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  • Mike Doran
    living earth: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/natural_hazards_v2.php 3?img_id=12782 ++++++++++++++++
    Message 1 of 1 , Mar 29, 2005
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      living earth:

      http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/natural_hazards_v2.php
      3?img_id=12782

      ++++++++++++++++

      http://www.weather.unisys.com/hurricane/s_indian/2005/index.html

      http://www.weather.unisys.com/hurricane/s_indian/2005/INGRID/track_s.g
      if

      Date: 12-15 MAR 2005
      Cyclone INGRID

      ADV LAT LON TIME WIND PR STAT
      14 -11.60 134.90 03/12/06Z 135 - CYCLONE-4
      15 -11.30 132.60 03/12/18Z 120 - CYCLONE-4
      16 -11.40 131.10 03/13/06Z 100 - CYCLONE-3
      17 -11.60 130.20 01/13/18Z 100 - CYCLONE-3
      18 -11.70 129.20 01/14/06Z 100 - CYCLONE-3
      19 -12.30 128.30 03/14/18Z 115 - CYCLONE-4
      20 -13.20 127.50 03/15/06Z 130 - CYCLONE-4
      21 -14.50 126.80 03/15/18Z 90 - CYCLONE-2


      http://www.weather.unisys.com/hurricane/s_indian/2005/WILLY/track_s.gi
      f

      Date: 09 MAR-14 MAR 2005
      Cyclone WILLY
      ADV LAT LON TIME WIND PR STAT
      1 -13.70 118.10 03/09/18Z 35 - TROPICAL STORM
      1A -13.70 118.10 03/09/18Z 35 - TROPICAL STORM
      2 -14.40 115.70 03/10/06Z 55 - TROPICAL STORM
      3 -15.40 114.50 03/10/18Z 65 - CYCLONE-1
      4 -16.50 112.60 03/11/06Z 90 - CYCLONE-2
      5 -17.40 112.10 03/11/12Z 90 - CYCLONE-2
      6 -17.80 111.70 03/11/18Z 90 - CYCLONE-2
      7 -18.60 111.20 03/12/00Z 90 - CYCLONE-2
      8 -19.80 110.20 03/12/06Z 80 - CYCLONE-1
      9 -20.40 109.80 03/12/12Z 75 - CYCLONE-1
      10 -21.10 109.00 03/13/00Z 75 - CYCLONE-1
      11 -21.50 108.00 03/13/12Z 55 - TROPICAL STORM
      12 -21.70 107.50 03/14/00Z 35 - TROPICAL STORM

      http://www.esdsystems.com/training/staticgeneration.htm

      "Electric Fields are generated from charge imbalances between two
      materials or within the same material. An electric field can exist
      in free space or between some materials. An electric field exerts a
      force on a unit charge causing it to move (if positive) in the
      direction of lower potential. This force is derived from the charge
      being acted upon, the distance the charge is from the field and the
      field strength. The electric field strength is proportional to the
      inverse square of the distance R between your test point and the
      charged surface.

      E= 1/(4P e o) *
      (QT/R2) Equation VII-1

      A field meter is used to measure electric fields. An electric field
      is the collective energy of a multitude of unbalanced surface atoms
      (QT), i.e., charged surface. An electric field is defined by the
      force a positive unit charge would undergo or force per unit charge.
      The units of an electric field are (Newtons/Coulombs) or
      (Volts/Meter).

      The electric field strength (|E|) is proportional to the inverse
      square of the distance (1/R2) from the charged surface. This is to
      say that the force an electric field (which is born from a charged
      surface) would have on a charge (unit test charge in the field) is
      proportional to the inverse square of the distance of the charge to
      the source of the electric field (charged surface)."

      Comment:

      Ocean is significantly more conductive than land. What that then
      means for capacitive coupling between ionosphere and surface is that
      over land it is much easier for charges separated in the clouds
      to 'short' to ground over land as compare to water, where charges
      separated from convection can simply orient and move and dissapate
      without shorting to the surface from the cloud. This then has a huge
      significance relative to secondary shorts between inosphere and cloud
      top, and convection or thunderstorms over land then are set up to
      power the most intense couplings between ocean and ionosphere that
      organize tropical storms. These organizing features--especially in
      the context of the inverse square law, help to appreciate some of the
      features of a dual set of storms like Willy and Ingred. These rules
      explain the timing, distance from land, and distance in relation to
      one another. (The China paper is the underlying cloud microphysics
      paper that lays foundation to how large scale electrical features
      force small scale cloud behaviors: http://www.ichmt.org/abstracts/Vim-
      01/abstracts/04-01.pdf).
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