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Thought you might find this interesting, Mike

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  • David
    Rob Gutro Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. (Phone: 301/286-4044) RELEASE: 03-146 HURRICANE WINDS CARRIED OCEAN SALT & PLANKTON FAR INLAND
    Message 1 of 2 , Apr 24 9:20 AM
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      Rob Gutro
      Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.
      (Phone: 301/286-4044)

      RELEASE: 03-146

      HURRICANE WINDS CARRIED OCEAN SALT & PLANKTON FAR INLAND

      Researchers found surprising evidence of sea salt and frozen plankton
      in high, cold, cirrus clouds, the remnants of Hurricane Nora, over the
      U.S. plains states. Although the 1997 hurricane was a strong eastern
      Pacific storm, her high ice-crystal clouds extended many miles inland,
      carrying ocean phenomena deep into the U.S. heartland.

      Kenneth Sassen of the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, and
      University of Alaska Fairbanks; W. Patrick Arnott of the Desert
      Research Institute (DRI) in Reno, Nev.; and David O. Starr of NASA's
      Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., co-authored a paper about
      Hurricane Nora's far-reaching effects. The paper was published in the
      April 1, 2003, issue of the American Meteorological Society's Journal
      of Atmospheric Sciences.

      Scientists were surprised to find what appeared to be frozen plankton
      in some cirrus crystals collected by research aircraft over Oklahoma,
      far from the Pacific Ocean. This was the first time examples of
      microscopic marine life, like plankton, were seen as "nuclei" of ice
      crystals in the cirrus clouds of a hurricane.

      Nora formed off the Panama coast, strengthened as it traveled up the
      Baja Peninsula, and the hurricane crossed into California in September
      1997. Over the western U.S., Nora deposited a stream of high cirrus,
      ice crystal, clouds that created spectacular optical effects, such as
      arcs and halos, above a broad region including Utah and Oklahoma. That
      stream of cirrus clouds enabled researchers to analyze growth of ice
      crystals from different nuclei.

      Different nuclei, like sulfate particles, sea salt and desert dust,
      affect ice-crystal growth and shape. Torn from the sea surface by
      strong hurricane winds, sea salt and other particles from evaporated
      sea spray are carried to the cold upper troposphere in storm updrafts,
      where the drops freeze and become ice crystals. Plankton, a
      microscopic organism, is also likely present in the sea spray and is
      similarly lofted to high levels.

      "Understanding how ice crystals grow and what determines their shapes
      is important in understanding how they interact with sunlight and
      infrared energy," Starr noted. "These interactions are important
      processes in the global climate system. They are also critical to
      sensing cloud properties from space, where NASA uses measurements of
      the reflected solar radiation to infer cloud physical properties, such
      as ice-crystal size," he said.

      Data were gathered using ground-based remote sensors at the Facility
      for Atmospheric Remote Sensing in Salt Lake City and at the Clouds and
      Radiation Testbed in northern Oklahoma. A research aircraft collected
      particle samples over Oklahoma. Observations from the Geostationary
      Operational Environmental Satellite 9 (West), launched by NASA and
      operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, were
      also used. DRI analyzed the ice crystals collected from Nora.

      Scientists were using data generated through the U.S. Department of
      Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The ARM
      Program's purpose is obtaining field measurements and developing
      computer models of the atmosphere. Researchers hope to better
      understand the processes that control the transfer of solar and
      thermal infrared energy in the atmosphere, especially in clouds, and
      at the Earth's surface.

      The ARM energy measurements also double-check data from the Moderate
      Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument aboard NASA's Terra and Aqua
      satellites. By ensuring the satellites are recording the same energy
      reflected and absorbed by clouds from Hurricane Nora as those provided
      by the ground data in this study, scientists hope to take fewer ground
      measurements in the future, and enable the satellites to provide the data.

      The DOE ARM program, National Science Foundation, and NASA's Earth
      Science Enterprise funded this research. The Earth Science Enterprise
      is dedicated to understanding the Earth as an integrated system and
      applying Earth System Science to improve prediction of climate,
      weather and natural hazards, such as hurricanes, using the unique
      vantage point of space.

      For more information and images on the Internet, visit:
      http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/topstory/2003/0408plankton.html
    • Mike Doran
      Great link. The algae will have a conductivity impact. Very cool. Thanks. ... plankton ... the ... inland, ... about ... the ... Journal ... plankton ...
      Message 2 of 2 , Apr 26 3:54 PM
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        Great link. The algae will have a conductivity impact. Very cool.
        Thanks.

        --- In methanehydrateclub@yahoogroups.com, "David" <b1blancer1@e...>
        wrote:
        > Rob Gutro
        > Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.
        > (Phone: 301/286-4044)
        >
        > RELEASE: 03-146
        >
        > HURRICANE WINDS CARRIED OCEAN SALT & PLANKTON FAR INLAND
        >
        > Researchers found surprising evidence of sea salt and frozen
        plankton
        > in high, cold, cirrus clouds, the remnants of Hurricane Nora, over
        the
        > U.S. plains states. Although the 1997 hurricane was a strong eastern
        > Pacific storm, her high ice-crystal clouds extended many miles
        inland,
        > carrying ocean phenomena deep into the U.S. heartland.
        >
        > Kenneth Sassen of the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, and
        > University of Alaska Fairbanks; W. Patrick Arnott of the Desert
        > Research Institute (DRI) in Reno, Nev.; and David O. Starr of NASA's
        > Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., co-authored a paper
        about
        > Hurricane Nora's far-reaching effects. The paper was published in
        the
        > April 1, 2003, issue of the American Meteorological Society's
        Journal
        > of Atmospheric Sciences.
        >
        > Scientists were surprised to find what appeared to be frozen
        plankton
        > in some cirrus crystals collected by research aircraft over
        Oklahoma,
        > far from the Pacific Ocean. This was the first time examples of
        > microscopic marine life, like plankton, were seen as "nuclei" of ice
        > crystals in the cirrus clouds of a hurricane.
        >
        > Nora formed off the Panama coast, strengthened as it traveled up the
        > Baja Peninsula, and the hurricane crossed into California in
        September
        > 1997. Over the western U.S., Nora deposited a stream of high cirrus,
        > ice crystal, clouds that created spectacular optical effects, such
        as
        > arcs and halos, above a broad region including Utah and Oklahoma.
        That
        > stream of cirrus clouds enabled researchers to analyze growth of ice
        > crystals from different nuclei.
        >
        > Different nuclei, like sulfate particles, sea salt and desert dust,
        > affect ice-crystal growth and shape. Torn from the sea surface by
        > strong hurricane winds, sea salt and other particles from evaporated
        > sea spray are carried to the cold upper troposphere in storm
        updrafts,
        > where the drops freeze and become ice crystals. Plankton, a
        > microscopic organism, is also likely present in the sea spray and is
        > similarly lofted to high levels.
        >
        > "Understanding how ice crystals grow and what determines their
        shapes
        > is important in understanding how they interact with sunlight and
        > infrared energy," Starr noted. "These interactions are important
        > processes in the global climate system. They are also critical to
        > sensing cloud properties from space, where NASA uses measurements of
        > the reflected solar radiation to infer cloud physical properties,
        such
        > as ice-crystal size," he said.
        >
        > Data were gathered using ground-based remote sensors at the Facility
        > for Atmospheric Remote Sensing in Salt Lake City and at the Clouds
        and
        > Radiation Testbed in northern Oklahoma. A research aircraft
        collected
        > particle samples over Oklahoma. Observations from the Geostationary
        > Operational Environmental Satellite 9 (West), launched by NASA and
        > operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,
        were
        > also used. DRI analyzed the ice crystals collected from Nora.
        >
        > Scientists were using data generated through the U.S. Department of
        > Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The
        ARM
        > Program's purpose is obtaining field measurements and developing
        > computer models of the atmosphere. Researchers hope to better
        > understand the processes that control the transfer of solar and
        > thermal infrared energy in the atmosphere, especially in clouds,
        and
        > at the Earth's surface.
        >
        > The ARM energy measurements also double-check data from the Moderate
        > Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument aboard NASA's Terra and Aqua
        > satellites. By ensuring the satellites are recording the same energy
        > reflected and absorbed by clouds from Hurricane Nora as those
        provided
        > by the ground data in this study, scientists hope to take fewer
        ground
        > measurements in the future, and enable the satellites to provide
        the data.
        >
        > The DOE ARM program, National Science Foundation, and NASA's Earth
        > Science Enterprise funded this research. The Earth Science
        Enterprise
        > is dedicated to understanding the Earth as an integrated system and
        > applying Earth System Science to improve prediction of climate,
        > weather and natural hazards, such as hurricanes, using the unique
        > vantage point of space.
        >
        > For more information and images on the Internet, visit:
        > http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/topstory/2003/0408plankton.html
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