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Silent Spring, Screaming Fall

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  • Mike Doran
    http://www.weather.unisys.com/hurricane/atlantic/2006/ERNESTO/track.gi f 17 21.30 -76.90 08/28/21Z 35 1007 TROPICAL STORM 17A 21.40 -77.40 08/29/00Z
    Message 1 of 1 , Sep 2, 2006
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      http://www.weather.unisys.com/hurricane/atlantic/2006/ERNESTO/track.gi
      f

      17 21.30 -76.90 08/28/21Z 35 1007 TROPICAL STORM

      17A 21.40 -77.40 08/29/00Z 35 1007 TROPICAL STORM

      18 21.70 -77.80 08/29/03Z 35 1007 TROPICAL STORM

      18A 22.20 -78.30 08/29/06Z 35 1007 TROPICAL STORM

      19 22.60 -78.90 08/29/09Z 40 1005 TROPICAL STORM

      19A 22.80 -79.30 08/29/12Z 40 1007 TROPICAL STORM

      20 23.30 -79.50 08/29/15Z 40 1005 TROPICAL STORM

      20A 23.90 -79.70 08/29/18Z 55 1008 TROPICAL STORM

      21 24.30 -80.20 08/29/21Z 40 1005 TROPICAL STORM

      21A 24.80 -80.40 08/30/00Z 40 1004 TROPICAL STORM

      22 24.90 -80.50 08/30/03Z 40 1004 TROPICAL STORM

      22A 25.20 -80.70 08/30/06Z 40 1003 TROPICAL STORM

      23 25.60 -80.90 08/30/09Z 40 1001 TROPICAL STORM

      23A 26.00 -81.00 08/30/12Z 35 1001 TROPICAL STORM

      24 26.40 -80.90 08/30/15Z 30 1003 TROPICAL DEPRESSION

      24A 26.90 -80.90 08/30/18Z 30 1003 TROPICAL DEPRESSION

      25 27.60 -80.80 08/30/21Z 30 1001 TROPICAL DEPRESSION

      25A 28.20 -80.70 08/31/00Z 30 1000 TROPICAL DEPRESSION

      26 28.70 -80.60 08/31/03Z 30 1000 TROPICAL DEPRESSION

      26A 29.40 -80.40 08/31/06Z 35 1000 TROPICAL STORM

      27 30.00 -80.20 08/31/09Z 45 998 TROPICAL STORM

      27A 30.40 -79.90 08/31/12Z 45 996 TROPICAL STORM

      28 31.30 -79.60 08/31/15Z 50 994 TROPICAL STORM

      28A 31.90 -79.10 08/31/18Z 60 - TROPICAL STORM

      29 32.60 -78.70 08/31/21Z 60 991 TROPICAL STORM

      Okay so I may be one sick individual if on a Saturday morning all I
      can think about is why a storm like Ernesto did not weaken over the
      swamps of Florida, and if anything strengthened a little. So I was
      thinking about how salt water is conductive of course and then you
      all know I talk about decarbonation and how when a surface low runs
      over any kind of carbonated water the bubbles rise to the surface and
      the carbonation runs back to ion form and in fact with a fresh water
      swamp you may even have MORE of an ion count impact on conductivity
      relative to what happens when a surface low passes over the ocean.

      Anyway, that started me on another tangant (ain't the 'net fun to
      look useless information up?). It reminded me of another set of
      storms over fresh water--the Great Lake storms. The first one that
      comes to mind is the one with hurricane force winds:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Lakes_Storm_of_1913

      This storm occurred in 1913. So what I began to wonder is if I could
      associated what happened to those Great Lakes just prior to the storm
      with activity that would lead to unusual carbonation levels. This is
      what I found:

      http://www.greatlakesdirectory.org/in/052403_great_lakes.htm

      Stocked smelt first in 1912.

      Now stocking smelt in lakes doesn't sound like much, but it could be
      huge in terms of changing the bio load of the Great Lakes. But there
      is much more.

      http://wvlc.uwaterloo.ca/biology447/modules/module1/GREATLAKESTIMELINE
      .htm

      1909

      The United States and Great Britain, on behalf of Canada, sign the
      Boundary Waters Treaty a historic agreement on the sharing of common
      waters, aimed at eliminating disputes. The agreement contains a
      prescient clause: "Boundary waters and waters flowing across the
      boundary shall not be polluted on either side to the injury of health
      or property on the other.

      The agreement creates a six-member International Joint Commission,
      with three members each appointed by the US president and Canada's
      prime minister. The first commission is named in 1911, and starts
      meetings early in 1912. It is asked by the two countries to identify
      the extent and sources of pollution of the Detroit and Niagara Rivers.

      The first report on Great Lakes water quality is issued by the
      International Joint Commission on the Pollution of Boundary Waters
      Reference. The report states that the ". . .situation along the
      frontier is generally chaotic, everywhere perilous and in some cases,
      disgraceful."

      So obviously pollution was starting to be a big concern.

      http://www.sustreport.org/lakes/lakes_timeline.htm#industrial

      http://www.esf.edu/efb/schulz/Limnology/Eutrophication.html

      1912 – Monona and Mendota eutrophied; to kill algae added CuSO4
      1908

      Since the late 1800s, chlorination is proposed then tested as a way
      of disinfecting drinking water. By now it is being used in a number
      of drinking water treatment plants in the United States. By 1910,
      Toronto starts to chlorinate its drinking water. This period marks
      the widespread use of drinking water chlorination, a process that is
      to save untold numbers from disease and death.

      This one is a more interesting one indirectly. As the hydrology
      policies start to deal with chlorination and other forms of algae
      control, as that control chemically weakens, it leaves more nutrients
      for another time or another place. Things are not always what they
      seem in bio chem.

      1900

      The Great Lakes population reaches 11.5 million.

      The Chicago Diversion is enlarged and renamed the Chicago Sanitary
      and Ship Canal. The canal is deepened to the point that it reverses
      flow of the Chicago River from Lake Michigan and water pours out of
      the lake to reach the Des Plaines, Illinois and Mississippi rivers
      and eventually the Gulf of Mexico. It allows more ship traffic, and
      it flushes Chicago's sewage down the river and away from Lake
      Michigan, its source of drinking water. This leads to a long-running
      dispute over how much water should flow through the canal.

      The pollution of our waterways became a national issue in June of
      1969, the day that the Cuyahoga River, flowing through Cleveland,
      Ohio, on its way to Lake Erie, caught on fire because it was so
      polluted. Although this was not the first time that the Cuyahoga
      River had been in flames, the 1969 fire caught the attention of the
      nation and the fight began for increased water pollution controls,
      which eventually led to the Great Lakes Water Quality Act and Clean
      Water Act in the 1970s.

      Massive populations polluting and water diversions. The same old
      story we are seeing in many rivers around the world. Clearly these
      changes have impacted tropical storm, so it is no small step to
      consider the impact on November gales in the Great Lakes regions.

      http://www.great-lakes.net/teach/pollution/water/water1.html

      http://www.great-
      lakes.net/teach/pollution/water/graphics/cuyahoga_lg.jpg

      http://www.themediadrome.com/content/articles/history_articles/curse_o
      f_the_lakes.htm

      More recently, the Carl D. Bradley, a steel freighter, sank in Lake
      Michigan during a deadly storm on November 18, 1958. The Bradley ran
      into 60 mph winds barely giving the crew enough time to radio for
      help. In Charlevoix, Michigan, a radio operator on duty that day
      remembered their call: "Mayday! Mayday! Mayday!…We are in serious
      trouble!…The ship is breaking up!"

      The Edmund Fitzgerald was the largest freighter ever lost on the
      Great Lakes. She went down on November 10, 1975, seventeen miles
      northwest of Whitefish Point, taking all twenty-nine men with her.
      Bound for Detroit, The Fitzgerald left Superior, Wisconsin on the
      afternoon of November 9th, carrying 26,000 tons of iron ore.
      Following about fifteen miles behind the Fitzgerald was the Arthur M.
      Anderson. At 7:00 p.m., a gale warning was issued for the lake and as
      the hours passed, the weather worsened dramatically. The Soo Locks
      shut down reporting winds of almost 100 mph. In radio contact, the
      Fitzgerald and the Anderson decided to head for the safety of
      Whitefish Point. At 3:10 p.m. on the afternoon of November 10th,
      Captain McSorley of the Fitz radioed Captain Cooper. "Anderson, this
      is the Fitzgerald. I have a fence rail down, two vents lost or
      damaged, and a list…Will you stay by me 'til I get to Whitefish
      Point?"

      Storms of 1958 and then 1975 follow a period of industrial pollution
      which included conditions so bad that inlet rivers started on fire.
      There is no way to now measure what the carbonation levels of these
      lakes were following such "Silent Springs", but we do have indirect
      measures.
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