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Re: L.A. drought--4" to date, lowest year to date in record/hydrated view

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  • fredwx
    You said First, warmer oceans mean that they are more specifically conductive--less resistive to electrical currents. This is related to the cold SSTs to the
    Message 1 of 7 , May 6, 2002
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      You said "First, warmer oceans mean that they are more specifically
      conductive--less resistive to electrical currents. This is related to
      the cold SSTs to the top of the N. Pacific gyre, IMHO, and hence,
      provides less rain to S. Cal."

      SST's are below normal over the eastern North Pacific and I agree
      that the dry weather is a likely result.

      http://psbsgi1.nesdis.noaa.gov:8080/PSB/EPS/SST/data/anomnight.4.30.20
      02.gif

      ....but there could be other reasons for this besides electrical
      currents.





      --- In methanehydrateclub@y..., "pawnfart" <mike@u...> wrote:
      > L.A. is having the driest year since records were recorded--four
      > inches of rain so far.
      >
      > Last year it was decided to take run off from excess spring rains
      > that over flow from Lake Mead and run them to California. This was
      > despite the damage already caused by CAP--see
      > http://www.geocities.com/NapaValley/8339/CAP.html That decision
      looks
      > pretty dumb from where I sit.
      >
      > But there is also an issue of warmer oceans. Warmer, again, means
      > more conductive, and for west to east moving currents, it means
      less
      > cirrus.
      >
      > No El Nino is also hard on S. Cal rain conditions.
      >
      > So is 30,000 dams built in Asia over the past 30 years, culminated
      > with the Three Gorge diversion and relocation to the delta, and
      delta
      > sedimentation retention projects for land for these people to live.
      >
      >
      >
      > Here are some thoughts back, first in cryptic form and then perhaps
      > some code breaking background--I hope it communicates. First,
      warmer
      > oceans mean that they are more specifically conductive--less
      > resistive to electrical currents. This is related to the cold SSTs
      to
      > the top of the N. Pacific gyre, IMHO, and hence, provides less rain
      > to S. Cal. That is because a more conductive ocean cuts both ways,
      > including an idea that currents moving from west to east will
      induct
      > against cirrus enhancement per the IR measures discussed in Lindzen
      > and Fu's papers (yes, they ignore direction of current in their
      > papers but their data is solid if not their mechanism conclusions).
      > Second, 30,000 dams have been built in Asia over the past 30 years,
      > culminated by Three Gorge. That means more electrical leakage or
      less
      > Gaia insulation. Third, recent changes in output from Lake Mead,
      > although not the same as building Hoover and creating a Dust Bowl,
      > have had significant impact on SW climate. Specifically, recently a
      > controversy arose relative to the American Mexican treaty over
      water
      > to the Gulf of California and the health of the estuary as it
      > pertained to these dolphins there, and the Mexicans asked that
      > spring "overspill" from Lake Mead continue, and the Americans
      elected
      > to send this water to California via ducts. Not wise--as it has
      > caused record dry conditions in the region--to include mountains in
      > S. Cal that eventually run off S. Cal rivers to methane hydrate
      > fields along the S. Cal coast. From a biological standpoint,
      > conditions are very electrically poor for S. Cal and it is starting
      > to show in poor rainfall amounts
      >
      > .....
      >
      > The microbiology and chemistry of hydrate formation throws in great
      > complexity in the methanogens role in climate. In my view, as most
      of
      > you know, the oceans and climate is much more of a living,
      biological
      > process than many consider it to be. The complexity confuses many
      > against seeing the biological aspect. One reason is that methane
      > hydrate only forms provided extreme conditions AND CONCENTRATIONS
      of
      > methane are satisfied. This means there must be lots of methane
      > concentrated in one place or the methane just dissolves in the
      water
      > without forming the ice crystal. There is a good example to see how
      > this is true by experiment. CO2 also forms an additional gas
      hydrate
      > similar to methane hydrates, and researchers have designed, for
      > instance, a torpedo shaped block of frozen CO2, which turns out to
      be
      > denser than ocean water, that when released from a ship, will fall
      to
      > the sand at the depths of the ocean and get wedged into it--then
      form
      > CO2 hydrate, that although as a hydrate is less dense than the
      water,
      > as buried in sand will be 'heavy' enough to stay there. This is
      > actually a patented idea as a way of carbon sequestration. Anyway,
      > methane hydrate researchers looking into this type of thing have
      > taken CO2 down to the depths, under 1,280 feet, in robots and
      > released it in concentrated form. The CO2 spills out and forms a
      gas
      > hydrate. But right next to the hydrate is are fish swimming about--
      in
      > a picture taken of this process! So, the CO2 coming out of their
      > gills doesn't turn to hydrate, and the O2 they must breath into
      their
      > gills isn't ice! A type of protein has evolved in fish that
      prevents
      > hydrates from forming! Hence, the archaebacteria, in the symbiotic
      > process to make methane for hydrates in the intermediate depths of
      > the oceans, must make it in sufficient concentrations for it to
      form.
      > This sets up a more narrow set of parameters where sufficient
      > biological conditions must first exist for the microbrial activity
      to
      > be sufficient to form sufficient concentrations for it to form.
      This
      > sets up a more narrow set of parameters where sufficient biological
      > conditions must first exist for the microbrial activity to be
      > sufficient to form significant hydrate activity.
      >
      > For instance, look at the history of the Younger Dryas and current
      > dogma about its cause fresh water capping from the diversion of the
      > Mississippi headwaters to the east to the N. Atlantic. A river
      fresh
      > off a glacier, I suspect, doesn't biologically cut it. And if a
      river
      > that once flowed out of huge glacial lakes then becomes
      substantially
      > less flowing, with less sedimentation and detritus, then the
      hydrate
      > activity will substantially decrease.
      >
      >
      > In this case, the significant change is relative to the Gulf of
      > California. Hydrates are located there:
      >
      > http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/hydrates/where.html
      >
      > They don't form in shallows--they require 1,275 feet of water or
      > more.
      >
      > They are found on the US west coast as far south as off the coast
      of
      > Santa Barbara. Understand the counter current would move NORTHWEST.
      > So, applicable to what I am talking about, they are found IN THE
      GULF
      > OF CALIFORNIA.
      >
      >
      > http://www.dri.edu/Projects/Monsoon/3empirical.html
      >
      > The monsoon in the SW depends on the surface temperatures of the
      > waters in the Gulf of California.
      >
      > Waters from the tropics in that region tend to move along the coast
      > in a NW manner and peel off west with the N. Pacific gyre.
      >
      > The study involved non-El Nino period so that wind direction of
      > consequence is generally constant for the study. This leave a
      > question what varied the SSTs. As I have tried to explain, SSTs are
      > MODULATED by the biosphere with energies from IR movements by
      cirrus
      > cloud behavior that can change energies absorbed in the range of
      > between 50 and 200 watts per meter squared per Lindzen and Fu's
      > papers. Over time scales of a few weeks, this kind of energy is
      > sufficient to move SSTs!
      >
      > What I would like to do is talk for a moment about Keeling Whorf
      > (K/W) and tidal changes. IMHO, tides not only alter how the oceans
      > move against the beaches, but also how currents move in the
      > intermediate oceans. While K/W is not much of a factor right now on
      > these kind of timescales it is illistrative of the feedback
      involved
      > on shorter periods by way of example.
      >
      > I have talked about depressurization of hydrates from K/W before,
      but
      > there is also an idea of simple melting from changes in ocean
      > currents. If there is a lot of sloshing around, to put it crudely,
      > than underneath the gyres, which are the warmest and hence most
      > electrically significant aspect of climate, than the swath of
      hydrate
      > activity underneath the gyres is going to be melted to a larger
      > extent. That means more electrical leakage. It would be like having
      > MS--the myolin sheaths of nerve tissues becoming defective--the
      > biological signal to climate is short circuited. Here is a blurb
      from
      > K/Ws paper:
      >
      >
      >
      > "The IRD event (number 5) near 8,100 yr BP is particularly
      noteworthy
      > because it appears to be associated with the most abrupt and
      > widespread climate shift known from the past 10 kyr (10); it is
      > believed to have been initiated by a large freshwater pulse from
      > Laurentide lakes, dated at 8,470 yr BP, that reduced surface ocean
      > salinity in the North Atlantic Ocean, thereby causing widespread
      > cooling near 8,200 yr BP (11). Two recently drilled sedimentary
      cores
      > show multiple IRD events between 8,300 and 7,400 yr BP (ref. 1,
      Fig.
      > 14). Together with the Elk Lake dust layer of 7,800 yr BP, these
      data
      > suggest prolonged or repeated cooling well beyond the time expected
      > for a freshwater discharge to directly affect climate. The maximum
      > tidal forcing near these events at 7,744 yr BP was the greatest in
      > 20,000 years, preceded and succeeded by strong forcing at 8,089 and
      > 7,381 yr BP of the 360-yr tidal cycle. Thus the tidal hypothesis
      > suggests that cooling initiated by a freshwater pulse may have been
      > prolonged by tidal forcing. Also consistent with tidal forcing is
      the
      > possibility that the timing of the freshwater pulse occurred during
      a
      > warm phase of the 1,800-year tidal cycle, about 700 years before
      > maximum forcing at 7,744 yr BP. "
      >
      > See figure
      >
      > http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/97/8/3814/F7
      >
      > Both quote and figure from:
      >
      > http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/070047197
      >
      > A mudslide of 8,000 years ago must be put into perspective of the
      > Keeling Whorf research--and I think is somewhat related to the
      > Younger Dryas in that the feedbacks out of the glacial hadn't
      reached
      > the biological stability we have today after the interglacial has
      > persisted as long as it has:
      >
      > October 5 2000 12:12 PM ET Seabed Gas Crystal Formations Linked to
      > Tsunami
      >
      > By Todd Eastham
      >
      >
      > WASHINGTON (Reuters) - About 8,000 years ago, a massive undersea
      > landslide off the coast of Norway sent a 30-foot wall of water -- a
      > tsunami wave -- barreling into the northern coast of Europe.
      >
      > If this were to recur today, as scientists say it could, almost
      > anywhere in the world, it would cost billions if not tens of
      billions
      > of dollars to repair the damage to coastal cities. And the cost in
      > lives could be far higher.
      >
      > ``A tsunami like that would wash into the Baltic with some
      > devastation,'' said scientist Charles Paull at the Monterey Bay
      > Aquarium Research Institute in Moss Landing, California.
      >
      > While scientists who study the so-called Storegga Slide with the
      > tools of geology, biology and seismography are not sure what
      > triggered it, they are fairly certain a mysterious crystalline
      solid
      > composed of water molecules intertwined with methane gas, known as
      > methane or gas hydrates, played a role.
      >
      > Paull says an earthquake might have triggered the slide, which
      > occurred in stages over hundreds of years, removing an enormous
      chunk
      > from Norway's continental margin. But its magnitude suggests
      methane
      > hydrates played a role.
      >
      > ``Whatever the trigger,'' he said in a phone interview, ``this is a
      > natural disaster related to gas hydrates.''
      >
      > Methane hydrates, which scientists are studying as a possible vast
      > global energy resource, are among the weirdest natural phenomena.
      > Sometimes called ``flammable ice,'' they are just that: highly
      > unstable and combustible crystallized solids existing only in a
      high
      > pressure/low temperature environment.
      >
      > Discovered by accident late in the 19th century by oil and gas
      > exploration teams just below the Arctic permafrost, the odd
      crystals
      > are thought to contain more clean-burning fossil fuels than Earth's
      > reserves of oil, natural gas and coal combined.
      >
      > Equally important is the key role they appear to play in the global
      > climate and marine environment, as well as the occasional
      cataclysmic
      > undersea event.
      >
      > Acting director John Farrell said the Ocean Drilling Program's 15-
      > year series of expeditions to explore the ocean floor had uncovered
      > evidence that gas hydrates have spilled into the ocean in massive
      > bursts repeatedly over the last 50,000 years. Evidence in tiny
      > plankton shells called ``forams'' show ``a chemical change in the
      > world's oceans that can only be explained by a lot of methane being
      > injected into the water.''
      >
      > Enormous Implications For World Climate
      >
      > Events of that kind have enormous implications for global climate
      > change because methane is a potent greenhouse gas. A large enough
      > release of methane, as in the Storegga Slide, could bring on or
      > accelerate a cycle of global warming.
      >
      > Warming cycles might already have been underway when such slides
      > occurred, triggered by some as-yet-unknown mechanism that warmed
      the
      > oceans enough to destabilize gas hydrates, which dissolve when
      > temperatures rise or pressures decrease.
      >
      > While release of methane from beneath the ocean floor could lead to
      a
      > vicious cycle of warming, Paull and other scientists caution there
      is
      > more at play. Rising sea levels would actually increase pressures
      on
      > those hydrate deposits, locking them in and perhaps leading to a
      > reverse cooling cycle.
      >
      > Whatever role they have played in the cycles of global climate
      > change -- as well as chemical changes in the oceans -- it is clear
      > that research into these odd combustible undersea ice formations is
      > essential to understanding planet Earth.
      >
      > In time, such research could lead to a way to predict or at least
      > calculate the risk of events like the Storegga Slide.
      >
      > ``If we understand what happened in the past, then we're in a
      better
      > position to anticipate the future,'' said Farrell.
      >
      > ``What we first have to do is make sure we know where these gas
      > hydrate layers are,'' through research like that being done by the
      > ODP, a partnership with seven international consortia representing
      > more than 20 countries. ``Then if we know about any factors that
      > affect the temperature and pressure .... we might ultimately reduce
      > the uncertainty'' about where and when the continental margins
      might
      > collapse and trigger tsunami.
      >
      > The world's largest Earth science research project, the ODP is
      > administered by the Joint Oceanographic Institutions funded in part
      > by the National Science Foundation. It will target an area off
      Oregon
      > in its next gas hydrate expedition, in 2002. "
      > .....
      >
      > What I think should be appreciated about Keeling Whorf and the
      > Younger Dryas is that the Mississippi lost its glacial lake
      sourcing,
      > so the microbrial biosphere lost its source of "food" in the GOM.
      The
      > water then flowed to the N. Pacific in a fairly inactive way,
      > biologically speaking, to a part of the ocean with little
      biological
      > activity. Hence, the change that occurred initially to mark the
      cold
      > snap of the Younger Dryas wasn't so much about fresh water capping
      as
      > it was about a significant change to the intermediate ocean
      > microbrial biosphere. A thousand years of cold conditions followed!
      > Doing a similar thing to the Gulf of California is making for dry
      > conditions in Los Angeles, as much of the rain is either monsoonal
      or
      > from winter snow fall to the mountains that would be impacted by
      the
      > monsoonal flow.
      >
      > It is true LA does not rely on local runoff for their water. It
      > relies on aqueducts from the Colorado, the Owens Valley and
      Northern
      > California. Low local rainfall does not really affect the human
      > population there. A huge proportion of the water, well over 90%
      goes
      > to agriculture. Residential water was a very small, albeit media
      > huge, amount. Also, the California coast from above San Francisco
      > south, gets almost all of its rainfall in the winter months. But a
      > regional drought will impact local hydrates directly and
      indirectly.
      >
      > Indeed, the history of water diversions from just north of L.A.
      make
      > some interesting history. Mountains with snow caps run water to the
      > cities, and from where I am near Lake Shasta in N. California, we
      are
      > sending water all the way to San Diego this year.
      >
      > Yet, indeed it was dry in N. California last year and in particular
      > on the Oregon-California border with the Klamath River. These dry
      > conditions are related to the conditions of the N. Pacific in
      > general, IMHO. That said, the dry conditions here in the last few
      > years take second place to when regional rivers went through a time
      > of heavy dams construction and reconstruction. This time with a
      > little Keeling Whorf cycling and Shasta Lake, for instance, which
      is
      > about 5 miles from me, was like half empty. And the Shasta dam
      > itself, when constructed, caused a relatively drier climate in the
      > region, IMHO. Why? Because the deforestation combined with the
      river
      > delays of flow, sedimentation and detritus into the summer months
      > reduced the intensity of the winter spring precipitation. If the
      > sedimentation, detritus and flow occur when the earth is angled
      away
      > from the sun in the winter and spring, the electrical interaction
      > with the atmosphere from the sun doesn't upset the electrical
      > enhancement created by biologically created electrical insolation
      in
      > the context of ocean current derived electrical fields that enhance
      > cirrus.
      >
      > Interestingly, just after the Bay Series quake, there was a law
      > passed called CALFED to balance the competing use interests on the
      > Sacramento. One of those interests were waterfowl in the Bay
      Estuary.
      > So there always was a managed flow, from then, to the Bay. Perhaps
      > low but always steady, always enough. Since then there has not been
      > significant siesmic activity or drought!
      >
      > What I am saying about the Colorado and Lake Mead is that in the
      past
      > they always let something go over in the spring but they stopped it
      > last year and the Mexicans haven't exactly been great about letting
      > some water flow to the ocean--and now they are paying for this
      policy
      > with drought. It is incredibly stupid.
    • fredwx
      ...one possible reason is that it appears we are entering a cold phase of the PDO (Pacific Decadal Oscillation) This has the effect of altering the path of the
      Message 2 of 7 , May 6, 2002
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        ...one possible reason is that it appears we are entering a cold
        phase of the PDO (Pacific Decadal Oscillation)

        This has the effect of altering the path of the jet stream. The jet
        stream in the northern hemisphere delivers storms across the United
        States. The PDO phase that we appear to have entered will act to
        steer the jet stream further north over the Western United States
        (less rain). If the PDO has switched we will likely see 20-30 years
        with lower rainfall.




        --- In methanehydrateclub@y..., fredwx <no_reply@y...> wrote:
        > You said "First, warmer oceans mean that they are more specifically
        > conductive--less resistive to electrical currents. This is related
        to
        > the cold SSTs to the top of the N. Pacific gyre, IMHO, and hence,
        > provides less rain to S. Cal."
        >
        > SST's are below normal over the eastern North Pacific and I agree
        > that the dry weather is a likely result.
        >
        >
        http://psbsgi1.nesdis.noaa.gov:8080/PSB/EPS/SST/data/anomnight.4.30.20
        > 02.gif
        >
        > ....but there could be other reasons for this besides electrical
        > currents.
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > --- In methanehydrateclub@y..., "pawnfart" <mike@u...> wrote:
        > > L.A. is having the driest year since records were recorded--four
        > > inches of rain so far.
        > >
        > > Last year it was decided to take run off from excess spring rains
        > > that over flow from Lake Mead and run them to California. This
        was
        > > despite the damage already caused by CAP--see
        > > http://www.geocities.com/NapaValley/8339/CAP.html That decision
        > looks
        > > pretty dumb from where I sit.
        > >
        > > But there is also an issue of warmer oceans. Warmer, again, means
        > > more conductive, and for west to east moving currents, it means
        > less
        > > cirrus.
        > >
        > > No El Nino is also hard on S. Cal rain conditions.
        > >
        > > So is 30,000 dams built in Asia over the past 30 years,
        culminated
        > > with the Three Gorge diversion and relocation to the delta, and
        > delta
        > > sedimentation retention projects for land for these people to
        live.
        > >
        > >
        > >
        > > Here are some thoughts back, first in cryptic form and then
        perhaps
        > > some code breaking background--I hope it communicates. First,
        > warmer
        > > oceans mean that they are more specifically conductive--less
        > > resistive to electrical currents. This is related to the cold
        SSTs
        > to
        > > the top of the N. Pacific gyre, IMHO, and hence, provides less
        rain
        > > to S. Cal. That is because a more conductive ocean cuts both
        ways,
        > > including an idea that currents moving from west to east will
        > induct
        > > against cirrus enhancement per the IR measures discussed in
        Lindzen
        > > and Fu's papers (yes, they ignore direction of current in their
        > > papers but their data is solid if not their mechanism
        conclusions).
        > > Second, 30,000 dams have been built in Asia over the past 30
        years,
        > > culminated by Three Gorge. That means more electrical leakage or
        > less
        > > Gaia insulation. Third, recent changes in output from Lake Mead,
        > > although not the same as building Hoover and creating a Dust
        Bowl,
        > > have had significant impact on SW climate. Specifically, recently
        a
        > > controversy arose relative to the American Mexican treaty over
        > water
        > > to the Gulf of California and the health of the estuary as it
        > > pertained to these dolphins there, and the Mexicans asked that
        > > spring "overspill" from Lake Mead continue, and the Americans
        > elected
        > > to send this water to California via ducts. Not wise--as it has
        > > caused record dry conditions in the region--to include mountains
        in
        > > S. Cal that eventually run off S. Cal rivers to methane hydrate
        > > fields along the S. Cal coast. From a biological standpoint,
        > > conditions are very electrically poor for S. Cal and it is
        starting
        > > to show in poor rainfall amounts
        > >
        > > .....
        > >
        > > The microbiology and chemistry of hydrate formation throws in
        great
        > > complexity in the methanogens role in climate. In my view, as
        most
        > of
        > > you know, the oceans and climate is much more of a living,
        > biological
        > > process than many consider it to be. The complexity confuses many
        > > against seeing the biological aspect. One reason is that methane
        > > hydrate only forms provided extreme conditions AND CONCENTRATIONS
        > of
        > > methane are satisfied. This means there must be lots of methane
        > > concentrated in one place or the methane just dissolves in the
        > water
        > > without forming the ice crystal. There is a good example to see
        how
        > > this is true by experiment. CO2 also forms an additional gas
        > hydrate
        > > similar to methane hydrates, and researchers have designed, for
        > > instance, a torpedo shaped block of frozen CO2, which turns out
        to
        > be
        > > denser than ocean water, that when released from a ship, will
        fall
        > to
        > > the sand at the depths of the ocean and get wedged into it--then
        > form
        > > CO2 hydrate, that although as a hydrate is less dense than the
        > water,
        > > as buried in sand will be 'heavy' enough to stay there. This is
        > > actually a patented idea as a way of carbon sequestration.
        Anyway,
        > > methane hydrate researchers looking into this type of thing have
        > > taken CO2 down to the depths, under 1,280 feet, in robots and
        > > released it in concentrated form. The CO2 spills out and forms a
        > gas
        > > hydrate. But right next to the hydrate is are fish swimming about-
        -
        > in
        > > a picture taken of this process! So, the CO2 coming out of their
        > > gills doesn't turn to hydrate, and the O2 they must breath into
        > their
        > > gills isn't ice! A type of protein has evolved in fish that
        > prevents
        > > hydrates from forming! Hence, the archaebacteria, in the
        symbiotic
        > > process to make methane for hydrates in the intermediate depths
        of
        > > the oceans, must make it in sufficient concentrations for it to
        > form.
        > > This sets up a more narrow set of parameters where sufficient
        > > biological conditions must first exist for the microbrial
        activity
        > to
        > > be sufficient to form sufficient concentrations for it to form.
        > This
        > > sets up a more narrow set of parameters where sufficient
        biological
        > > conditions must first exist for the microbrial activity to be
        > > sufficient to form significant hydrate activity.
        > >
        > > For instance, look at the history of the Younger Dryas and
        current
        > > dogma about its cause fresh water capping from the diversion of
        the
        > > Mississippi headwaters to the east to the N. Atlantic. A river
        > fresh
        > > off a glacier, I suspect, doesn't biologically cut it. And if a
        > river
        > > that once flowed out of huge glacial lakes then becomes
        > substantially
        > > less flowing, with less sedimentation and detritus, then the
        > hydrate
        > > activity will substantially decrease.
        > >
        > >
        > > In this case, the significant change is relative to the Gulf of
        > > California. Hydrates are located there:
        > >
        > > http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/hydrates/where.html
        > >
        > > They don't form in shallows--they require 1,275 feet of water or
        > > more.
        > >
        > > They are found on the US west coast as far south as off the coast
        > of
        > > Santa Barbara. Understand the counter current would move
        NORTHWEST.
        > > So, applicable to what I am talking about, they are found IN THE
        > GULF
        > > OF CALIFORNIA.
        > >
        > >
        > > http://www.dri.edu/Projects/Monsoon/3empirical.html
        > >
        > > The monsoon in the SW depends on the surface temperatures of the
        > > waters in the Gulf of California.
        > >
        > > Waters from the tropics in that region tend to move along the
        coast
        > > in a NW manner and peel off west with the N. Pacific gyre.
        > >
        > > The study involved non-El Nino period so that wind direction of
        > > consequence is generally constant for the study. This leave a
        > > question what varied the SSTs. As I have tried to explain, SSTs
        are
        > > MODULATED by the biosphere with energies from IR movements by
        > cirrus
        > > cloud behavior that can change energies absorbed in the range of
        > > between 50 and 200 watts per meter squared per Lindzen and Fu's
        > > papers. Over time scales of a few weeks, this kind of energy is
        > > sufficient to move SSTs!
        > >
        > > What I would like to do is talk for a moment about Keeling Whorf
        > > (K/W) and tidal changes. IMHO, tides not only alter how the
        oceans
        > > move against the beaches, but also how currents move in the
        > > intermediate oceans. While K/W is not much of a factor right now
        on
        > > these kind of timescales it is illistrative of the feedback
        > involved
        > > on shorter periods by way of example.
        > >
        > > I have talked about depressurization of hydrates from K/W before,
        > but
        > > there is also an idea of simple melting from changes in ocean
        > > currents. If there is a lot of sloshing around, to put it
        crudely,
        > > than underneath the gyres, which are the warmest and hence most
        > > electrically significant aspect of climate, than the swath of
        > hydrate
        > > activity underneath the gyres is going to be melted to a larger
        > > extent. That means more electrical leakage. It would be like
        having
        > > MS--the myolin sheaths of nerve tissues becoming defective--the
        > > biological signal to climate is short circuited. Here is a blurb
        > from
        > > K/Ws paper:
        > >
        > >
        > >
        > > "The IRD event (number 5) near 8,100 yr BP is particularly
        > noteworthy
        > > because it appears to be associated with the most abrupt and
        > > widespread climate shift known from the past 10 kyr (10); it is
        > > believed to have been initiated by a large freshwater pulse from
        > > Laurentide lakes, dated at 8,470 yr BP, that reduced surface
        ocean
        > > salinity in the North Atlantic Ocean, thereby causing widespread
        > > cooling near 8,200 yr BP (11). Two recently drilled sedimentary
        > cores
        > > show multiple IRD events between 8,300 and 7,400 yr BP (ref. 1,
        > Fig.
        > > 14). Together with the Elk Lake dust layer of 7,800 yr BP, these
        > data
        > > suggest prolonged or repeated cooling well beyond the time
        expected
        > > for a freshwater discharge to directly affect climate. The
        maximum
        > > tidal forcing near these events at 7,744 yr BP was the greatest
        in
        > > 20,000 years, preceded and succeeded by strong forcing at 8,089
        and
        > > 7,381 yr BP of the 360-yr tidal cycle. Thus the tidal hypothesis
        > > suggests that cooling initiated by a freshwater pulse may have
        been
        > > prolonged by tidal forcing. Also consistent with tidal forcing is
        > the
        > > possibility that the timing of the freshwater pulse occurred
        during
        > a
        > > warm phase of the 1,800-year tidal cycle, about 700 years before
        > > maximum forcing at 7,744 yr BP. "
        > >
        > > See figure
        > >
        > > http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/97/8/3814/F7
        > >
        > > Both quote and figure from:
        > >
        > > http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/070047197
        > >
        > > A mudslide of 8,000 years ago must be put into perspective of the
        > > Keeling Whorf research--and I think is somewhat related to the
        > > Younger Dryas in that the feedbacks out of the glacial hadn't
        > reached
        > > the biological stability we have today after the interglacial has
        > > persisted as long as it has:
        > >
        > > October 5 2000 12:12 PM ET Seabed Gas Crystal Formations Linked
        to
        > > Tsunami
        > >
        > > By Todd Eastham
        > >
        > >
        > > WASHINGTON (Reuters) - About 8,000 years ago, a massive undersea
        > > landslide off the coast of Norway sent a 30-foot wall of water --
        a
        > > tsunami wave -- barreling into the northern coast of Europe.
        > >
        > > If this were to recur today, as scientists say it could, almost
        > > anywhere in the world, it would cost billions if not tens of
        > billions
        > > of dollars to repair the damage to coastal cities. And the cost
        in
        > > lives could be far higher.
        > >
        > > ``A tsunami like that would wash into the Baltic with some
        > > devastation,'' said scientist Charles Paull at the Monterey Bay
        > > Aquarium Research Institute in Moss Landing, California.
        > >
        > > While scientists who study the so-called Storegga Slide with the
        > > tools of geology, biology and seismography are not sure what
        > > triggered it, they are fairly certain a mysterious crystalline
        > solid
        > > composed of water molecules intertwined with methane gas, known
        as
        > > methane or gas hydrates, played a role.
        > >
        > > Paull says an earthquake might have triggered the slide, which
        > > occurred in stages over hundreds of years, removing an enormous
        > chunk
        > > from Norway's continental margin. But its magnitude suggests
        > methane
        > > hydrates played a role.
        > >
        > > ``Whatever the trigger,'' he said in a phone interview, ``this is
        a
        > > natural disaster related to gas hydrates.''
        > >
        > > Methane hydrates, which scientists are studying as a possible
        vast
        > > global energy resource, are among the weirdest natural phenomena.
        > > Sometimes called ``flammable ice,'' they are just that: highly
        > > unstable and combustible crystallized solids existing only in a
        > high
        > > pressure/low temperature environment.
        > >
        > > Discovered by accident late in the 19th century by oil and gas
        > > exploration teams just below the Arctic permafrost, the odd
        > crystals
        > > are thought to contain more clean-burning fossil fuels than
        Earth's
        > > reserves of oil, natural gas and coal combined.
        > >
        > > Equally important is the key role they appear to play in the
        global
        > > climate and marine environment, as well as the occasional
        > cataclysmic
        > > undersea event.
        > >
        > > Acting director John Farrell said the Ocean Drilling Program's 15-
        > > year series of expeditions to explore the ocean floor had
        uncovered
        > > evidence that gas hydrates have spilled into the ocean in massive
        > > bursts repeatedly over the last 50,000 years. Evidence in tiny
        > > plankton shells called ``forams'' show ``a chemical change in the
        > > world's oceans that can only be explained by a lot of methane
        being
        > > injected into the water.''
        > >
        > > Enormous Implications For World Climate
        > >
        > > Events of that kind have enormous implications for global climate
        > > change because methane is a potent greenhouse gas. A large enough
        > > release of methane, as in the Storegga Slide, could bring on or
        > > accelerate a cycle of global warming.
        > >
        > > Warming cycles might already have been underway when such slides
        > > occurred, triggered by some as-yet-unknown mechanism that warmed
        > the
        > > oceans enough to destabilize gas hydrates, which dissolve when
        > > temperatures rise or pressures decrease.
        > >
        > > While release of methane from beneath the ocean floor could lead
        to
        > a
        > > vicious cycle of warming, Paull and other scientists caution
        there
        > is
        > > more at play. Rising sea levels would actually increase pressures
        > on
        > > those hydrate deposits, locking them in and perhaps leading to a
        > > reverse cooling cycle.
        > >
        > > Whatever role they have played in the cycles of global climate
        > > change -- as well as chemical changes in the oceans -- it is
        clear
        > > that research into these odd combustible undersea ice formations
        is
        > > essential to understanding planet Earth.
        > >
        > > In time, such research could lead to a way to predict or at least
        > > calculate the risk of events like the Storegga Slide.
        > >
        > > ``If we understand what happened in the past, then we're in a
        > better
        > > position to anticipate the future,'' said Farrell.
        > >
        > > ``What we first have to do is make sure we know where these gas
        > > hydrate layers are,'' through research like that being done by
        the
        > > ODP, a partnership with seven international consortia
        representing
        > > more than 20 countries. ``Then if we know about any factors that
        > > affect the temperature and pressure .... we might ultimately
        reduce
        > > the uncertainty'' about where and when the continental margins
        > might
        > > collapse and trigger tsunami.
        > >
        > > The world's largest Earth science research project, the ODP is
        > > administered by the Joint Oceanographic Institutions funded in
        part
        > > by the National Science Foundation. It will target an area off
        > Oregon
        > > in its next gas hydrate expedition, in 2002. "
        > > .....
        > >
        > > What I think should be appreciated about Keeling Whorf and the
        > > Younger Dryas is that the Mississippi lost its glacial lake
        > sourcing,
        > > so the microbrial biosphere lost its source of "food" in the GOM.
        > The
        > > water then flowed to the N. Pacific in a fairly inactive way,
        > > biologically speaking, to a part of the ocean with little
        > biological
        > > activity. Hence, the change that occurred initially to mark the
        > cold
        > > snap of the Younger Dryas wasn't so much about fresh water
        capping
        > as
        > > it was about a significant change to the intermediate ocean
        > > microbrial biosphere. A thousand years of cold conditions
        followed!
        > > Doing a similar thing to the Gulf of California is making for dry
        > > conditions in Los Angeles, as much of the rain is either
        monsoonal
        > or
        > > from winter snow fall to the mountains that would be impacted by
        > the
        > > monsoonal flow.
        > >
        > > It is true LA does not rely on local runoff for their water. It
        > > relies on aqueducts from the Colorado, the Owens Valley and
        > Northern
        > > California. Low local rainfall does not really affect the human
        > > population there. A huge proportion of the water, well over 90%
        > goes
        > > to agriculture. Residential water was a very small, albeit media
        > > huge, amount. Also, the California coast from above San Francisco
        > > south, gets almost all of its rainfall in the winter months. But
        a
        > > regional drought will impact local hydrates directly and
        > indirectly.
        > >
        > > Indeed, the history of water diversions from just north of L.A.
        > make
        > > some interesting history. Mountains with snow caps run water to
        the
        > > cities, and from where I am near Lake Shasta in N. California, we
        > are
        > > sending water all the way to San Diego this year.
        > >
        > > Yet, indeed it was dry in N. California last year and in
        particular
        > > on the Oregon-California border with the Klamath River. These dry
        > > conditions are related to the conditions of the N. Pacific in
        > > general, IMHO. That said, the dry conditions here in the last few
        > > years take second place to when regional rivers went through a
        time
        > > of heavy dams construction and reconstruction. This time with a
        > > little Keeling Whorf cycling and Shasta Lake, for instance, which
        > is
        > > about 5 miles from me, was like half empty. And the Shasta dam
        > > itself, when constructed, caused a relatively drier climate in
        the
        > > region, IMHO. Why? Because the deforestation combined with the
        > river
        > > delays of flow, sedimentation and detritus into the summer months
        > > reduced the intensity of the winter spring precipitation. If the
        > > sedimentation, detritus and flow occur when the earth is angled
        > away
        > > from the sun in the winter and spring, the electrical interaction
        > > with the atmosphere from the sun doesn't upset the electrical
        > > enhancement created by biologically created electrical insolation
        > in
        > > the context of ocean current derived electrical fields that
        enhance
        > > cirrus.
        > >
        > > Interestingly, just after the Bay Series quake, there was a law
        > > passed called CALFED to balance the competing use interests on
        the
        > > Sacramento. One of those interests were waterfowl in the Bay
        > Estuary.
        > > So there always was a managed flow, from then, to the Bay.
        Perhaps
        > > low but always steady, always enough. Since then there has not
        been
        > > significant siesmic activity or drought!
        > >
        > > What I am saying about the Colorado and Lake Mead is that in the
        > past
        > > they always let something go over in the spring but they stopped
        it
        > > last year and the Mexicans haven't exactly been great about
        letting
        > > some water flow to the ocean--and now they are paying for this
        > policy
        > > with drought. It is incredibly stupid.
      • pawnfart
        Fred, Let me respond to both of your posts. This link: http://crwua.mwd.dst.ca.us/lor/crwua_lor.htm gives some history of water use before the 1930s and it is
        Message 3 of 7 , May 6, 2002
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          Fred,

          Let me respond to both of your posts.

          This link:

          http://crwua.mwd.dst.ca.us/lor/crwua_lor.htm

          gives some history of water use before the 1930s and it is clear that
          there was diversions, including in 1932 for the Hoover dam. Then
          there is the Imperial Valley Salt Lake deal and the water use issues
          of the 7 states and Mexico. Don't forget that there are two other
          main rivers--the Rio and the Mississippi. This history shows the tie
          in between the Rio and the Colorado and the water use fight. But the
          Mississippi is key, too. Understand at this point over the past 10
          years or so the Mississippi is going the other way--with too much sed
          and flow comparted to the Colorado and Rio.

          The Mississippi has changed its course numerous times by human
          activity in the past (there are, of course, natural changes). Many of
          the man made changes occurred upstream before 1924, to prevent local
          flooding and erosion. But on the delta itself a major change occurred
          in 1924, when the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, or the Industrial
          Canal was opened, linking the Mississippi River with a "lake." The
          Army Corps of Engineers built spillways, that prevent breaks, that
          can be opened if New Orleans is threatened by a flood crest. Much of
          the water that flows into Lake Pontchartrain comes as a result of man-
          made operations. Then in 1931 the Corps of Engineers built the Bonnet
          Carre Spillway.

          The timing of these major changes to the rivers matches perfectly
          with the Dust Bowl, only altered in minor ways by ENSO.

          As far as there being other factors, I again would point to the
          Keeling Whorf and Fu papers in terms of the inverse relationship
          between cloud wieghted SSTs and cirrus and say that the forcing from
          clouds is extremely significant and controlling--otherwise no Gaia
          and we wouldn't be here. The forcing from cirrus also should be
          thought of as modulating. Therefore, the cold oceans and
          thermohaline is a product of modulation, not that STTs are a normal
          state where chaotic events alter them. So what we have here is a
          changing modulation based on a key forcing changing, not some chaotic
          event in the context of chaotic behavior. The problem is much
          different than that.

          --- In methanehydrateclub@y..., fredwx <no_reply@y...> wrote:
          > You said "First, warmer oceans mean that they are more specifically
          > conductive--less resistive to electrical currents. This is related
          to
          > the cold SSTs to the top of the N. Pacific gyre, IMHO, and hence,
          > provides less rain to S. Cal."
          >
          > SST's are below normal over the eastern North Pacific and I agree
          > that the dry weather is a likely result.
          >
          >
          http://psbsgi1.nesdis.noaa.gov:8080/PSB/EPS/SST/data/anomnight.4.30.20
          > 02.gif
          >
          > ....but there could be other reasons for this besides electrical
          > currents.
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
          > --- In methanehydrateclub@y..., "pawnfart" <mike@u...> wrote:
          > > L.A. is having the driest year since records were recorded--four
          > > inches of rain so far.
          > >
          > > Last year it was decided to take run off from excess spring rains
          > > that over flow from Lake Mead and run them to California. This
          was
          > > despite the damage already caused by CAP--see
          > > http://www.geocities.com/NapaValley/8339/CAP.html That decision
          > looks
          > > pretty dumb from where I sit.
          > >
          > > But there is also an issue of warmer oceans. Warmer, again, means
          > > more conductive, and for west to east moving currents, it means
          > less
          > > cirrus.
          > >
          > > No El Nino is also hard on S. Cal rain conditions.
          > >
          > > So is 30,000 dams built in Asia over the past 30 years,
          culminated
          > > with the Three Gorge diversion and relocation to the delta, and
          > delta
          > > sedimentation retention projects for land for these people to
          live.
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > > Here are some thoughts back, first in cryptic form and then
          perhaps
          > > some code breaking background--I hope it communicates. First,
          > warmer
          > > oceans mean that they are more specifically conductive--less
          > > resistive to electrical currents. This is related to the cold
          SSTs
          > to
          > > the top of the N. Pacific gyre, IMHO, and hence, provides less
          rain
          > > to S. Cal. That is because a more conductive ocean cuts both
          ways,
          > > including an idea that currents moving from west to east will
          > induct
          > > against cirrus enhancement per the IR measures discussed in
          Lindzen
          > > and Fu's papers (yes, they ignore direction of current in their
          > > papers but their data is solid if not their mechanism
          conclusions).
          > > Second, 30,000 dams have been built in Asia over the past 30
          years,
          > > culminated by Three Gorge. That means more electrical leakage or
          > less
          > > Gaia insulation. Third, recent changes in output from Lake Mead,
          > > although not the same as building Hoover and creating a Dust
          Bowl,
          > > have had significant impact on SW climate. Specifically, recently
          a
          > > controversy arose relative to the American Mexican treaty over
          > water
          > > to the Gulf of California and the health of the estuary as it
          > > pertained to these dolphins there, and the Mexicans asked that
          > > spring "overspill" from Lake Mead continue, and the Americans
          > elected
          > > to send this water to California via ducts. Not wise--as it has
          > > caused record dry conditions in the region--to include mountains
          in
          > > S. Cal that eventually run off S. Cal rivers to methane hydrate
          > > fields along the S. Cal coast. From a biological standpoint,
          > > conditions are very electrically poor for S. Cal and it is
          starting
          > > to show in poor rainfall amounts
          > >
          > > .....
          > >
          > > The microbiology and chemistry of hydrate formation throws in
          great
          > > complexity in the methanogens role in climate. In my view, as
          most
          > of
          > > you know, the oceans and climate is much more of a living,
          > biological
          > > process than many consider it to be. The complexity confuses many
          > > against seeing the biological aspect. One reason is that methane
          > > hydrate only forms provided extreme conditions AND CONCENTRATIONS
          > of
          > > methane are satisfied. This means there must be lots of methane
          > > concentrated in one place or the methane just dissolves in the
          > water
          > > without forming the ice crystal. There is a good example to see
          how
          > > this is true by experiment. CO2 also forms an additional gas
          > hydrate
          > > similar to methane hydrates, and researchers have designed, for
          > > instance, a torpedo shaped block of frozen CO2, which turns out
          to
          > be
          > > denser than ocean water, that when released from a ship, will
          fall
          > to
          > > the sand at the depths of the ocean and get wedged into it--then
          > form
          > > CO2 hydrate, that although as a hydrate is less dense than the
          > water,
          > > as buried in sand will be 'heavy' enough to stay there. This is
          > > actually a patented idea as a way of carbon sequestration.
          Anyway,
          > > methane hydrate researchers looking into this type of thing have
          > > taken CO2 down to the depths, under 1,280 feet, in robots and
          > > released it in concentrated form. The CO2 spills out and forms a
          > gas
          > > hydrate. But right next to the hydrate is are fish swimming
          about--
          > in
          > > a picture taken of this process! So, the CO2 coming out of their
          > > gills doesn't turn to hydrate, and the O2 they must breath into
          > their
          > > gills isn't ice! A type of protein has evolved in fish that
          > prevents
          > > hydrates from forming! Hence, the archaebacteria, in the
          symbiotic
          > > process to make methane for hydrates in the intermediate depths
          of
          > > the oceans, must make it in sufficient concentrations for it to
          > form.
          > > This sets up a more narrow set of parameters where sufficient
          > > biological conditions must first exist for the microbrial
          activity
          > to
          > > be sufficient to form sufficient concentrations for it to form.
          > This
          > > sets up a more narrow set of parameters where sufficient
          biological
          > > conditions must first exist for the microbrial activity to be
          > > sufficient to form significant hydrate activity.
          > >
          > > For instance, look at the history of the Younger Dryas and
          current
          > > dogma about its cause fresh water capping from the diversion of
          the
          > > Mississippi headwaters to the east to the N. Atlantic. A river
          > fresh
          > > off a glacier, I suspect, doesn't biologically cut it. And if a
          > river
          > > that once flowed out of huge glacial lakes then becomes
          > substantially
          > > less flowing, with less sedimentation and detritus, then the
          > hydrate
          > > activity will substantially decrease.
          > >
          > >
          > > In this case, the significant change is relative to the Gulf of
          > > California. Hydrates are located there:
          > >
          > > http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/hydrates/where.html
          > >
          > > They don't form in shallows--they require 1,275 feet of water or
          > > more.
          > >
          > > They are found on the US west coast as far south as off the coast
          > of
          > > Santa Barbara. Understand the counter current would move
          NORTHWEST.
          > > So, applicable to what I am talking about, they are found IN THE
          > GULF
          > > OF CALIFORNIA.
          > >
          > >
          > > http://www.dri.edu/Projects/Monsoon/3empirical.html
          > >
          > > The monsoon in the SW depends on the surface temperatures of the
          > > waters in the Gulf of California.
          > >
          > > Waters from the tropics in that region tend to move along the
          coast
          > > in a NW manner and peel off west with the N. Pacific gyre.
          > >
          > > The study involved non-El Nino period so that wind direction of
          > > consequence is generally constant for the study. This leave a
          > > question what varied the SSTs. As I have tried to explain, SSTs
          are
          > > MODULATED by the biosphere with energies from IR movements by
          > cirrus
          > > cloud behavior that can change energies absorbed in the range of
          > > between 50 and 200 watts per meter squared per Lindzen and Fu's
          > > papers. Over time scales of a few weeks, this kind of energy is
          > > sufficient to move SSTs!
          > >
          > > What I would like to do is talk for a moment about Keeling Whorf
          > > (K/W) and tidal changes. IMHO, tides not only alter how the
          oceans
          > > move against the beaches, but also how currents move in the
          > > intermediate oceans. While K/W is not much of a factor right now
          on
          > > these kind of timescales it is illistrative of the feedback
          > involved
          > > on shorter periods by way of example.
          > >
          > > I have talked about depressurization of hydrates from K/W before,
          > but
          > > there is also an idea of simple melting from changes in ocean
          > > currents. If there is a lot of sloshing around, to put it
          crudely,
          > > than underneath the gyres, which are the warmest and hence most
          > > electrically significant aspect of climate, than the swath of
          > hydrate
          > > activity underneath the gyres is going to be melted to a larger
          > > extent. That means more electrical leakage. It would be like
          having
          > > MS--the myolin sheaths of nerve tissues becoming defective--the
          > > biological signal to climate is short circuited. Here is a blurb
          > from
          > > K/Ws paper:
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > > "The IRD event (number 5) near 8,100 yr BP is particularly
          > noteworthy
          > > because it appears to be associated with the most abrupt and
          > > widespread climate shift known from the past 10 kyr (10); it is
          > > believed to have been initiated by a large freshwater pulse from
          > > Laurentide lakes, dated at 8,470 yr BP, that reduced surface
          ocean
          > > salinity in the North Atlantic Ocean, thereby causing widespread
          > > cooling near 8,200 yr BP (11). Two recently drilled sedimentary
          > cores
          > > show multiple IRD events between 8,300 and 7,400 yr BP (ref. 1,
          > Fig.
          > > 14). Together with the Elk Lake dust layer of 7,800 yr BP, these
          > data
          > > suggest prolonged or repeated cooling well beyond the time
          expected
          > > for a freshwater discharge to directly affect climate. The
          maximum
          > > tidal forcing near these events at 7,744 yr BP was the greatest
          in
          > > 20,000 years, preceded and succeeded by strong forcing at 8,089
          and
          > > 7,381 yr BP of the 360-yr tidal cycle. Thus the tidal hypothesis
          > > suggests that cooling initiated by a freshwater pulse may have
          been
          > > prolonged by tidal forcing. Also consistent with tidal forcing is
          > the
          > > possibility that the timing of the freshwater pulse occurred
          during
          > a
          > > warm phase of the 1,800-year tidal cycle, about 700 years before
          > > maximum forcing at 7,744 yr BP. "
          > >
          > > See figure
          > >
          > > http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/97/8/3814/F7
          > >
          > > Both quote and figure from:
          > >
          > > http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/070047197
          > >
          > > A mudslide of 8,000 years ago must be put into perspective of the
          > > Keeling Whorf research--and I think is somewhat related to the
          > > Younger Dryas in that the feedbacks out of the glacial hadn't
          > reached
          > > the biological stability we have today after the interglacial has
          > > persisted as long as it has:
          > >
          > > October 5 2000 12:12 PM ET Seabed Gas Crystal Formations Linked
          to
          > > Tsunami
          > >
          > > By Todd Eastham
          > >
          > >
          > > WASHINGTON (Reuters) - About 8,000 years ago, a massive undersea
          > > landslide off the coast of Norway sent a 30-foot wall of water --
          a
          > > tsunami wave -- barreling into the northern coast of Europe.
          > >
          > > If this were to recur today, as scientists say it could, almost
          > > anywhere in the world, it would cost billions if not tens of
          > billions
          > > of dollars to repair the damage to coastal cities. And the cost
          in
          > > lives could be far higher.
          > >
          > > ``A tsunami like that would wash into the Baltic with some
          > > devastation,'' said scientist Charles Paull at the Monterey Bay
          > > Aquarium Research Institute in Moss Landing, California.
          > >
          > > While scientists who study the so-called Storegga Slide with the
          > > tools of geology, biology and seismography are not sure what
          > > triggered it, they are fairly certain a mysterious crystalline
          > solid
          > > composed of water molecules intertwined with methane gas, known
          as
          > > methane or gas hydrates, played a role.
          > >
          > > Paull says an earthquake might have triggered the slide, which
          > > occurred in stages over hundreds of years, removing an enormous
          > chunk
          > > from Norway's continental margin. But its magnitude suggests
          > methane
          > > hydrates played a role.
          > >
          > > ``Whatever the trigger,'' he said in a phone interview, ``this is
          a
          > > natural disaster related to gas hydrates.''
          > >
          > > Methane hydrates, which scientists are studying as a possible
          vast
          > > global energy resource, are among the weirdest natural phenomena.
          > > Sometimes called ``flammable ice,'' they are just that: highly
          > > unstable and combustible crystallized solids existing only in a
          > high
          > > pressure/low temperature environment.
          > >
          > > Discovered by accident late in the 19th century by oil and gas
          > > exploration teams just below the Arctic permafrost, the odd
          > crystals
          > > are thought to contain more clean-burning fossil fuels than
          Earth's
          > > reserves of oil, natural gas and coal combined.
          > >
          > > Equally important is the key role they appear to play in the
          global
          > > climate and marine environment, as well as the occasional
          > cataclysmic
          > > undersea event.
          > >
          > > Acting director John Farrell said the Ocean Drilling Program's 15-
          > > year series of expeditions to explore the ocean floor had
          uncovered
          > > evidence that gas hydrates have spilled into the ocean in massive
          > > bursts repeatedly over the last 50,000 years. Evidence in tiny
          > > plankton shells called ``forams'' show ``a chemical change in the
          > > world's oceans that can only be explained by a lot of methane
          being
          > > injected into the water.''
          > >
          > > Enormous Implications For World Climate
          > >
          > > Events of that kind have enormous implications for global climate
          > > change because methane is a potent greenhouse gas. A large enough
          > > release of methane, as in the Storegga Slide, could bring on or
          > > accelerate a cycle of global warming.
          > >
          > > Warming cycles might already have been underway when such slides
          > > occurred, triggered by some as-yet-unknown mechanism that warmed
          > the
          > > oceans enough to destabilize gas hydrates, which dissolve when
          > > temperatures rise or pressures decrease.
          > >
          > > While release of methane from beneath the ocean floor could lead
          to
          > a
          > > vicious cycle of warming, Paull and other scientists caution
          there
          > is
          > > more at play. Rising sea levels would actually increase pressures
          > on
          > > those hydrate deposits, locking them in and perhaps leading to a
          > > reverse cooling cycle.
          > >
          > > Whatever role they have played in the cycles of global climate
          > > change -- as well as chemical changes in the oceans -- it is
          clear
          > > that research into these odd combustible undersea ice formations
          is
          > > essential to understanding planet Earth.
          > >
          > > In time, such research could lead to a way to predict or at least
          > > calculate the risk of events like the Storegga Slide.
          > >
          > > ``If we understand what happened in the past, then we're in a
          > better
          > > position to anticipate the future,'' said Farrell.
          > >
          > > ``What we first have to do is make sure we know where these gas
          > > hydrate layers are,'' through research like that being done by
          the
          > > ODP, a partnership with seven international consortia
          representing
          > > more than 20 countries. ``Then if we know about any factors that
          > > affect the temperature and pressure .... we might ultimately
          reduce
          > > the uncertainty'' about where and when the continental margins
          > might
          > > collapse and trigger tsunami.
          > >
          > > The world's largest Earth science research project, the ODP is
          > > administered by the Joint Oceanographic Institutions funded in
          part
          > > by the National Science Foundation. It will target an area off
          > Oregon
          > > in its next gas hydrate expedition, in 2002. "
          > > .....
          > >
          > > What I think should be appreciated about Keeling Whorf and the
          > > Younger Dryas is that the Mississippi lost its glacial lake
          > sourcing,
          > > so the microbrial biosphere lost its source of "food" in the GOM.
          > The
          > > water then flowed to the N. Pacific in a fairly inactive way,
          > > biologically speaking, to a part of the ocean with little
          > biological
          > > activity. Hence, the change that occurred initially to mark the
          > cold
          > > snap of the Younger Dryas wasn't so much about fresh water
          capping
          > as
          > > it was about a significant change to the intermediate ocean
          > > microbrial biosphere. A thousand years of cold conditions
          followed!
          > > Doing a similar thing to the Gulf of California is making for dry
          > > conditions in Los Angeles, as much of the rain is either
          monsoonal
          > or
          > > from winter snow fall to the mountains that would be impacted by
          > the
          > > monsoonal flow.
          > >
          > > It is true LA does not rely on local runoff for their water. It
          > > relies on aqueducts from the Colorado, the Owens Valley and
          > Northern
          > > California. Low local rainfall does not really affect the human
          > > population there. A huge proportion of the water, well over 90%
          > goes
          > > to agriculture. Residential water was a very small, albeit media
          > > huge, amount. Also, the California coast from above San Francisco
          > > south, gets almost all of its rainfall in the winter months. But
          a
          > > regional drought will impact local hydrates directly and
          > indirectly.
          > >
          > > Indeed, the history of water diversions from just north of L.A.
          > make
          > > some interesting history. Mountains with snow caps run water to
          the
          > > cities, and from where I am near Lake Shasta in N. California, we
          > are
          > > sending water all the way to San Diego this year.
          > >
          > > Yet, indeed it was dry in N. California last year and in
          particular
          > > on the Oregon-California border with the Klamath River. These dry
          > > conditions are related to the conditions of the N. Pacific in
          > > general, IMHO. That said, the dry conditions here in the last few
          > > years take second place to when regional rivers went through a
          time
          > > of heavy dams construction and reconstruction. This time with a
          > > little Keeling Whorf cycling and Shasta Lake, for instance, which
          > is
          > > about 5 miles from me, was like half empty. And the Shasta dam
          > > itself, when constructed, caused a relatively drier climate in
          the
          > > region, IMHO. Why? Because the deforestation combined with the
          > river
          > > delays of flow, sedimentation and detritus into the summer months
          > > reduced the intensity of the winter spring precipitation. If the
          > > sedimentation, detritus and flow occur when the earth is angled
          > away
          > > from the sun in the winter and spring, the electrical interaction
          > > with the atmosphere from the sun doesn't upset the electrical
          > > enhancement created by biologically created electrical insolation
          > in
          > > the context of ocean current derived electrical fields that
          enhance
          > > cirrus.
          > >
          > > Interestingly, just after the Bay Series quake, there was a law
          > > passed called CALFED to balance the competing use interests on
          the
          > > Sacramento. One of those interests were waterfowl in the Bay
          > Estuary.
          > > So there always was a managed flow, from then, to the Bay.
          Perhaps
          > > low but always steady, always enough. Since then there has not
          been
          > > significant siesmic activity or drought!
          > >
          > > What I am saying about the Colorado and Lake Mead is that in the
          > past
          > > they always let something go over in the spring but they stopped
          it
          > > last year and the Mexicans haven't exactly been great about
          letting
          > > some water flow to the ocean--and now they are paying for this
          > policy
          > > with drought. It is incredibly stupid.
        • fredwx
          Regarding Hoover: A diversion around the dam construction site was done in 1932. This allowed the water to flow around the site but did not restrict the total
          Message 4 of 7 , May 6, 2002
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            Regarding Hoover:
            A diversion around the dam construction site was done in 1932. This
            allowed the water to flow around the site but did not restrict the
            total flow. Water was not restricted prior to 1935.

            RE The Mississippi:
            There were a long series of dams along the Mississippi for many years
            prior to as well as during the 1930's so you can not fix any of these
            as the cause of the dust bowl.

            1884 -- First major reservior system - Leech, Winnibigoshish,
            Pokegama, Minnesota
            1910 -- First dam with a hydroelectric plant - Lock & Dam 1,
            Minneapolis, Minnesota
            1907 Congress authorized a six-foot channel.
            1914 Dam built at Keokuk, Iowa to produce hydroelectric power.
            1924 Congress established the Upper Mississippi Wild Life and Fish
            Refuge.
            1930's Dams built to deepen the main channel to nine feet, over
            objection of Izaak Walton League.

            Fred



            --- In methanehydrateclub@y..., "pawnfart" <mike@u...> wrote:
            > Fred,
            >
            > Let me respond to both of your posts.
            >
            > This link:
            >
            > http://crwua.mwd.dst.ca.us/lor/crwua_lor.htm
            >
            > gives some history of water use before the 1930s and it is clear
            that
            > there was diversions, including in 1932 for the Hoover dam. Then
            > there is the Imperial Valley Salt Lake deal and the water use
            issues
            > of the 7 states and Mexico. Don't forget that there are two other
            > main rivers--the Rio and the Mississippi. This history shows the
            tie
            > in between the Rio and the Colorado and the water use fight. But
            the
            > Mississippi is key, too. Understand at this point over the past 10
            > years or so the Mississippi is going the other way--with too much
            sed
            > and flow comparted to the Colorado and Rio.
            >
            > The Mississippi has changed its course numerous times by human
            > activity in the past (there are, of course, natural changes). Many
            of
            > the man made changes occurred upstream before 1924, to prevent
            local
            > flooding and erosion. But on the delta itself a major change
            occurred
            > in 1924, when the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, or the Industrial
            > Canal was opened, linking the Mississippi River with a "lake." The
            > Army Corps of Engineers built spillways, that prevent breaks, that
            > can be opened if New Orleans is threatened by a flood crest. Much
            of
            > the water that flows into Lake Pontchartrain comes as a result of
            man-
            > made operations. Then in 1931 the Corps of Engineers built the
            Bonnet
            > Carre Spillway.
            >
            > The timing of these major changes to the rivers matches perfectly
            > with the Dust Bowl, only altered in minor ways by ENSO.
            >
            > As far as there being other factors, I again would point to the
            > Keeling Whorf and Fu papers in terms of the inverse relationship
            > between cloud wieghted SSTs and cirrus and say that the forcing
            from
            > clouds is extremely significant and controlling--otherwise no Gaia
            > and we wouldn't be here. The forcing from cirrus also should be
            > thought of as modulating. Therefore, the cold oceans and
            > thermohaline is a product of modulation, not that STTs are a normal
            > state where chaotic events alter them. So what we have here is a
            > changing modulation based on a key forcing changing, not some
            chaotic
            > event in the context of chaotic behavior. The problem is much
            > different than that.
            >
            > --- In methanehydrateclub@y..., fredwx <no_reply@y...> wrote:
            > > You said "First, warmer oceans mean that they are more
            specifically
            > > conductive--less resistive to electrical currents. This is
            related
            > to
            > > the cold SSTs to the top of the N. Pacific gyre, IMHO, and hence,
            > > provides less rain to S. Cal."
            > >
            > > SST's are below normal over the eastern North Pacific and I agree
            > > that the dry weather is a likely result.
            > >
            > >
            >
            http://psbsgi1.nesdis.noaa.gov:8080/PSB/EPS/SST/data/anomnight.4.30.20
            > > 02.gif
            > >
            > > ....but there could be other reasons for this besides electrical
            > > currents.
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > > --- In methanehydrateclub@y..., "pawnfart" <mike@u...> wrote:
            > > > L.A. is having the driest year since records were recorded--
            four
            > > > inches of rain so far.
            > > >
            > > > Last year it was decided to take run off from excess spring
            rains
            > > > that over flow from Lake Mead and run them to California. This
            > was
            > > > despite the damage already caused by CAP--see
            > > > http://www.geocities.com/NapaValley/8339/CAP.html That decision
            > > looks
            > > > pretty dumb from where I sit.
            > > >
            > > > But there is also an issue of warmer oceans. Warmer, again,
            means
            > > > more conductive, and for west to east moving currents, it means
            > > less
            > > > cirrus.
            > > >
            > > > No El Nino is also hard on S. Cal rain conditions.
            > > >
            > > > So is 30,000 dams built in Asia over the past 30 years,
            > culminated
            > > > with the Three Gorge diversion and relocation to the delta, and
            > > delta
            > > > sedimentation retention projects for land for these people to
            > live.
            > > >
            > > >
            > > >
            > > > Here are some thoughts back, first in cryptic form and then
            > perhaps
            > > > some code breaking background--I hope it communicates. First,
            > > warmer
            > > > oceans mean that they are more specifically conductive--less
            > > > resistive to electrical currents. This is related to the cold
            > SSTs
            > > to
            > > > the top of the N. Pacific gyre, IMHO, and hence, provides less
            > rain
            > > > to S. Cal. That is because a more conductive ocean cuts both
            > ways,
            > > > including an idea that currents moving from west to east will
            > > induct
            > > > against cirrus enhancement per the IR measures discussed in
            > Lindzen
            > > > and Fu's papers (yes, they ignore direction of current in their
            > > > papers but their data is solid if not their mechanism
            > conclusions).
            > > > Second, 30,000 dams have been built in Asia over the past 30
            > years,
            > > > culminated by Three Gorge. That means more electrical leakage
            or
            > > less
            > > > Gaia insulation. Third, recent changes in output from Lake
            Mead,
            > > > although not the same as building Hoover and creating a Dust
            > Bowl,
            > > > have had significant impact on SW climate. Specifically,
            recently
            > a
            > > > controversy arose relative to the American Mexican treaty over
            > > water
            > > > to the Gulf of California and the health of the estuary as it
            > > > pertained to these dolphins there, and the Mexicans asked that
            > > > spring "overspill" from Lake Mead continue, and the Americans
            > > elected
            > > > to send this water to California via ducts. Not wise--as it has
            > > > caused record dry conditions in the region--to include
            mountains
            > in
            > > > S. Cal that eventually run off S. Cal rivers to methane hydrate
            > > > fields along the S. Cal coast. From a biological standpoint,
            > > > conditions are very electrically poor for S. Cal and it is
            > starting
            > > > to show in poor rainfall amounts
            > > >
            > > > .....
            > > >
            > > > The microbiology and chemistry of hydrate formation throws in
            > great
            > > > complexity in the methanogens role in climate. In my view, as
            > most
            > > of
            > > > you know, the oceans and climate is much more of a living,
            > > biological
            > > > process than many consider it to be. The complexity confuses
            many
            > > > against seeing the biological aspect. One reason is that
            methane
            > > > hydrate only forms provided extreme conditions AND
            CONCENTRATIONS
            > > of
            > > > methane are satisfied. This means there must be lots of methane
            > > > concentrated in one place or the methane just dissolves in the
            > > water
            > > > without forming the ice crystal. There is a good example to see
            > how
            > > > this is true by experiment. CO2 also forms an additional gas
            > > hydrate
            > > > similar to methane hydrates, and researchers have designed, for
            > > > instance, a torpedo shaped block of frozen CO2, which turns out
            > to
            > > be
            > > > denser than ocean water, that when released from a ship, will
            > fall
            > > to
            > > > the sand at the depths of the ocean and get wedged into it--
            then
            > > form
            > > > CO2 hydrate, that although as a hydrate is less dense than the
            > > water,
            > > > as buried in sand will be 'heavy' enough to stay there. This is
            > > > actually a patented idea as a way of carbon sequestration.
            > Anyway,
            > > > methane hydrate researchers looking into this type of thing
            have
            > > > taken CO2 down to the depths, under 1,280 feet, in robots and
            > > > released it in concentrated form. The CO2 spills out and forms
            a
            > > gas
            > > > hydrate. But right next to the hydrate is are fish swimming
            > about--
            > > in
            > > > a picture taken of this process! So, the CO2 coming out of
            their
            > > > gills doesn't turn to hydrate, and the O2 they must breath into
            > > their
            > > > gills isn't ice! A type of protein has evolved in fish that
            > > prevents
            > > > hydrates from forming! Hence, the archaebacteria, in the
            > symbiotic
            > > > process to make methane for hydrates in the intermediate depths
            > of
            > > > the oceans, must make it in sufficient concentrations for it to
            > > form.
            > > > This sets up a more narrow set of parameters where sufficient
            > > > biological conditions must first exist for the microbrial
            > activity
            > > to
            > > > be sufficient to form sufficient concentrations for it to form.
            > > This
            > > > sets up a more narrow set of parameters where sufficient
            > biological
            > > > conditions must first exist for the microbrial activity to be
            > > > sufficient to form significant hydrate activity.
            > > >
            > > > For instance, look at the history of the Younger Dryas and
            > current
            > > > dogma about its cause fresh water capping from the diversion of
            > the
            > > > Mississippi headwaters to the east to the N. Atlantic. A river
            > > fresh
            > > > off a glacier, I suspect, doesn't biologically cut it. And if a
            > > river
            > > > that once flowed out of huge glacial lakes then becomes
            > > substantially
            > > > less flowing, with less sedimentation and detritus, then the
            > > hydrate
            > > > activity will substantially decrease.
            > > >
            > > >
            > > > In this case, the significant change is relative to the Gulf of
            > > > California. Hydrates are located there:
            > > >
            > > > http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/hydrates/where.html
            > > >
            > > > They don't form in shallows--they require 1,275 feet of water
            or
            > > > more.
            > > >
            > > > They are found on the US west coast as far south as off the
            coast
            > > of
            > > > Santa Barbara. Understand the counter current would move
            > NORTHWEST.
            > > > So, applicable to what I am talking about, they are found IN
            THE
            > > GULF
            > > > OF CALIFORNIA.
            > > >
            > > >
            > > > http://www.dri.edu/Projects/Monsoon/3empirical.html
            > > >
            > > > The monsoon in the SW depends on the surface temperatures of
            the
            > > > waters in the Gulf of California.
            > > >
            > > > Waters from the tropics in that region tend to move along the
            > coast
            > > > in a NW manner and peel off west with the N. Pacific gyre.
            > > >
            > > > The study involved non-El Nino period so that wind direction of
            > > > consequence is generally constant for the study. This leave a
            > > > question what varied the SSTs. As I have tried to explain, SSTs
            > are
            > > > MODULATED by the biosphere with energies from IR movements by
            > > cirrus
            > > > cloud behavior that can change energies absorbed in the range
            of
            > > > between 50 and 200 watts per meter squared per Lindzen and Fu's
            > > > papers. Over time scales of a few weeks, this kind of energy is
            > > > sufficient to move SSTs!
            > > >
            > > > What I would like to do is talk for a moment about Keeling
            Whorf
            > > > (K/W) and tidal changes. IMHO, tides not only alter how the
            > oceans
            > > > move against the beaches, but also how currents move in the
            > > > intermediate oceans. While K/W is not much of a factor right
            now
            > on
            > > > these kind of timescales it is illistrative of the feedback
            > > involved
            > > > on shorter periods by way of example.
            > > >
            > > > I have talked about depressurization of hydrates from K/W
            before,
            > > but
            > > > there is also an idea of simple melting from changes in ocean
            > > > currents. If there is a lot of sloshing around, to put it
            > crudely,
            > > > than underneath the gyres, which are the warmest and hence most
            > > > electrically significant aspect of climate, than the swath of
            > > hydrate
            > > > activity underneath the gyres is going to be melted to a larger
            > > > extent. That means more electrical leakage. It would be like
            > having
            > > > MS--the myolin sheaths of nerve tissues becoming defective--the
            > > > biological signal to climate is short circuited. Here is a
            blurb
            > > from
            > > > K/Ws paper:
            > > >
            > > >
            > > >
            > > > "The IRD event (number 5) near 8,100 yr BP is particularly
            > > noteworthy
            > > > because it appears to be associated with the most abrupt and
            > > > widespread climate shift known from the past 10 kyr (10); it is
            > > > believed to have been initiated by a large freshwater pulse
            from
            > > > Laurentide lakes, dated at 8,470 yr BP, that reduced surface
            > ocean
            > > > salinity in the North Atlantic Ocean, thereby causing
            widespread
            > > > cooling near 8,200 yr BP (11). Two recently drilled sedimentary
            > > cores
            > > > show multiple IRD events between 8,300 and 7,400 yr BP (ref. 1,
            > > Fig.
            > > > 14). Together with the Elk Lake dust layer of 7,800 yr BP,
            these
            > > data
            > > > suggest prolonged or repeated cooling well beyond the time
            > expected
            > > > for a freshwater discharge to directly affect climate. The
            > maximum
            > > > tidal forcing near these events at 7,744 yr BP was the greatest
            > in
            > > > 20,000 years, preceded and succeeded by strong forcing at 8,089
            > and
            > > > 7,381 yr BP of the 360-yr tidal cycle. Thus the tidal
            hypothesis
            > > > suggests that cooling initiated by a freshwater pulse may have
            > been
            > > > prolonged by tidal forcing. Also consistent with tidal forcing
            is
            > > the
            > > > possibility that the timing of the freshwater pulse occurred
            > during
            > > a
            > > > warm phase of the 1,800-year tidal cycle, about 700 years
            before
            > > > maximum forcing at 7,744 yr BP. "
            > > >
            > > > See figure
            > > >
            > > > http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/97/8/3814/F7
            > > >
            > > > Both quote and figure from:
            > > >
            > > > http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/070047197
            > > >
            > > > A mudslide of 8,000 years ago must be put into perspective of
            the
            > > > Keeling Whorf research--and I think is somewhat related to the
            > > > Younger Dryas in that the feedbacks out of the glacial hadn't
            > > reached
            > > > the biological stability we have today after the interglacial
            has
            > > > persisted as long as it has:
            > > >
            > > > October 5 2000 12:12 PM ET Seabed Gas Crystal Formations Linked
            > to
            > > > Tsunami
            > > >
            > > > By Todd Eastham
            > > >
            > > >
            > > > WASHINGTON (Reuters) - About 8,000 years ago, a massive
            undersea
            > > > landslide off the coast of Norway sent a 30-foot wall of water -
            -
            > a
            > > > tsunami wave -- barreling into the northern coast of Europe.
            > > >
            > > > If this were to recur today, as scientists say it could, almost
            > > > anywhere in the world, it would cost billions if not tens of
            > > billions
            > > > of dollars to repair the damage to coastal cities. And the cost
            > in
            > > > lives could be far higher.
            > > >
            > > > ``A tsunami like that would wash into the Baltic with some
            > > > devastation,'' said scientist Charles Paull at the Monterey Bay
            > > > Aquarium Research Institute in Moss Landing, California.
            > > >
            > > > While scientists who study the so-called Storegga Slide with
            the
            > > > tools of geology, biology and seismography are not sure what
            > > > triggered it, they are fairly certain a mysterious crystalline
            > > solid
            > > > composed of water molecules intertwined with methane gas, known
            > as
            > > > methane or gas hydrates, played a role.
            > > >
            > > > Paull says an earthquake might have triggered the slide, which
            > > > occurred in stages over hundreds of years, removing an enormous
            > > chunk
            > > > from Norway's continental margin. But its magnitude suggests
            > > methane
            > > > hydrates played a role.
            > > >
            > > > ``Whatever the trigger,'' he said in a phone interview, ``this
            is
            > a
            > > > natural disaster related to gas hydrates.''
            > > >
            > > > Methane hydrates, which scientists are studying as a possible
            > vast
            > > > global energy resource, are among the weirdest natural
            phenomena.
            > > > Sometimes called ``flammable ice,'' they are just that: highly
            > > > unstable and combustible crystallized solids existing only in a
            > > high
            > > > pressure/low temperature environment.
            > > >
            > > > Discovered by accident late in the 19th century by oil and gas
            > > > exploration teams just below the Arctic permafrost, the odd
            > > crystals
            > > > are thought to contain more clean-burning fossil fuels than
            > Earth's
            > > > reserves of oil, natural gas and coal combined.
            > > >
            > > > Equally important is the key role they appear to play in the
            > global
            > > > climate and marine environment, as well as the occasional
            > > cataclysmic
            > > > undersea event.
            > > >
            > > > Acting director John Farrell said the Ocean Drilling Program's
            15-
            > > > year series of expeditions to explore the ocean floor had
            > uncovered
            > > > evidence that gas hydrates have spilled into the ocean in
            massive
            > > > bursts repeatedly over the last 50,000 years. Evidence in tiny
            > > > plankton shells called ``forams'' show ``a chemical change in
            the
            > > > world's oceans that can only be explained by a lot of methane
            > being
            > > > injected into the water.''
            > > >
            > > > Enormous Implications For World Climate
            > > >
            > > > Events of that kind have enormous implications for global
            climate
            > > > change because methane is a potent greenhouse gas. A large
            enough
            > > > release of methane, as in the Storegga Slide, could bring on or
            > > > accelerate a cycle of global warming.
            > > >
            > > > Warming cycles might already have been underway when such
            slides
            > > > occurred, triggered by some as-yet-unknown mechanism that
            warmed
            > > the
            > > > oceans enough to destabilize gas hydrates, which dissolve when
            > > > temperatures rise or pressures decrease.
            > > >
            > > > While release of methane from beneath the ocean floor could
            lead
            > to
            > > a
            > > > vicious cycle of warming, Paull and other scientists caution
            > there
            > > is
            > > > more at play. Rising sea levels would actually increase
            pressures
            > > on
            > > > those hydrate deposits, locking them in and perhaps leading to
            a
            > > > reverse cooling cycle.
            > > >
            > > > Whatever role they have played in the cycles of global climate
            > > > change -- as well as chemical changes in the oceans -- it is
            > clear
            > > > that research into these odd combustible undersea ice
            formations
            > is
            > > > essential to understanding planet Earth.
            > > >
            > > > In time, such research could lead to a way to predict or at
            least
            > > > calculate the risk of events like the Storegga Slide.
            > > >
            > > > ``If we understand what happened in the past, then we're in a
            > > better
            > > > position to anticipate the future,'' said Farrell.
            > > >
            > > > ``What we first have to do is make sure we know where these gas
            > > > hydrate layers are,'' through research like that being done by
            > the
            > > > ODP, a partnership with seven international consortia
            > representing
            > > > more than 20 countries. ``Then if we know about any factors
            that
            > > > affect the temperature and pressure .... we might ultimately
            > reduce
            > > > the uncertainty'' about where and when the continental margins
            > > might
            > > > collapse and trigger tsunami.
            > > >
            > > > The world's largest Earth science research project, the ODP is
            > > > administered by the Joint Oceanographic Institutions funded in
            > part
            > > > by the National Science Foundation. It will target an area off
            > > Oregon
            > > > in its next gas hydrate expedition, in 2002. "
            > > > .....
            > > >
            > > > What I think should be appreciated about Keeling Whorf and the
            > > > Younger Dryas is that the Mississippi lost its glacial lake
            > > sourcing,
            > > > so the microbrial biosphere lost its source of "food" in the
            GOM.
            > > The
            > > > water then flowed to the N. Pacific in a fairly inactive way,
            > > > biologically speaking, to a part of the ocean with little
            > > biological
            > > > activity. Hence, the change that occurred initially to mark the
            > > cold
            > > > snap of the Younger Dryas wasn't so much about fresh water
            > capping
            > > as
            > > > it was about a significant change to the intermediate ocean
            > > > microbrial biosphere. A thousand years of cold conditions
            > followed!
            > > > Doing a similar thing to the Gulf of California is making for
            dry
            > > > conditions in Los Angeles, as much of the rain is either
            > monsoonal
            > > or
            > > > from winter snow fall to the mountains that would be impacted
            by
            > > the
            > > > monsoonal flow.
            > > >
            > > > It is true LA does not rely on local runoff for their water. It
            > > > relies on aqueducts from the Colorado, the Owens Valley and
            > > Northern
            > > > California. Low local rainfall does not really affect the human
            > > > population there. A huge proportion of the water, well over
            90%
            > > goes
            > > > to agriculture. Residential water was a very small, albeit
            media
            > > > huge, amount. Also, the California coast from above San
            Francisco
            > > > south, gets almost all of its rainfall in the winter months.
            But
            > a
            > > > regional drought will impact local hydrates directly and
            > > indirectly.
            > > >
            > > > Indeed, the history of water diversions from just north of L.A.
            > > make
            > > > some interesting history. Mountains with snow caps run water to
            > the
            > > > cities, and from where I am near Lake Shasta in N. California,
            we
            > > are
            > > > sending water all the way to San Diego this year.
            > > >
            > > > Yet, indeed it was dry in N. California last year and in
            > particular
            > > > on the Oregon-California border with the Klamath River. These
            dry
            > > > conditions are related to the conditions of the N. Pacific in
            > > > general, IMHO. That said, the dry conditions here in the last
            few
            > > > years take second place to when regional rivers went through a
            > time
            > > > of heavy dams construction and reconstruction. This time with a
            > > > little Keeling Whorf cycling and Shasta Lake, for instance,
            which
            > > is
            > > > about 5 miles from me, was like half empty. And the Shasta dam
            > > > itself, when constructed, caused a relatively drier climate in
            > the
            > > > region, IMHO. Why? Because the deforestation combined with the
            > > river
            > > > delays of flow, sedimentation and detritus into the summer
            months
            > > > reduced the intensity of the winter spring precipitation. If
            the
            > > > sedimentation, detritus and flow occur when the earth is angled
            > > away
            > > > from the sun in the winter and spring, the electrical
            interaction
            > > > with the atmosphere from the sun doesn't upset the electrical
            > > > enhancement created by biologically created electrical
            insolation
            > > in
            > > > the context of ocean current derived electrical fields that
            > enhance
            > > > cirrus.
            > > >
            > > > Interestingly, just after the Bay Series quake, there was a law
            > > > passed called CALFED to balance the competing use interests on
            > the
            > > > Sacramento. One of those interests were waterfowl in the Bay
            > > Estuary.
            > > > So there always was a managed flow, from then, to the Bay.
            > Perhaps
            > > > low but always steady, always enough. Since then there has not
            > been
            > > > significant siesmic activity or drought!
            > > >
            > > > What I am saying about the Colorado and Lake Mead is that in
            the
            > > past
            > > > they always let something go over in the spring but they
            stopped
            > it
            > > > last year and the Mexicans haven't exactly been great about
            > letting
            > > > some water flow to the ocean--and now they are paying for this
            > > policy
            > > > with drought. It is incredibly stupid.
          • pawnfart
            Fred, I think you have to be careful with your analysis. I agree with the facts you state but not what it means to the feedbacks I am describing, and I think
            Message 5 of 7 , May 6, 2002
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              Fred,

              I think you have to be careful with your analysis. I agree with the
              facts you state but not what it means to the feedbacks I am
              describing, and I think you are leaving out some key facts.

              Leading up to the Black Sunday, Easter, 1935, there was a prolonged
              and sustained drought in the heartland, that dated back to the mid-
              1920s. The human activity on those rivers occurred in the 1920s and
              1930s and culminated with things like the Inner Harbor Navigation
              Canal in 1924 or the Lake Pontchartrain projects in 1931 and the
              Hoover in 1931. Also understand that if the Colorado causes low
              monsoonal air flow or a lowered sub tropical jet, the rain that would
              land in the heartland won't flow out the Mississippi and Rio
              floodplains--so that there is a sort of compounding impact from west
              to east with these rivers.

              But what I wanted you to notice from the link I provided was that
              there was a great struggle to settle riperian rights that ended in
              early 1920s. That means that the 7 states were then free to start
              piping off water BEFORE the 1930s, AND THEY DID!!!!

              This is key. It isn't what happened in Minnesota up river 1,500
              miles that matters to the microbrial biosphere in the GOM--but this
              biosphere IS impact with large man made delta lakes or massive
              concrete dams and million of acre feet siphoned off by 7 states.
              Don't you see?

              To show how this has happened before in history w/ the Colorado--
              check this out. In 1903 the Mexicans messed up w/ a diversion
              channel and the Imperial valley in Southern California was turned
              into a large salt lake! This occurred during an El Nino when
              rainfall is historically high in the SW AND HURRICANCE ACTIVITY IS
              REDUCED. Now, check out the ENSO PATTERN:

              ++++++++++++++++++++

              El Niño Years La Niña Years

              1900-1901 1903-1904

              1902-1903 1906-1907

              1905-1906 1908-1909


              And then look at the hurricane seasons:


              http://weather.unisys.com/hurricane/atlantic/1901/

              http://weather.unisys.com/hurricane/atlantic/1902/

              http://weather.unisys.com/hurricane/atlantic/1903/

              http://weather.unisys.com/hurricane/atlantic/1904/

              http://weather.unisys.com/hurricane/atlantic/1905/

              http://weather.unisys.com/hurricane/atlantic/1906/

              http://weather.unisys.com/hurricane/atlantic/1907/

              I think what you should notice is there is a decided drop off of near
              Texas TS after the Sultan Sea creation during La Nina years when
              historically TS activity in general increases! Likewise, this year,
              we seeing very dry conditions in much of western Texas--which feeds
              the Rio and gives us biological conditions in the GOM for tropical
              activity!

              --- In methanehydrateclub@y..., fredwx <no_reply@y...> wrote:
              > Regarding Hoover:
              > A diversion around the dam construction site was done in 1932. This
              > allowed the water to flow around the site but did not restrict the
              > total flow. Water was not restricted prior to 1935.
              >
              > RE The Mississippi:
              > There were a long series of dams along the Mississippi for many
              years
              > prior to as well as during the 1930's so you can not fix any of
              these
              > as the cause of the dust bowl.
              >
              > 1884 -- First major reservior system - Leech, Winnibigoshish,
              > Pokegama, Minnesota
              > 1910 -- First dam with a hydroelectric plant - Lock & Dam 1,
              > Minneapolis, Minnesota
              > 1907 Congress authorized a six-foot channel.
              > 1914 Dam built at Keokuk, Iowa to produce hydroelectric power.
              > 1924 Congress established the Upper Mississippi Wild Life and Fish
              > Refuge.
              > 1930's Dams built to deepen the main channel to nine feet, over
              > objection of Izaak Walton League.
              >
              > Fred
              >
              >
              >
              > --- In methanehydrateclub@y..., "pawnfart" <mike@u...> wrote:
              > > Fred,
              > >
              > > Let me respond to both of your posts.
              > >
              > > This link:
              > >
              > > http://crwua.mwd.dst.ca.us/lor/crwua_lor.htm
              > >
              > > gives some history of water use before the 1930s and it is clear
              > that
              > > there was diversions, including in 1932 for the Hoover dam. Then
              > > there is the Imperial Valley Salt Lake deal and the water use
              > issues
              > > of the 7 states and Mexico. Don't forget that there are two
              other
              > > main rivers--the Rio and the Mississippi. This history shows the
              > tie
              > > in between the Rio and the Colorado and the water use fight. But
              > the
              > > Mississippi is key, too. Understand at this point over the past
              10
              > > years or so the Mississippi is going the other way--with too much
              > sed
              > > and flow comparted to the Colorado and Rio.
              > >
              > > The Mississippi has changed its course numerous times by human
              > > activity in the past (there are, of course, natural changes).
              Many
              > of
              > > the man made changes occurred upstream before 1924, to prevent
              > local
              > > flooding and erosion. But on the delta itself a major change
              > occurred
              > > in 1924, when the comes as a result of
              > man-
              > > made operations. Then in 1931 the Corps of Engineers built the
              > Bonnet
              > > Carre Spillway.
              > >
              > > The timing of these major changes to the rivers matches perfectly
              > > with the Dust Bowl, only altered in minor ways by ENSO.
              > >
              > > As far as there being other factors, I again would point to the
              > > Keeling Whorf and Fu papers in terms of the inverse relationship
              > > between cloud wieghted SSTs and cirrus and say that the forcing
              > from
              > > clouds is extremely significant and controlling--otherwise no
              Gaia
              > > and we wouldn't be here. The forcing from cirrus also should be
              > > thought of as modulating. Therefore, the cold oceans and
              > > thermohaline is a product of modulation, not that STTs are a
              normal
              > > state where chaotic events alter them. So what we have here is a
              > > changing modulation based on a key forcing changing, not some
              > chaotic
              > > event in the context of chaotic behavior. The problem is much
              > > different than that.
              > >
              > > --- In methanehydrateclub@y..., fredwx <no_reply@y...> wrote:
              > > > You said "First, warmer oceans mean that they are more
              > specifically
              > > > conductive--less resistive to electrical currents. This is
              > related
              > > to
              > > > the cold SSTs to the top of the N. Pacific gyre, IMHO, and
              hence,
              > > > provides less rain to S. Cal."
              > > >
              > > > SST's are below normal over the eastern North Pacific and I
              agree
              > > > that the dry weather is a likely result.
              > > >
              > > >
              > >
              >
              http://psbsgi1.nesdis.noaa.gov:8080/PSB/EPS/SST/data/anomnight.4.30.20
              > > > 02.gif
              > > >
              > > > ....but there could be other reasons for this besides
              electrical
              > > > currents.
              > > >
              > > >
              > > >
              > > >
              > > >
              > > > --- In methanehydrateclub@y..., "pawnfart" <mike@u...> wrote:
              > > > > L.A. is having the driest year since records were recorded--
              > four
              > > > > inches of rain so far.
              > > > >
              > > > > Last year it was decided to take run off from excess spring
              > rains
              > > > > that over flow from Lake Mead and run them to California.
              This
              > > was
              > > > > despite the damage already caused by CAP--see
              > > > > http://www.geocities.com/NapaValley/8339/CAP.html That
              decision
              > > > looks
              > > > > pretty dumb from where I sit.
              > > > >
              > > > > But there is also an issue of warmer oceans. Warmer, again,
              > means
              > > > > more conductive, and for west to east moving currents, it
              means
              > > > less
              > > > > cirrus.
              > > > >
              > > > > No El Nino is also hard on S. Cal rain conditions.
              > > > >
              > > > > So is 30,000 dams built in Asia over the past 30 years,
              > > culminated
              > > > > with the Three Gorge diversion and relocation to the delta,
              and
              > > > delta
              > > > > sedimentation retention projects for land for these people to
              > > live.
              > > > >
              > > > >
              > > > >
              > > > > Here are some thoughts back, first in cryptic form and then
              > > perhaps
              > > > > some code breaking background--I hope it communicates. First,
              > > > warmer
              > > > > oceans mean that they are more specifically conductive--less
              > > > > resistive to electrical currents. This is related to the cold
              > > SSTs
              > > > to
              > > > > the top of the N. Pacific gyre, IMHO, and hence, provides
              less
              > > rain
              > > > > to S. Cal. That is because a more conductive ocean cuts both
              > > ways,
              > > > > including an idea that currents moving from west to east will
              > > > induct
              > > > > against cirrus enhancement per the IR measures discussed in
              > > Lindzen
              > > > > and Fu's papers (yes, they ignore direction of current in
              their
              > > > > papers but their data is solid if not their mechanism
              > > conclusions).
              > > > > Second, 30,000 dams have been built in Asia over the past 30
              > > years,
              > > > > culminated by Three Gorge. That means more electrical leakage
              > or
              > > > less
              > > > > Gaia insulation. Third, recent changes in output from Lake
              > Mead,
              > > > > although not the same as building Hoover and creating a Dust
              > > Bowl,
              > > > > have had significant impact on SW climate. Specifically,
              > recently
              > > a
              > > > > controversy arose relative to the American Mexican treaty
              over
              > > > water
              > > > > to the Gulf of California and the health of the estuary as it
              > > > > pertained to these dolphins there, and the Mexicans asked
              that
              > > > > spring "overspill" from Lake Mead continue, and the Americans
              > > > elected
              > > > > to send this water to California via ducts. Not wise--as it
              has
              > > > > caused record dry conditions in the region--to include
              > mountains
              > > in
              > > > > S. Cal that eventually run off S. Cal rivers to methane
              hydrate
              > > > > fields along the S. Cal coast. From a biological standpoint,
              > > > > conditions are very electrically poor for S. Cal and it is
              > > starting
              > > > > to show in poor rainfall amounts
              > > > >
              > > > > .....
              > > > >
              > > > > The microbiology and chemistry of hydrate formation throws in
              > > great
              > > > > complexity in the methanogens role in climate. In my view, as
              > > most
              > > > of
              > > > > you know, the oceans and climate is much more of a living,
              > > > biological
              > > > > process than many consider it to be. The complexity confuses
              > many
              > > > > against seeing the biological aspect. One reason is that
              > methane
              > > > > hydrate only forms provided extreme conditions AND
              > CONCENTRATIONS
              > > > of
              > > > > methane are satisfied. This means there must be lots of
              methane
              > > > > concentrated in one place or the methane just dissolves in
              the
              > > > water
              > > > > without forming the ice crystal. There is a good example to
              see
              > > how
              > > > > this is true by experiment. CO2 also forms an additional gas
              > > > hydrate
              > > > > similar to methane hydrates, and researchers have designed,
              for
              > > > > instance, a torpedo shaped block of frozen CO2, which turns
              out
              > > to
              > > > be
              > > > > denser than ocean water, that when released from a ship, will
              > > fall
              > > > to
              > > > > the sand at the depths of the ocean and get wedged into it--
              > then
              > > > form
              > > > > CO2 hydrate, that although as a hydrate is less dense than
              the
              > > > water,
              > > > > as buried in sand will be 'heavy' enough to stay there. This
              is
              > > > > actually a patented idea as a way of carbon sequestration.
              > > Anyway,
              > > > > methane hydrate researchers looking into this type of thing
              > have
              > > > > taken CO2 down to the depths, under 1,280 feet, in robots and
              > > > > released it in concentrated form. The CO2 spills out and
              forms
              > a
              > > > gas
              > > > > hydrate. But right next to the hydrate is are fish swimming
              > > about--
              > > > in
              > > > > a picture taken of this process! So, the CO2 coming out of
              > their
              > > > > gills doesn't turn to hydrate, and the O2 they must breath
              into
              > > > their
              > > > > gills isn't ice! A type of protein has evolved in fish that
              > > > prevents
              > > > > hydrates from forming! Hence, the archaebacteria, in the
              > > symbiotic
              > > > > process to make methane for hydrates in the intermediate
              depths
              > > of
              > > > > the oceans, must make it in sufficient concentrations for it
              to
              > > > form.
              > > > > This sets up a more narrow set of parameters where sufficient
              > > > > biological conditions must first exist for the microbrial
              > > activity
              > > > to
              > > > > be sufficient to form sufficient concentrations for it to
              form.
              > > > This
              > > > > sets up a more narrow set of parameters where sufficient
              > > biological
              > > > > conditions must first exist for the microbrial activity to be
              > > > > sufficient to form significant hydrate activity.
              > > > >
              > > > > For instance, look at the history of the Younger Dryas and
              > > current
              > > > > dogma about its cause fresh water capping from the diversion
              of
              > > the
              > > > > Mississippi headwaters to the east to the N. Atlantic. A
              river
              > > > fresh
              > > > > off a glacier, I suspect, doesn't biologically cut it. And if
              a
              > > > river
              > > > > that once flowed out of huge glacial lakes then becomes
              > > > substantially
              > > > > less flowing, with less sedimentation and detritus, then the
              > > > hydrate
              > > > > activity will substantially decrease.
              > > > >
              > > > >
              > > > > In this case, the significant change is relative to the Gulf
              of
              > > > > California. Hydrates are located there:
              > > > >
              > > > > http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-
              pages/hydrates/where.html
              > > > >
              > > > > They don't form in shallows--they require 1,275 feet of water
              > or
              > > > > more.
              > > > >
              > > > > They are found on the US west coast as far south as off the
              > coast
              > > > of
              > > > > Santa Barbara. Understand the counter current would move
              > > NORTHWEST.
              > > > > So, applicable to what I am talking about, they are found IN
              > THE
              > > > GULF
              > > > > OF CALIFORNIA.
              > > > >
              > > > >
              > > > > http://www.dri.edu/Projects/Monsoon/3empirical.html
              > > > >
              > > > > The monsoon in the SW depends on the surface temperatures of
              > the
              > > > > waters in the Gulf of California.
              > > > >
              > > > > Waters from the tropics in that region tend to move along the
              > > coast
              > > > > in a NW manner and peel off west with the N. Pacific gyre.
              > > > >
              > > > > The study involved non-El Nino period so that wind direction
              of
              > > > > consequence is generally constant for the study. This leave a
              > > > > question what varied the SSTs. As I have tried to explain,
              SSTs
              > > are
              > > > > MODULATED by the biosphere with energies from IR movements by
              > > > cirrus
              > > > > cloud behavior that can change energies absorbed in the range
              > of
              > > > > between 50 and 200 watts per meter squared per Lindzen and
              Fu's
              > > > > papers. Over time scales of a few weeks, this kind of energy
              is
              > > > > sufficient to move SSTs!
              > > > >
              > > > > What I would like to do is talk for a moment about Keeling
              > Whorf
              > > > > (K/W) and tidal changes. IMHO, tides not only alter how the
              > > oceans
              > > > > move against the beaches, but also how currents move in the
              > > > > intermediate oceans. While K/W is not much of a factor right
              > now
              > > on
              > > > > these kind of timescales it is illistrative of the feedback
              > > > involved
              > > > > on shorter periods by way of example.
              > > > >
              > > > > I have talked about depressurization of hydrates from K/W
              > before,
              > > > but
              > > > > there is also an idea of simple melting from changes in ocean
              > > > > currents. If there is a lot of sloshing around, to put it
              > > crudely,
              > > > > than underneath the gyres, which are the warmest and hence
              most
              > > > > electrically significant aspect of climate, than the swath of
              > > > hydrate
              > > > > activity underneath the gyres is going to be melted to a
              larger
              > > > > extent. That means more electrical leakage. It would be like
              > > having
              > > > > MS--the myolin sheaths of nerve tissues becoming defective--
              the
              > > > > biological signal to climate is short circuited. Here is a
              > blurb
              > > > from
              > > > > K/Ws paper:
              > > > >
              > > > >
              > > > >
              > > > > "The IRD event (number 5) near 8,100 yr BP is particularly
              > > > noteworthy
              > > > > because it appears to be associated with the most abrupt and
              > > > > widespread climate shift known from the past 10 kyr (10); it
              is
              > > > > believed to have been initiated by a large freshwater pulse
              > from
              > > > > Laurentide lakes, dated at 8,470 yr BP, that reduced surface
              > > ocean
              > > > > salinity in the North Atlantic Ocean, thereby causing
              > widespread
              > > > > cooling near 8,200 yr BP (11). Two recently drilled
              sedimentary
              > > > cores
              > > > > show multiple IRD events between 8,300 and 7,400 yr BP (ref.
              1,
              > > > Fig.
              > > > > 14). Together with the Elk Lake dust layer of 7,800 yr BP,
              > these
              > > > data
              > > > > suggest prolonged or repeated cooling well beyond the time
              > > expected
              > > > > for a freshwater discharge to directly affect climate. The
              > > maximum
              > > > > tidal forcing near these events at 7,744 yr BP was the
              greatest
              > > in
              > > > > 20,000 years, preceded and succeeded by strong forcing at
              8,089
              > > and
              > > > > 7,381 yr BP of the 360-yr tidal cycle. Thus the tidal
              > hypothesis
              > > > > suggests that cooling initiated by a freshwater pulse may
              have
              > > been
              > > > > prolonged by tidal forcing. Also consistent with tidal
              forcing
              > is
              > > > the
              > > > > possibility that the timing of the freshwater pulse occurred
              > > during
              > > > a
              > > > > warm phase of the 1,800-year tidal cycle, about 700 years
              > before
              > > > > maximum forcing at 7,744 yr BP. "
              > > > >
              > > > > See figure
              > > > >
              > > > > http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/97/8/3814/F7
              > > > >
              > > > > Both quote and figure from:
              > > > >
              > > > > http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/070047197
              > > > >
              > > > > A mudslide of 8,000 years ago must be put into perspective of
              > the
              > > > > Keeling Whorf research--and I think is somewhat related to
              the
              > > > > Younger Dryas in that the feedbacks out of the glacial hadn't
              > > > reached
              > > > > the biological stability we have today after the interglacial
              > has
              > > > > persisted as long as it has:
              > > > >
              > > > > October 5 2000 12:12 PM ET Seabed Gas Crystal Formations
              Linked
              > > to
              > > > > Tsunami
              > > > >
              > > > > By Todd Eastham
              > > > >
              > > > >
              > > > > WASHINGTON (Reuters) - About 8,000 years ago, a massive
              > undersea
              > > > > landslide off the coast of Norway sent a 30-foot wall of
              water -
              > -
              > > a
              > > > > tsunami wave -- barreling into the northern coast of Europe.
              > > > >
              > > > > If this were to recur today, as scientists say it could,
              almost
              > > > > anywhere in the world, it would cost billions if not tens of
              > > > billions
              > > > > of dollars to repair the damage to coastal cities. And the
              cost
              > > in
              > > > > lives could be far higher.
              > > > >
              > > > > ``A tsunami like that would wash into the Baltic with some
              > > > > devastation,'' said scientist Charles Paull at the Monterey
              Bay
              > > > > Aquarium Research Institute in Moss Landing, California.
              > > > >
              > > > > While scientists who study the so-called Storegga Slide with
              > the
              > > > > tools of geology, biology and seismography are not sure what
              > > > > triggered it, they are fairly certain a mysterious
              crystalline
              > > > solid
              > > > > composed of water molecules intertwined with methane gas,
              known
              > > as
              > > > > methane or gas hydrates, played a role.
              > > > >
              > > > > Paull says an earthquake might have triggered the slide,
              which
              > > > > occurred in stages over hundreds of years, removing an
              enormous
              > > > chunk
              > > > > from Norway's continental margin. But its magnitude suggests
              > > > methane
              > > > > hydrates played a role.
              > > > >
              > > > > ``Whatever the trigger,'' he said in a phone interview,
              ``this
              > is
              > > a
              > > > > natural disaster related to gas hydrates.''
              > > > >
              > > > > Methane hydrates, which scientists are studying as a possible
              > > vast
              > > > > global energy resource, are among the weirdest natural
              > phenomena.
              > > > > Sometimes called ``flammable ice,'' they are just that:
              highly
              > > > > unstable and combustible crystallized solids existing only in
              a
              > > > high
              > > > > pressure/low temperature environment.
              > > > >
              > > > > Discovered by accident late in the 19th century by oil and
              gas
              > > > > exploration teams just below the Arctic permafrost, the odd
              > > > crystals
              > > > > are thought to contain more clean-burning fossil fuels than
              > > Earth's
              > > > > reserves of oil, natural gas and coal combined.
              > > > >
              > > > > Equally important is the key role they appear to play in the
              > > global
              > > > > climate and marine environment, as well as the occasional
              > > > cataclysmic
              > > > > undersea event.
              > > > >
              > > > > Acting director John Farrell said the Ocean Drilling
              Program's
              > 15-
              > > > > year series of expeditions to explore the ocean floor had
              > > uncovered
              > > > > evidence that gas hydrates have spilled into the ocean in
              > massive
              > > > > bursts repeatedly over the last 50,000 years. Evidence in
              tiny
              > > > > plankton shells called ``forams'' show ``a chemical change in
              > the
              > > > > world's oceans that can only be explained by a lot of methane
              > > being
              > > > > injected into the water.''
              > > > >
              > > > > Enormous Implications For World Climate
              > > > >
              > > > > Events of that kind have enormous implications for global
              > climate
              > > > > change because methane is a potent greenhouse gas. A large
              > enough
              > > > > release of methane, as in the Storegga Slide, could bring on
              or
              > > > > accelerate a cycle of global warming.
              > > > >
              > > > > Warming cycles might already have been underway when such
              > slides
              > > > > occurred, triggered by some as-yet-unknown mechanism that
              > warmed
              > > > the
              > > > > oceans enough to destabilize gas hydrates, which dissolve
              when
              > > > > temperatures rise or pressures decrease.
              > > > >
              > > > > While release of methane from beneath the ocean floor could
              > lead
              > > to
              > > > a
              > > > > vicious cycle of warming, Paull and other scientists caution
              > > there
              > > > is
              > > > > more at play. Rising sea levels would actually increase
              > pressures
              > > > on
              > > > > those hydrate deposits, locking them in and perhaps leading
              to
              > a
              > > > > reverse cooling cycle.
              > > > >
              > > > > Whatever role they have played in the cycles of global
              climate
              > > > > change -- as well as chemical changes in the oceans -- it is
              > > clear
              > > > > that research into these odd combustible undersea ice
              > formations
              > > is
              > > > > essential to understanding planet Earth.
              > > > >
              > > > > In time, such research could lead to a way to predict or at
              > least
              > > > > calculate the risk of events like the Storegga Slide.
              > > > >
              > > > > ``If we understand what happened in the past, then we're in a
              > > > better
              > > > > position to anticipate the future,'' said Farrell.
              > > > >
              > > > > ``What we first have to do is make sure we know where these
              gas
              > > > > hydrate layers are,'' through research like that being done
              by
              > > the
              > > > > ODP, a partnership with seven international consortia
              > > representing
              > > > > more than 20 countries. ``Then if we know about any factors
              > that
              > > > > affect the temperature and pressure .... we might ultimately
              > > reduce
              > > > > the uncertainty'' about where and when the continental
              margins
              > > > might
              > > > > collapse and trigger tsunami.
              > > > >
              > > > > The world's largest Earth science research project, the ODP
              is
              > > > > administered by the Joint Oceanographic Institutions funded
              in
              > > part
              > > > > by the National Science Foundation. It will target an area
              off
              > > > Oregon
              > > > > in its next gas hydrate expedition, in 2002. "
              > > > > .....
              > > > >
              > > > > What I think should be appreciated about Keeling Whorf and
              the
              > > > > Younger Dryas is that the Mississippi lost its glacial lake
              > > > sourcing,
              > > > > so the microbrial biosphere lost its source of "food" in the
              > GOM.
              > > > The
              > > > > water then flowed to the N. Pacific in a fairly inactive way,
              > > > > biologically speaking, to a part of the ocean with little
              > > > biological
              > > > > activity. Hence, the change that occurred initially to mark
              the
              > > > cold
              > > > > snap of the Younger Dryas wasn't so much about fresh water
              > > capping
              > > > as
              > > > > it was about a significant change to the intermediate ocean
              > > > > microbrial biosphere. A thousand years of cold conditions
              > > followed!
              > > > > Doing a similar thing to the Gulf of California is making for
              > dry
              > > > > conditions in Los Angeles, as much of the rain is either
              > > monsoonal
              > > > or
              > > > > from winter snow fall to the mountains that would be impacted
              > by
              > > > the
              > > > > monsoonal flow.
              > > > >
              > > > > It is true LA does not rely on local runoff for their water.
              It
              > > > > relies on aqueducts from the Colorado, the Owens Valley and
              > > > Northern
              > > > > California. Low local rainfall does not really affect the
              human
              > > > > population there. A huge proportion of the water, well over
              > 90%
              > > > goes
              > > > > to agriculture. Residential water was a very small, albeit
              > media
              > > > > huge, amount. Also, the California coast from above San
              > Francisco
              > > > > south, gets almost all of its rainfall in the winter months.
              > But
              > > a
              > > > > regional drought will impact local hydrates directly and
              > > > indirectly.
              > > > >
              > > > > Indeed, the history of water diversions from just north of
              L.A.
              > > > make
              > > > > some interesting history. Mountains with snow caps run water
              to
              > > the
              > > > > cities, and from where I am near Lake Shasta in N.
              California,
              > we
              > > > are
              > > > > sending water all the way to San Diego this year.
              > > > >
              > > > > Yet, indeed it was dry in N. California last year and in
              > > particular
              > > > > on the Oregon-California border with the Klamath River. These
              > dry
              > > > > conditions are related to the conditions of the N. Pacific in
              > > > > general, IMHO. That said, the dry conditions here in the last
              > few
              > > > > years take second place to when regional rivers went through
              a
              > > time
              > > > > of heavy dams construction and reconstruction. This time with
              a
              > > > > little Keeling Whorf cycling and Shasta Lake, for instance,
              > which
              > > > is
              > > > > about 5 miles from me, was like half empty. And the Shasta
              dam
              > > > > itself, when constructed, caused a relatively drier climate
              in
              > > the
              > > > > region, IMHO. Why? Because the deforestation combined with
              the
              > > > river
              > > > > delays of flow, sedimentation and detritus into the summer
              > months
              > > > > reduced the intensity of the winter spring precipitation. If
              > the
              > > > > sedimentation, detritus and flow occur when the earth is
              angled
              > > > away
              > > > > from the sun in the winter and spring, the electrical
              > interaction
              > > > > with the atmosphere from the sun doesn't upset the electrical
              > > > > enhancement created by biologically created electrical
              > insolation
              > > > in
              > > > > the context of ocean current derived electrical fields that
              > > enhance
              > > > > cirrus.
              > > > >
              > > > > Interestingly, just after the Bay Series quake, there was a
              law
              > > > > passed called CALFED to balance the competing use interests
              on
              > > the
              > > > > Sacramento. One of those interests were waterfowl in the Bay
              > > > Estuary.
              > > > > So there always was a managed flow, from then, to the Bay.
              > > Perhaps
              > > > > low but always steady, always enough. Since then there has
              not
              > > been
              > > > > significant siesmic activity or drought!
              > > > >
              > > > > What I am saying about the Colorado and Lake Mead is that in
              > the
              > > > past
              > > > > they always let something go over in the spring but they
              > stopped
              > > it
              > > > > last year and the Mexicans haven't exactly been great about
              > > letting
              > > > > some water flow to the ocean--and now they are paying for
              this
              > > > policy
              > > > > with drought. It is incredibly stupid.
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