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Carp virus and Gaia

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  • Mike Doran
    Japan Times: 3 Nov 2003 [edited] Herpes virus kills 860 tons of carp ... About 860 tons
    Message 1 of 1 , Nov 4, 2003
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      Japan Times: 3 Nov 2003 [edited]
      <http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?nn20031103a8.htm>


      Herpes virus kills 860 tons of carp
      -----------------------------------
      About 860 tons of cultured carp have died since October in 2 lakes
      in
      Ibaraki Prefecture from herpesvirus in the first such incident in
      Japan,
      the prefectural government said on Sunday.

      The carp began to die in early October 2003, and the number of
      deaths
      jumped in the middle of the month, according to prefectural
      officials. The
      virus has been detected in samples taken from the dead carp. The
      prefecture
      has not been able to locate the route of infection. The damage from
      the
      deaths of some 660 tons of carp in Lake Kasumigaura and another 200
      tons in
      Lake Kitaura is estimated at 150 million yen about USD 1 365 000],
      they said.

      The virus cannot be transmitted to humans, and consumption of
      infected carp
      would not have any ill effects, the officials said. The virus was
      first
      detected in 1997 in Israel and has been found in Belgium, Britain,
      Germany,
      Indonesia, the Netherlands, Taiwan, and the United States. In an
      attempt to
      prevent infections, Japan has imposed restrictions on carp imports
      [until?]
      14 Jul [2004?].

      [Koi herpesvirus has been associated with devastating losses of
      common carp
      (_Cyprinus carpio carpio_) and Koi (_Cyprinus carpio koi_) in North
      America, Europe, Israel, and Asia. Koi carp are an ornamental
      variety of
      carp propagated originally in ancient Rome and later for their
      aesthetic
      appeal in Japan. In rent times they have been spread worldwide by
      unregulated trade in ornamental fish. The herpesvirus isolated from
      Koi
      carp, and currently designated Koi herpesvirus, is distinct from
      another
      herpesvirus known as Cyprinid herpesvirus isolated from common carp.
      Both
      viruses cause disease and economic loss in both subspecies of carp.
      The 2
      herpesviruses are distinctive, however, in that Koi herpesvirus
      causes
      significant economic losses among all ages of both common carp and
      Koi
      carp, whereas cyprinid herpesvirus causes losses predominantly among
      fish
      less than 2 months old.

      Virus infections in poikilothermic vertebrates can be greatly
      influenced by
      environmental temperatures. O Gilad and colleagues (J Gen Virol
      2003;
      84(10): 2661-7
      <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?
      cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=13679599&dopt=Abstract>)
      observed that optimal growth of Koi herpesvirus in a Koi fin cell
      line
      occurred at temperatures from 15 to 25 degrees C. There was no
      growth or
      minimal growth at 4, 10, 30, or 37 degrees C. Experimental
      infections of
      Koi carp with Koi herpesvirus at a water temperature of 23 degrees C
      resulted in a cumulative mortality of 95 per cent. Disease
      progressed
      rapidly but with lower mortality (89 to 95 per cent) at 28 degrees
      C.
      Mortality (85 per cent) also occurred at 18 degrees C but not at 13
      degress
      C. Shifting virus-exposed fish from 13 to 23 degrees C resulted in
      rapid
      onset of mortality.

      Gilad et al compared virion polypeptides and genomic restriction
      fragments
      of 7 geographically diverse isolates of Koi herpesvirus and found
      that with
      one exception they represented a homogeneous group. They concluded
      that a
      single strain of Koi herpesvirus had been spread worldwide by the
      unregulated trade in ornamental fish. They suggest that disease
      control
      regulations should be implemented urgently in view of the importance
      of
      common carp as a major protein source in some parts of the world. -
      Mod.CP]

      [see also:
      Koi herpesvirus - worldwide: etiology 20030929.2450
      Fish die-off - Bangladesh: RFI 20030422.0983
      2002
      ---
      Aeromonas hydrophila?, fish - Indonesia (West Java) 20020719.4798
      Koi herpesvirus, carp - Indonesia: suspected, OIE 20020630.4639
      2001
      ---
      Fish die-off - Bangladesh 20010331.0648]
      Visit ProMED-mail's web site at <http://www.promedmail.org>.

      ++++++++++++++++

      Comment:

      Notice how the virus is temperature dependant--again an indication of
      Gaia context. Imagine chaotic input causing immune stress, than
      infection and spred, and a feed back particle accumulation of virus
      in the air, which impacts cirrus. Again, a complex symbiotic
      interaction between virus and fish to produce a living earth.
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