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Re: Thought you might find this interesting, Mike

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  • Mike Doran
    Great link. The algae will have a conductivity impact. Very cool. Thanks. ... plankton ... the ... inland, ... about ... the ... Journal ... plankton ...
    Message 1 of 2 , Apr 26, 2003
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      Great link. The algae will have a conductivity impact. Very cool.

      --- In methanehydrateclub@yahoogroups.com, "David" <b1blancer1@e...>
      > Rob Gutro
      > Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.
      > (Phone: 301/286-4044)
      > RELEASE: 03-146
      > Researchers found surprising evidence of sea salt and frozen
      > in high, cold, cirrus clouds, the remnants of Hurricane Nora, over
      > U.S. plains states. Although the 1997 hurricane was a strong eastern
      > Pacific storm, her high ice-crystal clouds extended many miles
      > carrying ocean phenomena deep into the U.S. heartland.
      > Kenneth Sassen of the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, and
      > University of Alaska Fairbanks; W. Patrick Arnott of the Desert
      > Research Institute (DRI) in Reno, Nev.; and David O. Starr of NASA's
      > Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., co-authored a paper
      > Hurricane Nora's far-reaching effects. The paper was published in
      > April 1, 2003, issue of the American Meteorological Society's
      > of Atmospheric Sciences.
      > Scientists were surprised to find what appeared to be frozen
      > in some cirrus crystals collected by research aircraft over
      > far from the Pacific Ocean. This was the first time examples of
      > microscopic marine life, like plankton, were seen as "nuclei" of ice
      > crystals in the cirrus clouds of a hurricane.
      > Nora formed off the Panama coast, strengthened as it traveled up the
      > Baja Peninsula, and the hurricane crossed into California in
      > 1997. Over the western U.S., Nora deposited a stream of high cirrus,
      > ice crystal, clouds that created spectacular optical effects, such
      > arcs and halos, above a broad region including Utah and Oklahoma.
      > stream of cirrus clouds enabled researchers to analyze growth of ice
      > crystals from different nuclei.
      > Different nuclei, like sulfate particles, sea salt and desert dust,
      > affect ice-crystal growth and shape. Torn from the sea surface by
      > strong hurricane winds, sea salt and other particles from evaporated
      > sea spray are carried to the cold upper troposphere in storm
      > where the drops freeze and become ice crystals. Plankton, a
      > microscopic organism, is also likely present in the sea spray and is
      > similarly lofted to high levels.
      > "Understanding how ice crystals grow and what determines their
      > is important in understanding how they interact with sunlight and
      > infrared energy," Starr noted. "These interactions are important
      > processes in the global climate system. They are also critical to
      > sensing cloud properties from space, where NASA uses measurements of
      > the reflected solar radiation to infer cloud physical properties,
      > as ice-crystal size," he said.
      > Data were gathered using ground-based remote sensors at the Facility
      > for Atmospheric Remote Sensing in Salt Lake City and at the Clouds
      > Radiation Testbed in northern Oklahoma. A research aircraft
      > particle samples over Oklahoma. Observations from the Geostationary
      > Operational Environmental Satellite 9 (West), launched by NASA and
      > operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,
      > also used. DRI analyzed the ice crystals collected from Nora.
      > Scientists were using data generated through the U.S. Department of
      > Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The
      > Program's purpose is obtaining field measurements and developing
      > computer models of the atmosphere. Researchers hope to better
      > understand the processes that control the transfer of solar and
      > thermal infrared energy in the atmosphere, especially in clouds,
      > at the Earth's surface.
      > The ARM energy measurements also double-check data from the Moderate
      > Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument aboard NASA's Terra and Aqua
      > satellites. By ensuring the satellites are recording the same energy
      > reflected and absorbed by clouds from Hurricane Nora as those
      > by the ground data in this study, scientists hope to take fewer
      > measurements in the future, and enable the satellites to provide
      the data.
      > The DOE ARM program, National Science Foundation, and NASA's Earth
      > Science Enterprise funded this research. The Earth Science
      > is dedicated to understanding the Earth as an integrated system and
      > applying Earth System Science to improve prediction of climate,
      > weather and natural hazards, such as hurricanes, using the unique
      > vantage point of space.
      > For more information and images on the Internet, visit:
      > http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/topstory/2003/0408plankton.html
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