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Carbon Isotopic Evidence for MH Instab .

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  • Pawnfart
    From SCIENCE: Carbon Isotopic Evidence for Methane Hydrate Instability During Quaternary Interstadials James P. Kennett, 1* Kevin G.
    Message 1 of 702 , Feb 13, 2001
      From SCIENCE: <br><br>Carbon Isotopic Evidence
      for Methane Hydrate Instability During Quaternary
      Interstadials <br><br>James P. Kennett, 1* Kevin G. Cannariato,
      1 Ingrid L. Hendy, 1 Richard J. Behl 2
      <br><br>"Large (about 5 per mil) millennial-scale benthic
      foraminiferal carbon isotopic oscillations in the Santa Barbara
      Basin during the last 60,000 years reflect widespread
      shoaling of sedimentary methane gradients and increased
      outgassing from gas hydrate dissociation during
      interstadials. Furthermore, several large, brief, negative
      excursions (up to -6 per mil) coinciding with smaller shifts
      (up to -3 per mil) in depth-stratified planktonic
      foraminiferal species indicate massive releases of methane from
      basin sediments. Gas hydrate stability was modulated by
      intermediate-water temperature changes induced by switches in
      thermohaline circulation. These oscillations were likely
      widespread along the California margin and elsewhere,
      affecting gas hydrate instability and contributing to
      millennial-scale atmospheric methane oscillations. <br><br>1
      Geological Sciences and Marine Science Institute, University
      of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. 2
      Department of Geological Sciences, California State
      University, Long Beach, CA 90840, USA. * To whom
      correspondence should be addressed. E-mail:
      kennett@... "<br><br>Comment: <br><br>For those of you with a
      Science subscription:
      <a href=http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/288/5463/128 target=new>http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/288/5463/128</a> <br><br><br>Note that the mechanism incorrectly
      described above is NOT outgassing from ocean but outgassing
      to ocean, where cascade of biology breaks down
      methane to ions, including calcium using microbes. If
      methane goes straight to air, you have huge volumes that
      probably lead to local extinction, such as what happened
      55 million years ago in the Atlantic. <br><br>Energy
      exchange in a sort of coupled model is then due to the
      variance between insolated methane hydrates, and phase
      change energies consumed on unforming, dilution changes
      and methane concentration and hence formation
      downflow, and most importantly, charge changes in the
      waters of one region to another. These changes in charge
      interplay with ions in the air, and CO2 in aerosol is
      carbonic acid . . . turning the electrical energy into
      kinetic energy. Imagine large low and high pressure
      areas, with corresponding upper air highs and lows, all
      interplaying in and additional electrical field dynamic. This
      is a biological process that has occurred according
      to Gaia theory for billions of years, modulating
      climate from external stimulas.
    • b1blancer_29501
      On Feb 28th, the Interplanetary Magnetic Field swung to a strong south-pointing orientation. That, coupled with an elevated solar wind speed and density,
      Message 702 of 702 , Mar 1, 2002
        On Feb 28th, the Interplanetary Magnetic Field
        swung to a strong south-pointing orientation. That,
        coupled with an elevated solar wind speed and density,
        triggered a G-1 class geomagnetic storm. The result was
        some high latitude aurora. See this link for a
        photgraph of aurora observed over Quebec :
        <a href=http://www.spaceweather.com/aurora/images/01mar02/Moussette2.jpg target=new>http://www.spaceweather.com/aurora/images/01mar02/Moussette2.jpg</a> . As of right now, there are 3 sunspot regions,
        namely 9839, 9842, and 9845, that appear to be capable
        of producing M-class flares. Regions 9839 and 9842
        are close to rotating out of view over the western
        limb of the solar disk. Sunspot region 9845, however,
        is close to the sun's central meridian. A rather
        large coronal hole is also approaching the sun's
        central meridian, and coming into an Earth-pointing
        position. High speed colar wind gusts are likely around the
        first of next week.<br><br>The current solar and
        geomagnetic conditions are :<br><br>NOAA sunspot number :
        153<br>SFI : 188<br>A index : 10<br>K index : 1<br><br>Solar
        wind speed : 372.3 km/sec<br>Solar wind density : 4.4
        protons/cc<br>Solar wind pressure : 1.1 nPa<br><br>IMF : 8.4
        nT<br>IMF Orientation : 0.7 nT North<br><br>Conditions for
        the last 24 hours : <br>Solar activity was low. The
        geomagnetic field was quiet to unsettled. Stratwarm Alert
        exists Friday.<br><br>Forecast for the next 24 hours
        :<br>Solar activity will be low to moderate. The geomagnetic
        field will be quiet to unsettled.<br><br>Solar Activity
        Forecast :<br>Solar activity is expected to be low to
        moderate for the next three days. Region 9845 is a
        possible source for isolated M-class
        flares.<br><br>Geomagnetic activity forecast :<br>Geomagnetic field activity
        is expected to be mainly quiet to unsettled, until
        the onset of high speed stream effects from a
        recurrent coronal hole begin to develop by day three of the
        forecast period. Isolated active conditions are
        anticipated thereafter.<br><br>Recent significant solar flare
        activity :<br>None
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