Here is Ch 2 where Patten and Windsor describe some problems with modern
cosmology. After he shows how current theory is inadequate (termed redlined)
he then shows later what could explain all the anomolies. I find it quite
An Inspection of The Nebular Hypothesis Cosmology
The object of science is not only to apply the different substances in
nature to the advantage, benefit, and comfort of man, but likewise to set
forth that wonderful and magnificent history of wisdom and intelligence
which is written in legible characters both in the heavens and on the earth
- Sir Humphrey Davy
This chapter is about demolition, which is actually an early phase of new
construction. Under examination is the variety of the assumptions, notions
and conclusions built into the popular Nebular Hypothesis cosmology. The
Alfven variation, one of the most recent, is the variation under examination
unless otherwise stated. Will the widely accepted Nebular Hypothesis, as a
scientific theory, pass a rigorous, detailed "building" inspection?
Inspection Detail #1
Centrifugal Force as a Mechanism
In the original Nebular Hypothesis, the mechanism for the distribution of
the Sun's cometary tail in space was a function of centrifugal force. This
mechanism threw solar material out into space far beyond the Sun where that
material might cool, collect, condense and accrete.
The Sun's circumference is 2,700,000 miles. Its spin rate at its equator,
where its material rotates fastest, is once in 26.8 days. Here, the velocity
of rotation of the Sun's photosphere is 4,200 mph at its equator. Spin at
the top of Jupiter's equatorial clouds is 27,770 mph. It came from the Sun??
14 The Recent Organization of The Solar System
This mechanism was accepted for the first 150 years, but within the last 100
years its impossibility as a mechanism has been recognized and acknowledged.
Thus, the original engine or mechanism of this theory has been faulty from
Inspection Detail # 2
Accretion Versus Dispersion in Space
In our Solar System, orbiting bodies have high velocities. The velocity of
remote Neptune is 12,100 mph. Velocities of planets and asteroids increase
as distance to the Sun diminishes. The Earth's velocity is about 66,600 mp.
Mercury's velocity is 107,000 mph. At such velocities, accretion does not
When colliding, small grains of material would tend to fragment, or crack.
Then they would ricochet into another orbit. This is a dispersal mechanism,
not an accreting one. Cometary tails are good examples of dispersion.
Asteroid distribution is another example of dispersion. Meteor streams are a
third example of the real cosmos where dispersion is the pattern. Io's
"smoke ring" of sulfurous gases is fourth example. Io orbits in 42.5 hours,
and orbits back into its own sulfurous cloud, caused by an electrical flux
tube. Io enters into its own smoke ring 42 hours after vaporization of its
crust. This smoke ring is a fourth example of dispersion. Accretion is a
false mechanism where velocities are high, as they are in the solar system
The principle of dispersion, not gathering, is functioning throughout the
inner solar system. However, Alfven still proposes accretion as a mechanism,
even if it is as impossible as centrifugal force. The lack of a functioning
mechanism for the Nebular Hypothesis also needs to be cited, and red-lined.
Inspection Detail # 3
The Moon's Capture to Become an Earth Satellite
The old Nebular Hypothesis required the Moon to be formed "in place." The
newer theses advocate the notion that the Earth somehow captured the Moon on
the fly some four billion years ago, more or less. This implies that the
Moon formerly orbited around the Sun, and crossed the Earth's orbit,
approaching the Earth where it was captured on the fly.
The Earth's gravity is in a tug of war with the Sun's gravity in space. The
Earth is 93,000,000 miles from the Sun. The Sun is 331,600 times as massive
as the Earth. The gravitational tug of war calculates out that the Earth
cannot have a satellite further out than 750,0000 miles from the Earth's
core without losing it to the Sun.
CHAPTER 2 An Inspection of The Nebular Hypothesis Cosmology 15
The Earth's orbit is rather round, at 1.67% eccentricity. The Earth's
orbital velocity around the Sun is 66,600 mph. The Moon's solar orbit would
have been more elliptical, or eccentric. This means that the Moon's
theoretical velocity would have had to have been greater than 66,600 mph
when it crossed the Earth's orbit.
The Moon's maximum trajectory through the Earth's "zone of control" (radius
of action of 750,000 miles) would be for only 1,500,000 miles. The Moon
would sail through this zone in less than 21 hours.
Gradualists have to assume that somehow the Earth could slow down the Moon,
perhaps from 70,000 mph to 2,200 mph, its present velocity, all in 21 hours
or less. Such a correction is not only impossible, but is far beyond the
boundary of sanity. This subset idea of a capture of the Moon by the Earth,
93,000,000 miles from the Sun, is mathematical madness. The Earth under
these conditions cannot even slow down a tiny asteroid. In fact, a tiny
asteroid approaching the Earth speeds up a little.
The capture of the Moon on the fly by the Earth is a violation of celestial
mechanics. But there the Moon is. And in the Nebular Hypothesis, the Earth
is alleged never to have had another orbit. A moon capture on the fly by the
Earth in its modem orbit has to be red lined.
Inspection Detail # 4
The Distribution of Mass in our Solar System
It requires less energy to throw a baseball 90 feet than 290 feet. It
requires less energy for the Sun to theoretically throw a planet out
30,000,000 miles than 480,000,000, or perhaps 2,800,000,000 miles (where
Jupiter and Neptune reside).
Solar temperatures in the photosphere region rise to well over 10,000
degrees F. Booster energies in that tortured plasma allow prominences and
filaments to flare out some 25,000 miles. Spicules are suddenly ejected out
of the Sun's chromosphere 5,000 to 10,000 miles. But all of these materials
are rapidly brought back within the Sun's mass.
The Sun's flares are due to the enormity of the temperatures and the
turbulence in the Sun's photosphere. But the rapidity of the recall of these
flares is due to the enormity of the Sun's gravity. The masses of the
combined planets is 0.013% compared to the Sun's contribution to the Solar
System mass, which is 99.87%. Of the tiny total of the planetary mass,
Jupiter has 71% and Jove is 483,000,000 miles from the Sun. Next largest is
Saturn at 21%. Neptune and Uranus represent 3.8% and 3.3% of the planetary
The locations of the largest planets emphasize great distances. On the other
hand, the closest planets, Mercury, Venus, the Earth, the Moon and Mars
total only 0.4% of the total planetary mass. This kind of distribution
indicates the Sun is not the
16 The Recent Organization of The Solar System
"mother" of the planets except in an adoptive sense. Wherever the planets
originated, however they got here, plainly their origin was not the Sun.
This rather straight-forward analysis of distribution of mass in the Solar
System, to physicists, retired the original Nebular Hypothesis almost a
century ago. Any chance discharge of mass by the Sun would throw its biggest
planets nearby, and its tiniest planets farthest out. Such a logical pattern
is precisely the opposite from the real solar system. Red-line the
distribution of mass issue in the old junker.
Inspection Detail # 5
The Ecliptic Plane of the Solar System
The following orbital planes of the inner eight planets relate to the
Earth's orbit plane as follows:
a. Mercury 7.0 degrees
b. Venus 3.4
c. Earth 0
d. Mars 1.8
e. Jupiter 1.3
f. Saturn 2.5
g. Uranus 0.8
h. Neptune 1.8
i. Sun's equator 7.2
In all the variations of the Nebular Hypothesis, a diffusion of planetary
materials should be in evidence. Such a diffusion in fact is the opposite of
the real condition. The ecliptic plane is the orbital plane of the Earth.
The Earth shares this plane with seven other planets. This plane looks very
much like the plane, or the delivery route, by which the planets were
delivered from deep space to be captured by the Sun. United Parcel has
repeating routes and their couriers regularly drop off parcels along that
route. Better it would be if we look at the planets and their satellite
systems as parcels, dropped off at the Sun's doorstep by a certain, remote
delivery system. The ecliptic plane points to the orbit plane of the
Red-line the old junker on the basis that this fact, the ecliptic plane,
points to an external delivery system from remote space. A distribution of
planets along a single route or plane belies the rationale of the Nebular
Hypothesis. With respect to distribution of mass, red line the old junker
for being illogical.
CHAPTER 2 An Inspection of The Nebular Hypothesis Cosmology 17
Inspection Detail # 6
Angular Momentum and the Solar System
The angular momentum of a spinning planet, revolving around the Sun, is (for
its orbiting the Sun) the product of its mass, the square of the radius, and
the rate of angular motion. To this is added a small amount for spin based
on another equation. The principle of the conservation of angular momentum
asserts that the total OF THE ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF AN ISOLATED SYSTEM is
always the same, although its distribution CAN be shifted. This principle is
illustrated by an ice skater who spins. As she tucks her arms in, she spins
faster and faster. Angular momentum is transferred from her arms to her
In our Solar System including the Sun and all the planets, Jupiter alone
(not the Sun) contains 60% of the total angular momentum. Yet, Jove is less
that 1 % of the mass of the Sun. The four planetary giants, Jupiter, Saturn,
Uranus and Neptune together carry nearly 98% of the angular momentum in the
Solar System. The Sun has less than 2%. Clearly this is a departure from
what was expected in the 18th and 19th century thinking.
Angular momentum and its distribution is the reason for the introduction of
several variations of the Nebular Hypothesis. James Jeans' "Cigar-Shaped
Filament" in 1919 is an example. Angular momentum distribution is the reason
for the existence of Russell's "Triple Binary Bypass" in 1935 followed by
Lyttleton's series of revisions to that.
However, if the planets (with craters and satellite systems) were delivered
to the Sun from remote space, along the plane of the ecliptic plane, then
the entire picture changes. This is what we suspect. In this case, the Sun
and its nine planets does not comprise an isolated system. Captures by the
Sun and deliveries from deep space were involved.
One must keep in mind that the ecliptic plane looks like a delivery route
for packages "addressed" to the Sun. The more meaningful questions are
"What, When and Where did that delivery system function? How massive was it.
How recent was its last delivery? Its "parcels" (at least 8 of the 9
planets, Mercury to Neptune) today comprise 98% of the angular momentum of
this Solar System. This was a pricey delivery, because it provided 98% of
the solar system angular momentum.
Given the Delivery System for the planets, then the countless craters on
surfaces of Mercury, on the Moon and on the various satellites of Jupiter,
Saturn and Uranus all indicate there must be a great deal of debris floating
slowly around the Sun out far beyond Pluto. The fact that these giant
planets have satellite systems suggests the same thing.
The true dimension of our Solar System is half way to the nearer stars,
which is several light years in every direction. What astronomers can see
within Pluto's orbit
18 The Recent Organization of The Solar System
has been considered an "isolated system" by the gradualists cosmologists.
This is just as mythical as is their call for 4.6 billions of years of time.
Planetary catastrophes were recent, within mankind's collective memory.
Moreover, we shall cite four or five levels of evidence later in this book
indicating that the Sun has experienced a vast catastrophe so recently it
still is in the process of recovery.
What eyes with our telescopes can see, out as far as Pluto, relates in
volume to the Sun's domain beyond like a basketball relates to a sphere with
a radius of 6 or 7 miles. Our ignorance of this vast region beyond Pluto is
profound. This is a fact that the Nebular Hypothesists of the 18th, 19th and
20th centuries and their various tune up mechanics seem to have forgotten.
The totality of the solar system is that volume of debris, and larger items,
planets for instance, and their satellite systems, out there all slowly
circling the Sun, half way to the nearer stars. Most of it man cannot see
because reflected light in those regions is too dim for even our advanced
telescopes to detect.
Radio astronomy helps, but just a little. Noise is created by "some things"
out beyond Pluto but nobody knows what or why. Apparently they are rotating,
or else they would be silent. What has been our problem as humans? As
cosmologists, in the vanity of our humanity, we have been unable to conceive
or consider that which we cannot see.
What is needed, as a substitute for better searching of the Solar System
beyond Pluto, is therefore a compilation of evidence, if any, clues as to
the existence of such a delivery system, a United Parcel Service of the
We suspect there is a massive amount of angular momentum within the Sun's
radius of action, but its zone stretches half way out to the nearer stars,
several light years in length. Some angular momentum apparently was shifted,
dropped off at the doorstep of the Sun. It merely changed location. The
redistribution of angular momentum of the Solar System could be just that
simple in theory.
The inspector's review of the Nebular Hypothesis includes the issue of
angular momentum and its distribution. The old junker, as a functioning
idea, fails badly once again and is again red-lined. Jeans, Russell,
Lyttleton and others have identified the problem, thankfully, but as
traditionalists, they did not look carefully to deep space to supply the
We cite a summary by Robert H. Baker:
A successful theory of the evolution of the solar system must account not
only for the present total angular momentum of the system but also for its
distribution. Jupiter alone has 60% of the total.
A variation known as the "tidal hypothesis" supposes that an envelope of
materials was torn from the sun by a passing star. This version is not
favored, because in order
CHAPTER 2 An Inspection of The Nebular Hypothesis Cosmology 19
to produce such effect the disturbing star would have to pass too near the
sun to have introduced the present angular momentum of the solar system. F 1
The door is open for anyone to come up with a better hypothesis. Physicists
and astronomers have tried. Now we, a geographer and an engineer, shall put
in our "two cents." We shall search for clues of planetary catastrophism
among the scars of Mars, the scars of Venus, the scars of Mercury and the
conditions ("scars") of the Sun. We search for physical evidence, especially
from the recent space mission photography. From that data we then make the
obvious, logical conclusions.
Our conclusions may not be "politically correct" according to the
bureaucracy of astronomy, a bureaucracy that has embraced gradualist dogmas.
But our conclusions shall be grounded to facts. Many, perhaps most of these
facts are new, products of the space missions of the last three decades.
Velocities of Debris in Remote Space at 1,000 A.U.
One "a.u." is one astronomical unit, and its value is 92,959,000 miles. It
is the average distance, Earth to Sun. The "a.u." is just another
measurement of length, like the inch, the centimeter, the yard, the rod and
the furlong. The only difference is that it is a bigger measure than those
measures with which most people are familiar.
Kepler discovered three laws of planetary motions.One law is that orbit
velocities follow a certain equation. If the distance from the Sun is
increased, the period of that orbit also increases at a proportional rate.
Kepler found that if the distance of an orbit were cubed, the period of that
orbit is the square root of the cubed value*. For instance, Jupiter. Jove is
located (average) at 5.2028 a.u. (480,000,000 miles from he Sun.) The cube
of 5.2028 equals 140.8356. Take the square root of 140.8356, which is
11.8674. This number, 11.8674, is the number of years in Jupiter's orbit,
that is, its period.
Remote Pluto has a velocity of 10,600 mph. Pluto is 39.44 a.u, or
3,671,000,000 miles from the center of the Sun. Pluto's period is 90,465
days, or 247.68 years.
Now we turn to a zone 25 times farther than Pluto, to 1,000 a.u. This region
is 93,000,000,000 miles (93,000,000 x 1,000) from the Sun. We cube the
distance of 1,000 a.u. which is one billion. We take the square root of a
billion, which is 31,622. This is the approximate period in years of a
planet in that region orbiting at 1,000 a.u. We are interested in the
velocity of a body at 1,000 a.u. from the Sun, some 25 times as far out as
Pluto. We assume a circular orbit. Its orbit circumference is 6263.2 a.u.,
or 2 x pi. This value is multiplied by 93,000,000 (miles) and that product
is divided by 365.256 (the number of days per year), by 24 (the hours per
day) and by 31,622 (the number of years for an orbit.) The result is a
velocity of 2,101 mph in that cold, dark, remote region.
This velocity happens to resemble the velocity of the Moon, orbiting the
Earth at 2,289 mph. Perhaps this is the right kind of environment in which
the Earth could
20 The Recent Organization of The Solar System
capture a slow-velocity object such as the Moon. Perhaps this is the kind of
an environment where the Moon could first acquire numerous craters, broadly
distributed, if the miscellaneous debris in that region happens to be
numerous. If so, the debris would collide with the Moon, at velocities in
excess of 1,000 mph depending on the angle of the hit.
We inspect the Nebular Hypothesis for its theory on Moon capture by the
Earth. When both were near the Sun, with high velocities, we find a capture
on the fly to be mathematical madness. Yet, there the Moon is. Red-line the
old junker once more for being unable to explain the Earth's capture of the
Moon, an event which evidently did happen.
The Backward Rotation and "Pokey" Spin Rate of Venus
Over the years the problems with the Nebular Hypothesis have increased. The
surprising results of space mission photography of the physical geographies
of the crusts of the planets and their satellites have been legion.
For example, why does ever-so-hot and lonely Venus have numerous
fresh-looking craters? Our answer is, in part, because Mars formerly had a
ring system, and during the Mars-Venus Wars some of the debris therein was
swept out of the ring system by Venus and some hit Venus.
Interesting as that feature may be, it is not the big issue of Venus. Venus
rotates backward compared to the direction of rotation of the Sun and all
other planets. In addition, and to make matters worse, its spin rate is the
slowest of all planets, only once in 243.01 days, backward, or "retrograde."
At its equator Venus rotates backward at only 4.1 mph, walking speed. This
is about as fast as a good, gradualist geologist can hike across level
ground. At our equator, as Venus' sister planet, we rotate forward at a
velocity of 1,037.6 mph, which is supersonic jet speed.
Of all the problems in the Solar System that need logical explanations, the
SLOW, BACKWARD ROTATION OF VENUS has been the most baffling to gradualist
cosmologists. The first cosmology which explains this unique condition among
the planets might become the dominant cosmology of the 21st century. And
possibly of even the entire third millennium A.D.
PREVIEW. We understand the problem. We have the answer. It is presented
later in this book. The answers are to be found in Chapter 6 of this volume.
Many of the other Solar System conditions have been considered
"coincidences" or are otherwise "unexplainable" by the nebular hypothesis
folk. Such a track record is not one of a winner.
The Nebular Hypothesis is red-lined for yet other prominent short-comings.
It cannot explain why Mars has a nearly identical spin rate as the Earth, or
CHAPTER 2 An Inspection of The Nebular Hypothesis Cosmology 21
rotates so slowly, retrograde. Nor can its apologists explain why Mars has a
24-degree tilt to its spin axis, nearly identical to our planet's tilt at
23.5 degrees. Is this another "coincidence" or is there a better
Preview. This logical explanation of this phenomenon, "twin tilts," is in
our second volume, "The Scars of Mars".
We, as planetary catastrophists, have no problem explaining all three of the
preceding conditions in a logical manner. In our cosmological skyscraper of
planetary catastrophism, these conditions are explained as soon as the
proper grounds have been laid.
Almost 2,600 years ago, Jeremiah wrote something that touched on the topic
of solar system history:
He hath made the earth by his power, he hath established the world by his
wisdom, and hath stretched out the heavens by his direction. Jer. 10:13
Almost a dozen red-linings of the old junker have been made, and more
collapsing logic will be pointed out. The old junker's days are coming to an
end. We know it is ready for demolition, and on this same site, on Cosmology
Avenue, we have plans to erect a skyscraper to planetary catastrophism.
The plans describe a tall, pyramid-shaped building with some 70 stories,
some 750 feet tall. On each story will be one or more account of scars left
by past planetary catastrophism in our solar system. Thus, we refuse to
demolish an old, collapsing structure of thought if we have no plans for a
better replacement. Actually, demolition, after planning, is the second
phase of new construction, We do not want to demolish the old junker and
leave only a vacant lot.
There are more areas for red-lining, but nearly a dozen are more than
sufficient to close the case on the famous old junker. The building
inspector issues the demolition permit, and frankly, it is about time. The
rickety, sagging, fragile old building is ready to come down and the rubble
hauled to the dump.
F 1 Robert H. Baker, Astronomy. Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1959, p. 269