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Underground Water part 2 of 2

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  • kirkmcloren
    To determine if enough silicate had eroded to spark the climate change, Basu and his colleagues analyzed both ground water and river water samples from
    Message 1 of 702 , Sep 10, 2001
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      To determine if enough silicate had eroded<br>to
      spark the climate change, Basu and his colleagues
      analyzed both ground water and<br>river water samples from
      the Bengal delta<br>where the Ganges and Brahmaputra
      rivers empty. They found the missing strontium and
      confirmed the culprit that nudged down the
      thermostat.<br><br> "Deep underground in the Bengal
      Basin,<br>strontium concentration levels in the ground water are
      approximately 10 times higher than in<br> the Ganges and
      Brahmaputra river waters,"<br>Basu explains.<br><br> Knowing
      the speed the water is moving<br>underground, Basu
      and his team calculated how much strontium could be
      leached out of the<br>Bengal Basin and into the Indian
      Ocean.<br>They calculated that about 1.4 times more strontium
      flows into the ocean through the<br>groundwater than
      through the rivers above-easily enough to account for the
      40 million-year rise.<br><br> This study has other
      impacts in understanding ocean chemistry.<br> "This means
      that we have to re-evaluate the<br>residence times,
      the time a particular element remains in the ocean
      water before settling out, of<br> various chemical
      elements and species," says Basu.<br><br> "Most current
      studies on the ocean's<br>chemistry are based on the
      supposition that the global rivers are the only carriers
      responsible for bringing in dissolved materials to
      the<br>oceans. Our study changes that perception
      permanently."<br><br> In addition, since the oceans are the<br>biggest
      factor driving global weather, doubling the influx of
      fresh water will demand that global<br>climate models
      must be restructured as well. Fresh water is lighter
      than salt water and so tends to float to the surface
      in the sea. This difference in density could move
      volumes of<br>warm and cold water in ways that scientists
      gauging only the water's temperature would
      not<br>normally predict.<br><br> Working with Basu on the project
      were Stein<br>Jacobsen of Harvard University, Robert
      Poreda and Carolyn Dowling of the University of
      Rochester, and Pradeep Agarwal of the International Atomic
      Energy Agency in Vienna, Austria. The research
      was<br>partially supported by grants from the National Science
      Foundation.
    • b1blancer_29501
      On Feb 28th, the Interplanetary Magnetic Field swung to a strong south-pointing orientation. That, coupled with an elevated solar wind speed and density,
      Message 702 of 702 , Mar 1, 2002
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        On Feb 28th, the Interplanetary Magnetic Field
        swung to a strong south-pointing orientation. That,
        coupled with an elevated solar wind speed and density,
        triggered a G-1 class geomagnetic storm. The result was
        some high latitude aurora. See this link for a
        photgraph of aurora observed over Quebec :
        <a href=http://www.spaceweather.com/aurora/images/01mar02/Moussette2.jpg target=new>http://www.spaceweather.com/aurora/images/01mar02/Moussette2.jpg</a> . As of right now, there are 3 sunspot regions,
        namely 9839, 9842, and 9845, that appear to be capable
        of producing M-class flares. Regions 9839 and 9842
        are close to rotating out of view over the western
        limb of the solar disk. Sunspot region 9845, however,
        is close to the sun's central meridian. A rather
        large coronal hole is also approaching the sun's
        central meridian, and coming into an Earth-pointing
        position. High speed colar wind gusts are likely around the
        first of next week.<br><br>The current solar and
        geomagnetic conditions are :<br><br>NOAA sunspot number :
        153<br>SFI : 188<br>A index : 10<br>K index : 1<br><br>Solar
        wind speed : 372.3 km/sec<br>Solar wind density : 4.4
        protons/cc<br>Solar wind pressure : 1.1 nPa<br><br>IMF : 8.4
        nT<br>IMF Orientation : 0.7 nT North<br><br>Conditions for
        the last 24 hours : <br>Solar activity was low. The
        geomagnetic field was quiet to unsettled. Stratwarm Alert
        exists Friday.<br><br>Forecast for the next 24 hours
        :<br>Solar activity will be low to moderate. The geomagnetic
        field will be quiet to unsettled.<br><br>Solar Activity
        Forecast :<br>Solar activity is expected to be low to
        moderate for the next three days. Region 9845 is a
        possible source for isolated M-class
        flares.<br><br>Geomagnetic activity forecast :<br>Geomagnetic field activity
        is expected to be mainly quiet to unsettled, until
        the onset of high speed stream effects from a
        recurrent coronal hole begin to develop by day three of the
        forecast period. Isolated active conditions are
        anticipated thereafter.<br><br>Recent significant solar flare
        activity :<br>None
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