Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.
 

Ocean surface water salinity has El Nino link

Expand Messages
  • David <b1blancer1@earthlink.net>
    OCEAN SURFACE SALTINESS INFLUENCES EL NINO FORECASTS NASA sponsored scientists have discovered by knowing the salt content of the ocean s surface, they may be
    Message 1 of 2 , Jan 29, 2003
      OCEAN SURFACE SALTINESS INFLUENCES EL NINO FORECASTS

      NASA sponsored scientists have discovered by knowing the salt content
      of the ocean's surface, they may be able to improve the ability to
      predict El Nino events. Scientists, studying the western Pacific
      Ocean, find regional changes in the saltiness of surface ocean water
      correspond to changes in upper ocean heat content in the months
      preceding an El Nino event. Knowing the distribution of surface
      salinity may help predict events.

      Salinity and temperature combine to dictate the ocean's density.
      Greater salinity, like colder temperatures, results in an increase in
      ocean density with a corresponding depression of the sea surface
      height. In warmer, fresher waters, the density is lower resulting in
      an elevation of the sea surface. These ocean height differences are
      related to the circulation of the ocean.

      The surface salinity in two regions contributes to El Nino events: an
      area of warmer temperatures and lower salinity in the western Pacific,
      and the higher salinity and cooler temperatures in the eastern
      Pacific. Differences in surface salinity are related to changes in
      temperature and upper ocean heat content, which are part of the El
      Nino phenomenon. They have the potential to influence the Earth's
      climate through air-sea interaction at the ocean's surface.

      The study, conducted for NASA by University of Maryland researchers
      Joaquim Ballabrera, Tony Busalacchi, and Ragu Murtugudde, is one of
      the first to look at ocean salinity in El Nino, Southern Oscillation
      (ENSO) predictions and their relationship to tropical sea surface
      temperatures, sea level, winds, and fresh water from rain. Results of
      the study are in the latest issue of the Journal of Geophysical
      Research - Oceans.

      Ballabrera and his colleagues looked at data, from 1980 to 1995, about
      sea surface temperatures, winds, rainfall, evaporation, sea surface
      height, and latent heat, the energy released when water vapor
      condenses into droplets.

      Using computer models, they performed a series of statistical
      predictions of the El Nino events for such a period. The results
      indicate short-term predictions only require monitoring sea surface
      temperatures, while predictions over a season require the observation
      of sea level. They concluded observations of salinity significantly
      improve predictions. When changes in salinity occur, they affect the
      El Nino event for the next six to 12 months. In this lag time,
      salinity changes have the potential to modify the layers of the ocean
      and affect the heat content of the western Pacific Ocean; the region
      where the unusual atmospheric and oceanic behavior associated to El
      Nino first develops. "As a result, when changes in ocean saltiness
      are
      considered, improvements are found in El Nino forecasts six to 12
      months in advance," Ballabrera said.

      "This research holds tremendous potential for the NASA Aquarius
      mission to monitor the surface salinity of the global ocean,"
      Busalacchi said. Aquarius is scheduled for launch during 2006-2007.
      Aquarius will provide the first global maps of salt concentration on
      the ocean surface. Salt concentration is a key area of scientific
      uncertainty in the oceans' capacity to store and transport heat, which
      in turn affects Earth's climate and water cycle.

      By using remote sensing data from satellites, scientists will be able
      to see changes in ocean salinity. Knowing the lag time factor,
      computer models simulating the movement of the atmosphere may be able
      to accurately predict El Nino episodes. This may lead to longer
      lead-time for predictions of ENSO events.

      Florida State University, the National Center for Environmental
      Prediction, National Center for Atmospheric Research and the Etudes
      Climatiques de l'Ocean Pacifique tropical program at Institut de
      Recherche pour le Developpement, Centre de Noumea contributed ocean
      and atmosphere data to this study.

      For more information and images, see:

      http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/topstory/2003/0114salt.html

      http://essic.umd.edu/~joaquim/salinity/
    • Mike Doran <mike@usinter.net>
      GREAT LINK, David!!!! Of course, salinity has ZERO thermal properties BUT would have both biological and EMF implications. ... content ... in ... an ...
      Message 2 of 2 , Jan 30, 2003
        GREAT LINK,

        David!!!!

        Of course, salinity has ZERO thermal properties BUT would have both
        biological and EMF implications.



        --- In methanehydrateclub@yahoogroups.com, "David <b1blancer1@e...>"
        <b1blancer1@e...> wrote:
        > OCEAN SURFACE SALTINESS INFLUENCES EL NINO FORECASTS
        >
        > NASA sponsored scientists have discovered by knowing the salt
        content
        > of the ocean's surface, they may be able to improve the ability to
        > predict El Nino events. Scientists, studying the western Pacific
        > Ocean, find regional changes in the saltiness of surface ocean water
        > correspond to changes in upper ocean heat content in the months
        > preceding an El Nino event. Knowing the distribution of surface
        > salinity may help predict events.
        >
        > Salinity and temperature combine to dictate the ocean's density.
        > Greater salinity, like colder temperatures, results in an increase
        in
        > ocean density with a corresponding depression of the sea surface
        > height. In warmer, fresher waters, the density is lower resulting in
        > an elevation of the sea surface. These ocean height differences are
        > related to the circulation of the ocean.
        >
        > The surface salinity in two regions contributes to El Nino events:
        an
        > area of warmer temperatures and lower salinity in the western
        Pacific,
        > and the higher salinity and cooler temperatures in the eastern
        > Pacific. Differences in surface salinity are related to changes in
        > temperature and upper ocean heat content, which are part of the El
        > Nino phenomenon. They have the potential to influence the Earth's
        > climate through air-sea interaction at the ocean's surface.
        >
        > The study, conducted for NASA by University of Maryland researchers
        > Joaquim Ballabrera, Tony Busalacchi, and Ragu Murtugudde, is one of
        > the first to look at ocean salinity in El Nino, Southern Oscillation
        > (ENSO) predictions and their relationship to tropical sea surface
        > temperatures, sea level, winds, and fresh water from rain. Results
        of
        > the study are in the latest issue of the Journal of Geophysical
        > Research - Oceans.
        >
        > Ballabrera and his colleagues looked at data, from 1980 to 1995,
        about
        > sea surface temperatures, winds, rainfall, evaporation, sea surface
        > height, and latent heat, the energy released when water vapor
        > condenses into droplets.
        >
        > Using computer models, they performed a series of statistical
        > predictions of the El Nino events for such a period. The results
        > indicate short-term predictions only require monitoring sea surface
        > temperatures, while predictions over a season require the
        observation
        > of sea level. They concluded observations of salinity significantly
        > improve predictions. When changes in salinity occur, they affect the
        > El Nino event for the next six to 12 months. In this lag time,
        > salinity changes have the potential to modify the layers of the
        ocean
        > and affect the heat content of the western Pacific Ocean; the region
        > where the unusual atmospheric and oceanic behavior associated to El
        > Nino first develops. "As a result, when changes in ocean saltiness
        > are
        > considered, improvements are found in El Nino forecasts six to 12
        > months in advance," Ballabrera said.
        >
        > "This research holds tremendous potential for the NASA Aquarius
        > mission to monitor the surface salinity of the global ocean,"
        > Busalacchi said. Aquarius is scheduled for launch during 2006-2007.
        > Aquarius will provide the first global maps of salt concentration on
        > the ocean surface. Salt concentration is a key area of scientific
        > uncertainty in the oceans' capacity to store and transport heat,
        which
        > in turn affects Earth's climate and water cycle.
        >
        > By using remote sensing data from satellites, scientists will be
        able
        > to see changes in ocean salinity. Knowing the lag time factor,
        > computer models simulating the movement of the atmosphere may be
        able
        > to accurately predict El Nino episodes. This may lead to longer
        > lead-time for predictions of ENSO events.
        >
        > Florida State University, the National Center for Environmental
        > Prediction, National Center for Atmospheric Research and the Etudes
        > Climatiques de l'Ocean Pacifique tropical program at Institut de
        > Recherche pour le Developpement, Centre de Noumea contributed ocean
        > and atmosphere data to this study.
        >
        > For more information and images, see:
        >
        > http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/topstory/2003/0114salt.html
        >
        > http://essic.umd.edu/~joaquim/salinity/
      Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.