakage. It would be like
      > > having
      > > > > MS--the myolin sheaths of nerve tissues becoming defective--
      the
      > > > > biological signal to climate is short circuited. Here is a
      > blurb
      > > > from
      > > > > K/Ws paper:
      > > > >
      > > > >
      > > > >
      > > > > "The IRD event (number 5) near 8,100 yr BP is particularly
      > > > noteworthy
      > > > > because it appears to be associated with the most abrupt and
      > > > > widespread climate shift known from the past 10 kyr (10); it
      is
      > > > > believed to have been initiated by a large freshwater pulse
      > from
      > > > > Laurentide lakes, dated at 8,470 yr BP, that reduced surface
      > > ocean
      > > > > salinity in the North Atlantic Ocean, thereby causing
      > widespread
      > > > > cooling near 8,200 yr BP (11). Two recently drilled
      sedimentary
      > > > cores
      > > > > show multiple IRD events between 8,300 and 7,400 yr BP (ref.
      1,
      > > > Fig.
      > > > > 14). Together with the Elk Lake dust layer of 7,800 yr BP,
      > these
      > > > data
      > > > > suggest prolonged or repeated cooling well beyond the time
      > > expected
      > > > > for a freshwater discharge to directly affect climate. The
      > > maximum
      > > > > tidal forcing near these events at 7,744 yr BP was the
      greatest
      > > in
      > > > > 20,000 years, preceded and succeeded by strong forcing at
      8,089
      > > and
      > > > > 7,381 yr BP of the 360-yr tidal cycle. Thus the tidal
      > hypothesis
      > > > > suggests that cooling initiated by a freshwater pulse may
      have
      > > been
      > > > > prolonged by tidal forcing. Also consistent with tidal
      forcing
      > is
      > > > the
      > > > > possibility that the timing of the freshwater pulse occurred
      > > during
      > > > a
      > > > > warm phase of the 1,800-year tidal cycle, about 700 years
      > before
      > > > > maximum forcing at 7,744 yr BP. "
      > > > >
      > > > > See figure
      > > > >
      > > > > http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/97/8/3814/F7
      > > > >
      > > > > Both quote and figure from:
      > > > >
      > > > > http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/070047197
      > > > >
      > > > > A mudslide of 8,000 years ago must be put into perspective of
      > the
      > > > > Keeling Whorf research--and I think is somewhat related to
      the
      > > > > Younger Dryas in that the feedbacks out of the glacial hadn't
      > > > reached
      > > > > the biological stability we have today after the interglacial
      > has
      > > > > persisted as long as it has:
      > > > >
      > > > > October 5 2000 12:12 PM ET Seabed Gas Crystal Formations
      Linked
      > > to
      > > > > Tsunami
      > > > >
      > > > > By Todd Eastham
      > > > >
      > > > >
      > > > > WASHINGTON (Reuters) - About 8,000 years ago, a massive
      > undersea
      > > > > landslide off the coast of Norway sent a 30-foot wall of
      water -
      > -
      > > a
      > > > > tsunami wave -- barreling into the northern coast of Europe.
      > > > >
      > > > > If this were to recur today, as scientists say it could,
      almost
      > > > > anywhere in the world, it would cost billions if not tens of
      > > > billions
      > > > > of dollars to repair the damage to coastal cities. And the
      cost
      > > in
      > > > > lives could be far higher.
      > > > >
      > > > > ``A tsunami like that would wash into the Baltic with some
      > > > > devastation,'' said scientist Charles Paull at the Monterey
      Bay
      > > > > Aquarium Research Institute in Moss Landing, California.
      > > > >
      > > > > While scientists who study the so-called Storegga Slide with
      > the
      > > > > tools of geology, biology and seismography are not sure what
      > > > > triggered it, they are fairly certain a mysterious
      crystalline
      > > > solid
      > > > > composed of water molecules intertwined with methane gas,
      known
      > > as
      > > > > methane or gas hydrates, played a role.
      > > > >
      > > > > Paull says an earthquake might have triggered the slide,
      which
      > > > > occurred in stages over hundreds of years, removing an
      enormous
      > > > chunk
      > > > > from Norway's continental margin. But its magnitude suggests
      > > > methane
      > > > > hydrates played a role.
      > > > >
      > > > > ``Whatever the trigger,'' he said in a phone interview,
      ``this
      > is
      > > a
      > > > > natural disaster related to gas hydrates.''
      > > > >
      > > > > Methane hydrates, which scientists are studying as a possible
      > > vast
      > > > > global energy resource, are among the weirdest natural
      > phenomena.
      > > > > Sometimes called ``flammable ice,'' they are just that:
      highly
      > > > > unstable and combustible crystallized solids existing only in
      a
      > > > high
      > > > > pressure/low temperature environment.
      > > > >
      > > > > Discovered by accident late in the 19th century by oil and
      gas
      > > > > exploration teams just below the Arctic permafrost, the odd
      > > > crystals
      > > > > are thought to contain more clean-burning fossil fuels than
      > > Earth's
      > > > > reserves of oil, natural gas and coal combined.
      > > > >
      > > > > Equally important is the key role they appear to play in the
      > > global
      > > > > climate and marine environment, as well as the occasional
      > > > cataclysmic
      > > > > undersea event.
      > > > >
      > > > > Acting director John Farrell said the Ocean Drilling
      Program's
      > 15-
      > > > > year series of expeditions to explore the ocean floor had
      > > uncovered
      > > > > evidence that gas hydrates have spilled into the ocean in
      > massive
      > > > > bursts repeatedly over the last 50,000 years. Evidence in
      tiny
      > > > > plankton shells called ``forams'' show ``a chemical change in
      > the
      > > > > world's oceans that can only be explained by a lot of methane
      > > being
      > > > > injected into the water.''
      > > > >
      > > > > Enormous Implications For World Climate
      > > > >
      > > > > Events of that kind have enormous implications for global
      > climate
      > > > > change because methane is a potent greenhouse gas. A large
      > enough
      > > > > release of methane, as in the Storegga Slide, could bring on
      or
      > > > > accelerate a cycle of global warming.
      > > > >
      > > > > Warming cycles might already have been underway when such
      > slides
      > > > > occurred, triggered by some as-yet-unknown mechanism that
      > warmed
      > > > the
      > > > > oceans enough to destabilize gas hydrates, which dissolve
      when
      > > > > temperatures rise or pressures decrease.
      > > > >
      > > > > While release of methane from beneath the ocean floor could
      > lead
      > > to
      > > > a
      > > > > vicious cycle of warming, Paull and other scientists caution
      > > there
      > > > is
      > > > > more at play. Rising sea levels would actually increase
      > pressures
      > > > on
      > > > > those hydrate deposits, locking them in and perhaps leading
      to
      > a
      > > > > reverse cooling cycle.
      > > > >
      > > > > Whatever role they have played in the cycles of global
      climate
      > > > > change -- as well as chemical changes in the oceans -- it is
      > > clear
      > > > > that research into these odd combustible undersea ice
      > formations
      > > is
      > > > > essential to understanding planet Earth.
      > > > >
      > > > > In time, such research could lead to a way to predict or at
      > least
      > > > > calculate the risk of events like the Storegga Slide.
      > > > >
      > > > > ``If we understand what happened in the past, then we're in a
      > > > better
      > > > > position to anticipate the future,'' said Farrell.
      > > > >
      > > > > ``What we first have to do is make sure we know where these
      gas
      > > > > hydrate layers are,'' through research like that being done
      by
      > > the
      > > > > ODP, a partnership with seven international consortia
      > > representing
      > > > > more than 20 countries. ``Then if we know about any factors
      > that
      > > > > affect the temperature and pressure .... we might ultimately
      > > reduce
      > > > > the uncertainty'' about where and when the continental
      margins
      > > > might
      > > > > collapse and trigger tsunami.
      > > > >
      > > > > The world's largest Earth science research project, the ODP
      is
      > > > > administered by the Joint Oceanographic Institutions funded
      in
      > > part
      > > > > by the National Science Foundation. It will target an area
      off
      > > > Oregon
      > > > > in its next gas hydrate expedition, in 2002. "
      > > > > .....
      > > > >
      > > > > What I think should be appreciated about Keeling Whorf and
      the
      > > > > Younger Dryas is that the Mississippi lost its glacial lake
      > > > sourcing,
      > > > > so the microbrial biosphere lost its source of "food" in the
      > GOM.
      > > > The
      > > > > water then flowed to the N. Pacific in a fairly inactive way,
      > > > > biologically speaking, to a part of the ocean with little
      > > > biological
      > > > > activity. Hence, the change that occurred initially to mark
      the
      > > > cold
      > > > > snap of the Younger Dryas wasn't so much about fresh water
      > > capping
      > > > as
      > > > > it was about a significant change to the intermediate ocean
      > > > > microbrial biosphere. A thousand years of cold conditions
      > > followed!
      > > > > Doing a similar thing to the Gulf of California is making for
      > dry
      > > > > conditions in Los Angeles, as much of the rain is either
      > > monsoonal
      > > > or
      > > > > from winter snow fall to the mountains that would be impacted
      > by
      > > > the
      > > > > monsoonal flow.
      > > > >
      > > > > It is true LA does not rely on local runoff for their water.
      It
      > > > > relies on aqueducts from the Colorado, the Owens Valley and
      > > > Northern
      > > > > California. Low local rainfall does not really affect the
      human
      > > > > population there. A huge proportion of the water, well over
      > 90%
      > > > goes
      > > > > to agriculture. Residential water was a very small, albeit
      > media
      > > > > huge, amount. Also, the California coast from above San
      > Francisco
      > > > > south, gets almost all of its rainfall in the winter months.
      > But
      > > a
      > > > > regional drought will impact local hydrates directly and
      > > > indirectly.
      > > > >
      > > > > Indeed, the history of water diversions from just north of
      L.A.
      > > > make
      > > > > some interesting history. Mountains with snow caps run water
      to
      > > the
      > > > > cities, and from where I am near Lake Shasta in N.
      California,
      > we
      > > > are
      > > > > sending water all the way to San Diego this year.
      > > > >
      > > > > Yet, indeed it was dry in N. California last year and in
      > > particular
      > > > > on the Oregon-California border with the Klamath River. These
      > dry
      > > > > conditions are related to the conditions of the N. Pacific in
      > > > > general, IMHO. That said, the dry conditions here in the last
      > few
      > > > > years take second place to when regional rivers went through
      a
      > > time
      > > > > of heavy dams construction and reconstruction. This time with
      a
      > > > > little Keeling Whorf cycling and Shasta Lake, for instance,
      > which
      > > > is
      > > > > about 5 miles from me, was like half empty. And the Shasta
      dam
      > > > > itself, when constructed, caused a relatively drier climate
      in
      > > the
      > > > > region, IMHO. Why? Because the deforestation combined with
      the
      > > > river
      > > > > delays of flow, sedimentation and detritus into the summer
      > months
      > > > > reduced the intensity of the winter spring precipitation. If
      > the
      > > > > sedimentation, detritus and flow occur when the earth is
      angled
      > > > away
      > > > > from the sun in the winter and spring, the electrical
      > interaction
      > > > > with the atmosphere from the sun doesn't upset the electrical
      > > > > enhancement created by biologically created electrical
      > insolation
      > > > in
      > > > > the context of ocean current derived electrical fields that
      > > enhance
      > > > > cirrus.
      > > > >
      > > > > Interestingly, just after the Bay Series quake, there was a
      law
      > > > > passed called CALFED to balance the competing use interests
      on
      > > the
      > > > > Sacramento. One of those interests were waterfowl in the Bay
      > > > Estuary.
      > > > > So there always was a managed flow, from then, to the Bay.
      > > Perhaps
      > > > > low but always steady, always enough. Since then there has
      not
      > > been
      > > > > significant siesmic activity or drought!
      > > > >
      > > > > What I am saying about the Colorado and Lake Mead is that in
      > the
      > > > past
      > > > > they always let something go over in the spring but they
      > stopped
      > > it
      > > > > last year and the Mexicans haven't exactly been great about
      > > letting
      > > > > some water flow to the ocean--and now they are paying for
      this
      > > > policy
      > > > > with drought. It is incredibly stupid.
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