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  • Mike Doran
    In 1902 Arthur E. Kennelly Professor of Electrical Engineering at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and physicist Oliver Heaviside at the Great
    Message 1 of 1 , Apr 25, 2005
      In 1902 Arthur E. Kennelly Professor of Electrical Engineering at
      Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and physicist Oliver
      Heaviside at the Great Northern Telegraphy Company in England,
      independently discovered the ionosphere and explained how radio
      transmissions worked over curved space. The radio wave struck the
      upper atmosphere, much like a whip cracks back a wave, and then
      transmitted a signal beyond line of sight, hundreds, even thousands
      of miles away. It worked because that part of the atmosphere was
      conductive, where high energy, high frequency solar light struck
      mostly O2 and converted it to an conductive ion. The air there was
      thin enough to not be insulative. This is science born about the time
      of my grandfather, who was born in 1904.

      Today, most of us are aware of this science just because we have
      become curious why AM stations from across the country come in at
      night, but not during the day. We have learned that the ionosphere
      heats up during the day and is unable to transmit a signal from
      distances as well. Well, perhaps that was the science of my father--
      as he was of the era of the radio.

      One of the most studied aspects of a tropical storm is how they
      behave from day to night, almost as much as they are studied by
      behavior from season to season. As you all know by now, I consider
      the main organizing feature of tropical storms to be electrical. That
      cloud microphysics behaviors in tropical storms follow the China
      paper, linked above. So, it should come as no surprise to some of you
      that I consider the day to night changes in the ionosphere, one half
      the coupling partner in the static field that organizes tropical
      storms, to be an extremely significant factor in cyclo-genesis. But
      there is more. Consider that during the winter the polar regions
      receive less direct radiation, and the ionosphere is considerably
      more stable. So with that backdrop, consider the following paper:


      Public Release: 30-Nov-2004
      Geophysical Research Letters
      AGU journal highlights - 30 November 2004
      Articles in this edition include:

      Diurnal changes in ocean's carbon cycle;

      Contact: Harvey Leifert
      American Geophysical Union

      Diurnal changes in ocean's carbon cycle

      Daytime heating and nighttime cooling affects the carbon cycle in the
      oceans such that the global oceans' uptake of carbon dioxide is
      likely more than twice as large during the evening than during the
      day. Olsen et al. analyzed the effects of diurnal variations of sea
      surface temperature and wind speed on the pressure of the oceans'
      carbon dioxide and on the sea-air carbon dioxide exchange. The
      authors combined satellite observations and existing data to examine
      the movement of carbon dioxide over a 24-hour period and found that
      although variations in sea surface temperature over the course of a
      day affect the air-sea carbon dioxide flux worldwide, the effects are
      largest in the southern latitudes, and wind speed effects are
      restricted to warmer tropical ocean zones. They then created new
      equations that would capture the magnitude of the variations and test
      whether sea surface temperature and wind speed had a significant
      effect on the ocean-carbon cycle.


      A number of studies have indicated that the thermohaline was closed
      down and the heat engine of the earth stopped pumping. THIS TURNS OUT
      TO BE FALSE! One recent study is below. But what REALLY is going on
      you can test in your kitchen. Same test as before. Put salt and water
      in your coffee cup and test at a fixed temperature. Now add water at
      the same temperature. One easy way to match temperatures is to wait
      for room temperature for both mixtures. What happens to conductivity?
      Probably the most famous American writing on this theory is William
      Calvin out of University of Washington--Calvin is a brain
      evolutionist who thinks we as humans got such large brains dealing
      with climate flip flops. His flip flop, closed conveyor ideas were
      even published in the Atlantic Monthly a few years ago. Of course,
      you don't want to get me started on Calvin, as he missed the
      electrical aspect of cloud microphysics and then the whole nucleotide
      complex sorting--which would bring you squarely to how Schumann
      resonances are found in the sky . . . and in our brains. Brain
      evolutionist? What a blunder for him!:


      Public Release: 1-Dec-2004
      Geophysical Research Letters
      Sea-level clue to climate change
      A team of UIC scientists has discovered and dated a deeply buried
      core sample of peat from the Mississippi Delta that suggests a rise
      in sea level around the time of dramatic earth cooling 8,200 years
      ago. The finding is the first sea level measurement to directly
      correspond to the cooling, suggesting a catastrophic flood of
      freshwater, formed by retreating ice sheets, changed the density of
      North Atlantic water and altered the temperature-moderating Gulf
      Stream current.
      National Science Foundation, National Geographic Society, Geological
      Society of America, Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies

      Contact: Paul Francuch
      University of Illinois at Chicago

      Public release date: 1-Dec-2004
      [ Print Article | E-mail Article | Close Window ]

      Contact: Paul Francuch
      University of Illinois at Chicago

      Sea-level clue to climate change
      It sounds like the plot for a disaster film: rising temperatures melt
      polar ice, causing a flood of freshwater to rapidly enter the salty
      North Atlantic. As the fresh and salty water mixes, density changes,
      altering the Gulf Stream ocean currents that moderate the North
      Atlantic climate. In just a few years, average temperatures plummet,
      ushering in a deep freeze that lasts a century or more before fresh
      and salty water is back in balance, ocean currents adjust and
      temperatures return to normal.
      Science fiction? Not to a growing number of geologists and
      climatologists who've studied facts showing a precipitous 6-degree
      Centigrade drop in Greenland's average temperature some 8,200 years
      ago as the Earth was exiting the last ice age and polar ice sheets
      were melting in retreat. Many scientists believe a catastrophic flood
      of freshwater entering the North Atlantic clipped the flow of the
      Gulf Stream current. The suspected source of the floodwater was a
      glacial reservoir called Lake Agassiz. A popular theory suggests that
      Lake Agassiz's huge volume of freshwater -- more than twice that of
      today's Caspian Sea -- may have breached an ice dam or tunneled under
      Hudson Bay's ice sheets, then gushed into the North Atlantic, perhaps
      in a period lasting only months. Scientists call it the largest mega-
      flood of the last 100,000 years.

      Torbjörn Törnqvist, an assistant professor of earth and environmental
      sciences at the University of Illinois at Chicago, reports in the
      Dec. 11 online issue of Geophysical Research Letters about a new set
      of 8,200-year-old core samples that indicate an abrupt sea-level
      rise. The finding adds credence to the theory that a catastrophic
      freshwater flood into the North Atlantic triggered the great chill
      around that date.

      "Few would argue it's the most dramatic climate change in the last
      10,000 years," said Törnqvist. "We're now able to show the first sea-
      level record that corresponds to that event."

      The discovery came by coincidence. Törnqvist and his graduate
      students are conducting ongoing studies into sea-level changes along
      the Gulf of Mexico, using core samples of peat retrieved from the
      swamps and marshes in the Mississippi River delta in Louisiana.
      Samples gathered in 2003 from a saltwater marsh in an area known as
      Bayou Sale held the clue.

      As sea levels rise, peat deposits are formed. These deposits can be
      accurately radiocarbon dated. They also contain organic debris that
      can suggest whether water was salty or fresh at the time of
      deposition, based on plant salt tolerance. Analyzing his samples,
      Törnqvist discovered them to be around 8,200 years old and found
      evidence that a saltwater marsh was abruptly flooded and turned into
      a lagoon, indicating a sudden sea-level rise at the time.

      Törnqvist said that if comparable sea-level readings can be taken
      from other coastal areas on Earth, it could add evidence that a
      catastrophic freshwater flood into the North Atlantic 8,200 years ago
      did cause ocean current disruption and the consequent abrupt climate

      "We happened to sample along the Gulf of Mexico, but there's no
      reason you can't study this in, say, China or New Zealand as well,"
      said Törnqvist. "The oceans are all connected. If we can measure the
      amount of sea level rise that occurred 8,200 years ago, we will be
      able to convert that back into a measurable amount of freshwater.
      With our first data, we now know the amount of sea-level rise was
      probably less than 1.2 meters – which is less than several previously
      published estimates. In the future, we hope to come up with a more
      accurate number. Climatologists urgently need this type of
      information to run their climate models in order to understand the
      conditions that can produce such an abrupt climate change."

      The research was supported by grants from the National Science
      Foundation, the National Geographic Society, the Geological Society
      of America and the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies.
      Radiocarbon dating was done at the Robert J. Van de Graaff Laboratory
      at Utrecht University in the Netherlands.


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