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Underground water part 1

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  • kirkmcloren
    Secret to Earth s Big Chill Found in Underground Water
    Message 1 of 702 , Sep 10, 2001
      Secret to Earth's 'Big Chill' Found
      Water<br><a href=http://www.spacedaily.com/news/iceage-01d.html target=new>http://www.spacedaily.com/news/iceage-01d.html</a><br>Secret to Earth's 'Big Chill' Found in<br>Underground
      Water<br>Rochester - Sept 6, 2001<br>Scientists studying the oceans
      depend on data from rivers to estimate how much fresh
      water<br>and natural elements the continents are dumping into
      the oceans. But a new study in the Aug. 24 issue of
      Science finds that water quietly trickling along
      underground may double the amount of debris making its way
      into the seas. This study<br> changes the equation for
      everything from global climate to understanding the ocean's
      basic chemistry.<br><br> Since the late 1990s, Asish
      Basu, professor<br>of earth and environmental sciences
      at the University of Rochester, has been sampling
      water and sediments from two of the world's largest
      rivers, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra of the<br>Indian
      subcontinent, to understand a period in Earth's history called
      the Great Cool-Down.<br><br> Forty million years ago,
      the global climate<br>changed from the steamy world
      of the dinosaurs to the cooler world of today,
      largely because the amount of carbon dioxide, a
      greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, dropped significantly.
      Scientists have<br>speculated that the cause of this cooling
      and the decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide was
      the<br>result of the rise of the Himalayan mountains as the
      Indian and Asian continental plates pushed into one
      another.<br><br> They believe the erosion of the new mountains
      increased the rate of removal of carbon dioxide from the
      atmosphere since the process of weathering silicate rocks
      such as those in the Himalayas absorbs carbon dioxide.
      This erosion may have depleted the atmosphere of a
      potent greenhouse gas and triggered the Great
      Cool-Down.<br><br> Coinciding with the cooling period
      and<br>Himalayan uplift 40 million years ago was a consistent
      change in the ratio of two isotopes of the element
      strontium in the oceans' water -- a<br>change that
      continues to this day.<br><br> Since strontium often comes
      from eroding<br>silicates, it seemed obvious to
      scientists that the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers were
      simply eroding the Himalayas into the ocean, but when
      they measured the amount of strontium in
      those<br>rivers, they found it was far too low to account for the
      mysterious ratio change in the oceans,<br>and thus too low
      to account for triggering the cool-down.
    • b1blancer_29501
      On Feb 28th, the Interplanetary Magnetic Field swung to a strong south-pointing orientation. That, coupled with an elevated solar wind speed and density,
      Message 702 of 702 , Mar 1, 2002
        On Feb 28th, the Interplanetary Magnetic Field
        swung to a strong south-pointing orientation. That,
        coupled with an elevated solar wind speed and density,
        triggered a G-1 class geomagnetic storm. The result was
        some high latitude aurora. See this link for a
        photgraph of aurora observed over Quebec :
        <a href=http://www.spaceweather.com/aurora/images/01mar02/Moussette2.jpg target=new>http://www.spaceweather.com/aurora/images/01mar02/Moussette2.jpg</a> . As of right now, there are 3 sunspot regions,
        namely 9839, 9842, and 9845, that appear to be capable
        of producing M-class flares. Regions 9839 and 9842
        are close to rotating out of view over the western
        limb of the solar disk. Sunspot region 9845, however,
        is close to the sun's central meridian. A rather
        large coronal hole is also approaching the sun's
        central meridian, and coming into an Earth-pointing
        position. High speed colar wind gusts are likely around the
        first of next week.<br><br>The current solar and
        geomagnetic conditions are :<br><br>NOAA sunspot number :
        153<br>SFI : 188<br>A index : 10<br>K index : 1<br><br>Solar
        wind speed : 372.3 km/sec<br>Solar wind density : 4.4
        protons/cc<br>Solar wind pressure : 1.1 nPa<br><br>IMF : 8.4
        nT<br>IMF Orientation : 0.7 nT North<br><br>Conditions for
        the last 24 hours : <br>Solar activity was low. The
        geomagnetic field was quiet to unsettled. Stratwarm Alert
        exists Friday.<br><br>Forecast for the next 24 hours
        :<br>Solar activity will be low to moderate. The geomagnetic
        field will be quiet to unsettled.<br><br>Solar Activity
        Forecast :<br>Solar activity is expected to be low to
        moderate for the next three days. Region 9845 is a
        possible source for isolated M-class
        flares.<br><br>Geomagnetic activity forecast :<br>Geomagnetic field activity
        is expected to be mainly quiet to unsettled, until
        the onset of high speed stream effects from a
        recurrent coronal hole begin to develop by day three of the
        forecast period. Isolated active conditions are
        anticipated thereafter.<br><br>Recent significant solar flare
        activity :<br>None
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