Amino Acides and Nucleic Acid Bases are Prominent Products under
From my UCLA extension Micro Biology text, page 1051 (Molecular Cell
Biology, Second Ed., Darnell, Dodish and Baltimore, Sci Am Books, WH
Freeman, NY, 1990):
"In an attempt to synthesize biologically important compounds under
possible prebiotic conditionsa, Stanley Miller a student of Harold
Urey, mixed hydrogen, methane and amonia (in the ration 1:2:2) with
water ina closed, evacuated reflux vessel [figure omitted]. The
gaseous mixture, which simulated one hypothetical version of the
early atmosphere, was continously exposed to electric discharges."
What I would add is that pre-biotic chemistry, without Gaia feedbacks
to modulate earth EMFs, where the core was much hotter and more
condutive, would have faced, as its greatest chaotic input,
tremendious levels of EMFs.
"When the water phase (the "ocean") was examined, more than 10
percent of the carbon from teh methane was included in organic
molecules such as amino acides. Glycine, alanin, aspartic acid,
valine, and leucine (in both D- and L-froms) were clearly identified
among the products. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), aldehydes, and cyno
compounds [formula omitted due to type case limitations], were also
present, and these could have been important intermediates in the
formation for amino acides and nucleic acid bases [figure omitted].
These latter compounds can be formed also under mildly reducing
Many different reaction conditions that mimic plausible prebiotic
conditions can lead to the synthesis of amino acids and nucleic acid
basies. Of particular interest are experiments showing that simple
prebiotic compounds (the carbon- and nitrogen-contaning compoutns
mentioned above and H2S) plus ultraviolet light as in energy source
yield gylycine, alanin, serine, glutamic acid, and asperparagin. UV
light is a much more abundant source of energy than lightning, which
was simulated in the Miller experiments . Also, the sucesswith
mixtures of N2, Co2 or Co, and H2 suggests that the synthesis was
possible even if methane and amounia were scare.
Purines, and to a much lesser extent pyrimidens, can form whe HCN and
cyanoacetylene [formulat omitted for type case limitations] are
present in the gas phase of the spark-discharge experinments. HCN is
reactive in the presense of UV light alone, and purines can be
regarded as condesation products of five HCN molecules, although the
route of synthesis is still not certain [figure omitted]. Adenine was
found to be prominent produce of simulated prebiotic synthesis
reactions. In fact, even ATP can form in low yeild udner prebiotci
conditions, especially in the prebiotic conditions, epsciallly in th
epresense of the common minderal apatite (calcium phosphate)."
I would add that in pre-modulated or pre Gaia conditions, the EMF of
the lower ionosphere would not have been so modulated as it is today,
and therefore UV light would have been common.
"After an angry debate among parents, Georgia's second-largest school
district adopted a policy last night that requires teachers to give
a "balanced education" about the origin of life, giving equal weight
to evolution and biblical interpretations.
Board members said they were not restricting the teaching of
evolution or encouraging the teaching of creationism. The policy,
they said, was simply a reflection of the district's philosophy of
teaching a wide and objective range of ideas, particularly in
discussing "disputed views of academic subjects, including the origin
. . .
After the vote, Gordon O'Neill, a board member, led his colleagues in
a prayer: "Heavenly father, we ask that you provide to all of us a
clear understanding of our fellow man and an acceptance of a
diversity of thinking. Amen."
Cobb County was also the only county in GA the Olympic Torch didn't
pass through before the '96 Olympics in Atlanta.
Before EMF feedbacks as to cirrus occurred the Archae had way more to
worry about than just astroids. Volcanoes, extreme surface cold--on
and on. Places we think of as extreme likely offered relative
chemical and temperature stability. I would guess that the largest
threat to RNA stability for early life was high voltage EMF and UV
light--as they created life from the primordial chemsitry they could
destroy it. In highly saline, or sulfurous waters, there would have
been some buffering. Plus Doran waves would have occurred naturally
from these formations. Or DEEP in the earth where fields would have
been grounded. Also, before Gaia kicked in the places of hydrology,
not modulated, would have kicked in a lot of chemistry harmful to
life. It would have been better to be near a salt lake or a sulpur
pool with little rain and natural Doran wave activity--so no new crap
that was chemically harmful flowed in. Methanogens would have been
able to produce positive feedbacks that washed, even roughly,
hydrology back to them, because the the deep waters where they
resided would have been volumious enough to buffer the poor chemistry
for their existance.
I think that Gaia ideas respecting climate are at some point going to
be very important for abiogenesis theory--just as they are important
for our ability to predict climate. I also think that creationist's
views are primative.