Tonight it was 99 degrees F. here in Redding, California--at 9 pm.
A year ago at this time I was in a place called Tulsa Oklahoma and it
was about the same temperature at 9 pm.
But the difference between Redding and Tulsa in the amount of water
in the air is huge.
Here in Redding we have "swamp coolers" that simply use water to cool
things down. There in Oklahoma, my poor brother's nice home with the
latest in air conditioning was worthless against the heat. It was so
hot INSIDE his air conditioned home that at 9 pm it felt too hot to
play cards on his kitchen table--because there was a light bulb above
The difference between the air there and here is electrical. In
general the North Pacific gyre along the coast of California is in
large part about a current that moves slowly from west to east--
inducting against cirrus, especially this time of year. OTOH, the
GOM and even the Gulf of California are associated w/ east to west
movements that electrically enhance cirrus.
Bates, N.R., Knap, A.H. and Michaels, A.F. 1998. Contribution of
hurricanes to local and global estimates of air-sea exchange of CO2.
Nature 395: 58-61.You can see the path and nature of Felix
What the research stated was that the 1995 hurricane Felix increased
summertime loss of CO2 from the portion of the ocean it traversed by
nearly by nearly 30%. When data from nearby hurricanes Luis and
Marilyn were included, this figure jumped to 45%. The heat exchange
of hurricanes is undisputed--they cool the sea as they roil the
surface. But they also bring cooler water up from below. I will be
the first to note that depressurized methane would lead to pure water
being released, diluting the water, as well as taking phase change
energies from the water. Cold, yet diluted, it should lead to
upwelling of cold waters, and cold waters uptake CO2 better than warm
Consistent with this notion, the measurements showed no observable
change in atmospheric pCO2! What was measured was what was happening
in the water? So, where did the CO2 go? It should be noted that the
scientists also found a slight increase in mixed-layer depth that
built up in the days preceding the storm and REVERTED QUICKLY after
its passing. It is well known that the deep oceans store carbon
dioxide in a bicarbonate ion form due to the high alkalinity of deep
seawater, such that for every 100 molecules of CO2 stored in it,
roughly 98 of these are found as 1 bicarbonate ions, 1 has been
converted further to a carbonate ion, and only one remains as CO2.
Here is some chemistry in this regard: (CO2 + H2O <==> HCO3- + H+
<==> CO32-+ 2H+). Thus, a little CO2 in air (at 1 atmosphere
pressure) can be in equilibrium with about 100 times more "total CO2"
in the equivalent volume of seawater. The problem is that most of the
alkaline ocean water is not in contact with the atmosphere. Further,
the most alkaline portion of the ocean, at depths, may be insolated
by the methane hydrates from methanogen activity in the stability
zone. Transfer of CO2 between the surface ocean and the deep ocean is
slow, and occurs according to prevailing views, by two main
processes: subduction of cold salty waters, and the tropics where
hurricanes occur, this isn't going to occur, the biological "pump"
whereby organic particles sink below the mixed surface layer. I will
add a third. In my view, hurricanes contain electrical currents that
move to the oceans, wholly changing the convection processes and at
the same time making the CO2 look like it is disappearing in the
ocean when it is simply changing chemically from the electrical
current, much like a battery changes chemistry as it discharges.
Consistent with this, Burke et al.  has reported the detection
of keV electrons and large electric field transients above a
hurricane. These various observations all suggest that what is
occurring at great depths in the ocean may couple to the ionosphere.
The coupling mechanisms was said by them not to be well understood,
but it seems probable that "capacitive coupling" through the
displacement current my drive conduction currents within the
ionosphere [Hale and Baginski, 1987]. From this link, is evidence of
the incredible currents involved:
"Rarely seen lightning fields and purple sprites were detected in the
eye of the hurricane by the ER-2 pilot as he flew more than 19.8 km
(65,000 ft) above the Atlantic."
Variations in Mauna Loa carbon dioxide induced by ENSO
"There is strong observational evidence that ENSO has a significant
impact on the partial pressure of carbon in the ocean and, therefore,
on the carbon flux."
As ENSO results in warmer worldwide temperatures, particularly
observable in the troposphere, this is prime evidence that climate is
BTW, when the last El Nino ended in May of 1998--a third van Allen
belt formed between the proton inner and electron outer belts. Go