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Janet Cresswell in Broadmoor

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  • Rosemary Moore
    On 7 September 2000 I sent a message about Janet Cresswell in Broadmoor to 5 mental health discussion groups - only members of two of the groups responded, the
    Message 1 of 3 , Feb 15, 2001
      On 7 September 2000 I sent a message about Janet Cresswell in Broadmoor to 5 mental health discussion groups - only members of two of the groups responded, the UKsurvivors and the psychiatric nursing boards.  The following are the responses from Len Bowers, the moderator of the psychiatric nursing group.  Below Len's messages is the message I sent to the boards on 7 September, which includes previous relevant messages to which I refer.
      Update:   Since September I have continued to write to the authorities - the hospital, Mental Health Act Commission and Home Office - and visit and correspond with Janet.   In answer to some of Len's points - Janet has no record of any sort of violence during the period she has been in Broadmoor. The attack on the psychiatrist was not intended to kill him, but she was charged with attempted murder.  Her intention was to get him into court - alive!  The doctor was not seriously harmed and Janet herself was also hurt during the struggle. There have been no incidents of violence involving Janet since she has been in Broadmoor.   The authorities have been unable to give me any information to support the claim that Janet suffers from "classic symptoms of serious mental illness".
      At the end of last year, Janet took an overdose intending to kill herself after being sent from a parole ward to an admission ward to be forcibly medicated.  The issue of medication has still not been resolved and Janet is still on the admission ward.
      (The next message on the mentalmagazine board will be a personal letter from Janet which she wrote in January.  You can also read some more background about Janet in Mental Magazine uk - www.mentalmagazine.co.uk.)
      Sent: Friday, September 08, 2000 9:00 AM
      Subject: RE: [forensic-psychiatric-nursing] Janet Cresswell in Broadmoor

      Dear Rosemary,
      I vacillate between  thinking you are gullible and naive, or just enjoying the mischief-making which is going on here and trying to stir it up some more.
      Besides the fact that your post (and that of the patient you say you represent) is garbled, self contradictory, and in places quite clearly wrong, I wonder have you ever considered the following:
      What did this patient do to be sent to Broadmoor?
      What offences did she commit before the index offence that got her sent to Broadmoor?
      Why hasn't she been released over the past 22 years?
      What incidents of violence, aggression and self harm has she been involved in while in the hospital?
      How many nurses and other patients has she injured or attempted to injure during this time?
      What do the professionals who care for her day by day consider to be the risk she poses to others or herself if she is released?
      Have you ever considered that this patient might be lying to you, misleading and manipulating you for her own purposes? Are you so sure she is telling you the truth about her index offence, and about her stay in Broadmoor?
      Throughout your post you assume that this patient is as pure as the driven snow, telling you the whole, unexpurgated truth. You also assume that everybody else is a lying, no-good, incompetent, abuser of their power. What nonsense.
      I know many of the nurses at Broadmoor. They are as committed to their patients, despite their crimes, as are the members of this e mail list. They are in a high risk job, and significant numbers of them suffer severe injuries inflicted by those they care for. I have immense respect and regard for them and the job they do. They deserve better than having the story below publicly thrown at them. Especially when they cannot answer for themselves, because to do so would be to break patient confidentiality.

      Len Bowers
      Professor of Psychiatric Nursing
      St Bartholomew School of Nursing & Midwifery,
      City University, Philpot St., London E1 2EA
      Tel: +44 207 505 5824  Fax: +44 207 505 5811
      Work: L.Bowers@...  Home: Len@...

      -----Original Message-----
      From: Rosemary Moore [mailto:rosemary.moore@...]
      Sent: 08 September 2000 14:26
      To: Len Bowers
      Subject: Re: [forensic-psychiatric-nursing] Janet Cresswell in Broadmoor

      Dear Len
      Could you read the posting again, please?  Far from criticising the nurses, Janet says they are on her side - see her letter.  What makes you think the posting has anything to do with the nurses? 
      Can I ask you to read the message and attachments again and come back to me.

      From Len Bowers:

      OK Rosemary, that's a fair request, so I'll do my best for you.

       Who is it who 'forces' patient to take 'zombie drugs'? Nurses.

      Who took the wordprocessor away? Nurses.

      Who keeps her on the ward where she doesn't want to be, and stops her from leaving? Nurses.

      Who contributes to the mental health state assessment of every patient via observation and reporting? Nurses.

      Who delivers the 'punishment' after the story in the Independent? Nurses.

      Who is keeping a woman who is 'not mentally ill' incarcerated in Broadmoor? Nurses.

      Who would, apparently, treat her better if only she would admit she was ill? Nurses.

      Who delivers and imposes drugs and ECT, who holds the patient down using force? Nurses.

       The actions of nurses are not separate from other disciplines. We work together as a team with them. If you criticise any individual, then you criticise the team as a whole.

       Now I'll try, from my experience but not first hand knowledge, to point out to you where I think you are probably being lied to by this patient. Firstly, I suggest you review all the questions I put to you in the last e mail, and ask yourself where your information comes from. Unless you have some form of independent verification, you cannot necessarily trust what this patient is telling you.

       Patients are not forced to take medication because stories are published about them in the paper. This is very close to being totally unbelievable.

      The patient claims that the RMO wants to move her off the parole ward but also that the RMO wants to discharge her to a less secure RSU. These are two opposite actions and the assertions therefore make no sense.

      Although the patient claims her mental state has never been independently assessed, it is a fact that it will have been for her original detention, for every renewal thereafter, and at each time she applies to a MHRT. Over the 23 years she has been at Broadmoor, how many different doctors have seen her and concurred in her treatment? I should think somewhere between 10 and 20. Maybe more. Supported by reports from many, many nurses.

      People are never detained in hospital under the mental health act, simply because they do not admit to being mentally ill. To assert so implies that the professional care teams (including nurses) are nasty, vicious and moronic.

      The patient asserts she wants to get home, back to her family, but refuses to take the necessary steps to get there – a stay on an RSU (nicer places than Broadmoor) followed by gradually increasing leaves of absence and then full discharge should things work out well.

       I still think that it is highly likely that you are being lied to and manipulated. Give it some thought. I'll be happy to correspond again if you want.


       The following is the message to which Len Bowers' responded:

      -----Original Message-----
      From: psychiatric-nursing-request@... [mailto:psychiatric-nursing-request@...]On Behalf Of Rosemary Moore
      Sent: 07 September 2000 17:24
      To: psychiatric-nursing@...
      Subject: Fw: [forensic-psychiatric-nursing] Janet Cresswell in Broadmoor

      Sent: Thursday, September 07, 2000 4:56 PM
      Subject: [forensic-psychiatric-nursing] Janet Cresswell in Broadmoor

      Dear groups
      I am sending this message to all five groups because I think it is of general concern.   Please look at the Independent newspaper story of 23 April (Playwright held in Broadmoor forced to take 'zombie' drugs) which Simon Heyes referred to the uksurvivors board in his message (No. 478 in April): 
      As this story states, Janet Cresswell was forced to take medication following an earlier story published by the Independent about her wordprocessor being confiscated. 
      Janet Cresswell has been detained in Broadmoor for over 23 years and I have been in contact with her by correspondence and visits since May of this year.   During this time I have received 14 letters from her - the latest being the attached letter dated 2 September which is a typed copy of  her handwritten letter.  You can see from this that because she has now managed to refuse to take the medication, her RMO wants to transfer her from the "parole" ward.
      I have a written authorisation from Janet to act on her behalf and I have been corresponding with the Chief Executive of Broadmoor, the Mental Health Act Commission, her MP Glenda Jackson, and Eileen Gordon MP (who is a member of the Health Select Committee).  I also wrote on 14 August to Mr Mike Boyle who is the Head of the Mental Health Unit of the Home Office.  So far, I have had no acknowledgement from Mr Boyle.  The gist of my letter to Mr Boyle was that I referred to the evidence he gave to the Health Select Committee on 18 May when he was questioned on the release of patients.  He had responded that as a non-medical person "...we are perfectly content to accept the judgment of the care teams as to the state of the prisoner (sic) the treatment that is needed and their judgment as to the likely prognosis."  He also stated that the Home Office would not refuse to discharge a patient "...where that is otherwise justified on the patient's mental health and the risk to the public.  If those two factors are satisfied we will never prevent a patient from leaving."  
      Janet Cresswell has always maintained that she is NOT mentally ill but has been unable to obtain a truly independent assessment of her health and the Home Office simply accepts what the hospital says about Janet's health.  The Mental Health Act Commission has completely failed to address Janet's complaints and as I write this I am waiting for the Commissioner responsible for Broadmoor to phone me back about my last letter to them dated 11 August which so far has not been dealt with, apart from an acknowledgement.
      It is probably assumed - particularly from today's posting from Jan Wallcraft today on the uksurvivors board - that effective advocacy is provided in such institutions and that UKAN (United Kingdom Advocacy Network) is overseeing this.  In fact, Janet Cresswell is completely unsupported, apart from my unsuccessful attempts to help her.  For example, in her letter to me dated 20 August she said - I had asked her if she had any contact with WISH (Women in Special Hospitals):  "WISH reps come in here on a regular basis and, if I get to the Women's User Group meeting next Friday will no doubt meet up with a couple of their visitors.  It's difficult getting anywhere from this ward as there are often only two staff.  I can't even get to the dentist easily if at all.  Mad to realise that high dependency wards with more staff are more able to escort their charges around.  My concern at the moment is that the Response to the Tilt Report from the female wing, ie the Women's User Group, has/hasn't been sent to the appropriate people, merely circulated round this placeUKAN in Sheffield say they can put the matter on their AGM agenda provided that WUG is a UKAN member group.  Trying to confirm this is like talking to myself."
      Janet also says in the same letter:  "The MHA stipulates that unless statements are made through solicitors or those with medical qualifications tribunals can ignore what is said.  This is one of my many beefs at the system.  On  face of it, if the MHA can be taken literally, there's no purpose in a patient saying anything unless parroted by a solicitor."
      In respect of this last comment, I'd like to take the solicitor, Peter Edwards, up on the offer in his message to me below (22 June) on the uksurvivors board for "further dialogue". 
      I would also ask for assistance from the rest of you.  Janet Cresswell was punished after the first story in the Independent and is still in great difficulty.  She is a 68-year old woman who has been incarcerated since her mid-forties simply because she refuses to accept a diagnosis of mental illness.  Had she done so, she would more than likely have been released by now.  She has made a list of the physical harm she has suffered as a result of medication and ECT.  
      The present situation is that Janet has a home she can go to and a family she wants to be with.  The authorities maintain that she requires psychiatric medication and want to send her to a Regional Secure Unit - which horrifies her. 
      Would Peter Edwards and any other solicitors be willing to assist in seeing that Janet Cresswell obtains an independent psychiatric assessment?  And would other people on these lists please write to the Mental Health Act Commission (Maid Marian House, 56 Hounds Gate, Nottingham NG1 6BG) and the Home Office (56 Queen Anne's Gate, London SW1H 9AT) to support this?  You can of course also write to Janet directly at Broadmoor or to Broadmoor's Chief Executive, Dr Julie Hollyman.
      I have promised Janet for some time that I would be publicising her case on the Net but the reactions to a couple of postings have been so negative that I felt nervous about saying any more.  But now, after months of correspondence with the hospital, MHAC and the MP's - and not getting any response from the Home Office, I think it's the only way of helping her.
      Sent: Thursday, June 22, 2000 10:18 AM
      Subject: [uksurvivors] Re: [mentalhealthlaw] Picket of the British Medical Association Annual General Meeting

      Dear Rosemary Moore,
      My name is Peter Edwards and I run one of the countries very few mental health / civil rights law firms. I have been fighting for the rights of service users for 30 years. They have been let down by just about everyone. I was on the Council of MIND. I fear they are no longer the radical service users charity (if they ever where). Their heyday was in the days of Larry Gostin and Tony Smythe. I was on the Central Policy Committee of the Mental Health Act Commission before I came to realises that they do more harm than good. I am particularly concerned about the pressures on doctors to give old fashioned and outdated drugs which have horrendous side effects when (expensive) alternatives are available. I understand that NICE and the RCof Psych will be reinforcing this shortly.
      I am now of the view that one of the most potent weapons available is litigation, especially with the provisions of the Human Rights Act coming into effect in October. Service users need to consider whetyher ther is a legal remedy for the percieved injustices that are being experienced. At present I am co-ordinating a litigation strategy against Ashworth Hospital.Clearly two Inquiries have made littlle impact.
      If you would like further dialogue do get in touch,
      Peter Edwards
      ----- Original Message -----
      Sent: Wednesday, June 21, 2000 9:34 PM
      Subject: [mentalhealthlaw] Picket of the British Medical Association Annual General Meeting

      Dear uksurvivors -
      I am copying this message to the mentalhealthlaw,criticalpsychiatry,forensicnursing and psychiatricnursing boards, as I think the issues are relevant to all.
      The message below - No 722 on the survivor board - from GLAD (Greater London Action on Disability) -  informs us that Incapacity Action will be picketing the BMA's agm on Monday, 26 June. I also attach a one-page document which KATE ADAMS of Incapacity Action brought with her to the 7 June House of Commons lobby fronted by MIND.  As you know, the lobby on 7 June was ostensibly to protest about the Government's plans to introduce compulsory medication in the community.  A mental health alliance was formed just for this purpose with a large number of organisations represented, with the notable exception of SANE.  This event was heavily publicised - I received numerous notifications of it -  and a 1,000 people turned up.  Every senior manager, as well as key staff, from both MIND and the National Schizophrenia Fellowship (NSF) were there directing operations, as well as the Mental Health Foundation (who apparently formed the Alliance).  Now that the lobby is over the Alliance seems to have been disbanded, (like the Alliance which was similarly formed to combat the Community Supervision Order in 1993 - which of course subsequently became law in a modified form). 
      At the lobby we were pressured to lobby our MPs.  At the same time speeches were being made in the Committee Room by an MP or two and various representatives from the charities, nursing and social work professional organisations and key users in MIND and NSF.  Also, in what is called the Jubilee Room - away from the speech makers -  users were encouraged to make personal testimonials.  I listened to quite a bit in Committee Room and then went to the Jubilee Room which was packed,  with JUDI CLEMENTS in charge.  By the time I got there, the filming of the speakers (I think by the Mental Health Foundation) had ended but the testimonials continued for another hour or so.  During this time, IAN McDONALD spoke about his terrible difficulties over the benefit rules and later KATE ADAMS challenged JUDI CLEMENTS over MIND's acceptance of the Single Gateway (see the attachment).  I am very disappointed that this very important issue has not been taken up by anyone.  I am also disappointed that nothing has happened about the appeal from one of the last speakers that the stories told in the Jubilee Room should be heard outside.  JUDI CLEMENTS seemed nonplussed by this idea.    But someone from CriticalPsychiatry (I understand it was DUNCAN DOUBLE) offered to put these stories up on his website and gave us his web address.  I wrote to CriticalPsychiatry later that day asking them to publicise Janet Cresswell's plight (in Broadmoor for 23 years), but have had no response other than "good luck with your campaign".  
      I hope people will support KATE ADAMS and her colleagues in standing up against this harassment of vulnerable people. It is difficult enough for fit people to cope with the benefits system and I know myself of people who have been driven to suicide because of the stress of it all.  I must say that I think Kate is a particularly admirable person as she suffers from ME (chronic fatigue) and yet still campaigns for others. A few days ago she told me in a letter that "Our activities are very limited basically because I am very unwell and Cathy and Ian who back me up are in a similar postion.  We had more groups around the country several years ago but those folded up due to ill health and burn out....at least we have challenged MIND's involvement with the Gateway, but perhaps a letter with more signatures, followed by a visible protest might have more impact."   
      Rosemary Moore  
      ----- Original Message -----
      From: GLAD
      Sent: Saturday, July 22, 2000 2:42 PM
      Subject: [uksurvivors] Picket of the British Medical Association Annual General Meeting

      Just to let people know that Incapacity Action are holding a picket of the BMA's agm on Monday 26th June.    The agm is held at Queen Elizabeth II conference centre opposite Westminster Abbey.
      People are invited to come along.   Meet up at the open air coffee bar in Dean's Yard at the Abbey.  From midday. Contacts are Cathy Blight and Ian McDonald.
      The message for doctors is that people are against:  the All-Work test, having their benefits constantly reviewed, against privatisation (the Sema scandal).   And the call is for doctors to boycott the personal capacity test.     People want doctors to be loyal to their patients rather than collude with Government cutbacks or privatised firms.
      Greater London Action on Disability (GLAD)
      336 Brixton Road
      London SW9 7AA
      Tel:  020 7346 5800
      Minicom: 020 7346 5811
      Fax: 020 7346 5810
      Email: glad@...
    • Rosemary Moore
      ... From: Don Roberts Jr To: criticalpsychiatry@yahoogroups.com Sent: Tuesday, March 06, 2001 5:59 PM Subject: RE: [criticalpsychiatry] Fw:
      Message 2 of 3 , Mar 6, 2001
        ----- Original Message -----
        From: Don Roberts Jr
        To: criticalpsychiatry@yahoogroups.com
        Sent: Tuesday, March 06, 2001 5:59 PM
        Subject: RE: [criticalpsychiatry] Fw: [psychiatry-research] One in five
        psychiatrists assaulted

        I'd _love_ to hear the consumers' accounts of these attacks. Wonder what the
        shrinks did to provoke the attacks?

        Don R

        Dear Don

        Janet Cresswell was sent to Broadmoor in 1976, having jabbed a psychiatrist
        in the bottom. Her intention was to get him into court to challenge his
        assertion that she needed medication for mental illness. She was charged
        with attempted murder and psychiatric reports stated she was suffering from
        paranoid schizophrenia. I contacted Janet last May and since then have been
        trying to obtain evidence from the authorities of her alleged mental
        illness. None has been provided.

        Last September I sent a message about Janet to five mental health discussion
        boards, including critical psychiatry. No-one on this board replied but I
        get a very angry response from the nursing board which read the message as a
        direct criticism of nurses.

        My original message and the response from the nursing board is the first
        message I have put on my discussion board

        I have also published a letter written for the Net by Janet and an update.
        You can also read an article she wrote for the Sunday Times "A Day in the
        Life of..." in 1987 on the website www.mentalmagazine.co.uk.

        (See below this message for details of the story Don is referring to.)


        ----- Original Message -----
        From: Don Roberts Jr
        To: criticalpsychiatry@yahoogroups.com
        Sent: Tuesday, March 06, 2001 5:59 PM
        Subject: RE: [criticalpsychiatry] Fw: [psychiatry-research] One in five
        psychiatrists assaulted

        I'd _love_ to hear the consumers' accounts of these attacks. Wonder what the
        shrinks did to provoke the attacks?

        Don R.
        -----Original Message-----
        From: DBDouble [mailto:dbdouble@...]
        Sent: Tuesday, March 06, 2001 8:37 AM
        To: Critical Psychiatry
        Subject: [criticalpsychiatry] Fw: [psychiatry-research] One in five
        psychiatrists assaulted

        Does violence breed violence?

        ----- Original Message -----
        From: "Ian Pitchford" <ian.pitchford@...>
        To: <psychiatry-research@yahoogroups.com>
        Sent: Monday, March 05, 2001 17:17
        Subject: [psychiatry-research] One in five psychiatrists assaulted

        > Monday, 5 March, 2001, 11:45 GMT
        > One in five psychiatrists assaulted
        > Nearly 20% of psychiatrists have been assaulted by patients in the past
        year, a
        > survey suggests.
        > The study, carried out in south Wales, asked 139 psychiatrists about their
        > experiences of violence from patients.
        > Dr Stephen Davies, who authored the study, found that 17% said they had
        > attacked at least once in the past year.
        > But he said: "The Health and Safety at Work Act places a responsibility on
        > employers to identify and address hazards.
        > Full text:
        > http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/health/newsid_1202000/1202892.stm
        > Read The Human Nature Daily Review every day
        > http://human-nature.com/nibbs/
        > To subscribe/unsubscribe/select DIGEST go to
        > http://groups.yahoo.com/group/psychiatry-research
        > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/

        Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to the Yahoo! Terms of Service.

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      • Rosemary Moore
        I asked Janet to write something on the theme of political prisoners in the democratic system and she s sent me the essay below entitled What is a Dissident .
        Message 3 of 3 , Oct 7, 2001
          I asked Janet to write something on the theme of political prisoners in the
          democratic system and she's sent me the essay below entitled "What is a
          Dissident". This essay, together with others and her short stories are in
          the files of the mentalmagazine discussion board at
          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/mentalmagazine/files. And the messages about
          and from Janet can be found on the discussion board by going to the home
          page at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/mentalmagazine and putting "Janet
          Cresswell" in the Search box. The first message, February 2001, is about
          the email I
          sent to several boards on 7 September 2000 (before I had set up the MMuk
          website and board) and the reception it received from the nursing board.
          The questions raised by Len Bowers at that time have, I think, now been
          the MMuk website also includes information about Janet, including the
          article she
          wrote for The Sunday Times that was published in 1987, which was where I
          first heard of her. Go to http://www.mentalmagazine.co.uk/#janet.

          By chance, a thread has just started on the nursing board about the role of
          psychiatrists which Janet is talking about also. You can find this
          discussion by going to the nursing home page at
          http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/psychiatric-nursing.html, click on archives
          for October and look for the thread called "In the typists chair".

          "Campaigning for good health & social care...it's for everyone"

          What is a Dissident
          by Janet Cresswell

          Thirty years ago the term 'political prisoner' was understood to apply to
          Russian dissidents in psychiatric hospitals. There was a lot of media
          publicity on the subject which stressed that their treatment was
          exceptional. Over-drugging - largely with haloperidol which causes
          dribbling - did not apply to mental patients in the UK. Western mental
          patients at the time were quick to protest that their treatment was also
          debilitating but that our authorities refused to recognise there were any
          dissidents in their system. IRA prisoners were labelled 'terrorists' and all
          other opposition insane.

          There were several Russian releases to the West - Solzhenitsyn from the
          gulags, Victor Feinberg, Bukovsky and others from psychiatric hospitals. I
          attended a talk by Victor Feinberg in Red Lion Square, London W1 postal
          district, to learn that he had been arrested and had his front teeth knocked
          out for protesting at the Russian invasion of Hungary. After a mock trial
          he was committed to a mental hospital where he made friends with his female
          psychiatrist; when threatened with injections she shielded and hid him, his
          friends meanwhile distributing leaflets to publicise his plight to tourists
          in Moscow. Feinberg maintained that it was British psychiatrists who
          engineered his expatriation and waved a list of them - his female
          psychiatrist came too. When the audience was invited to speak I received an
          ovation for saying that the list of psychiatrists Feinberg waved was the
          'pot calling the kettle black'. When quiet was restored and Feinberg
          understood the expression meant there was no difference between them, he
          grinned. I went on to say that the world over, the same kind of person was
          being persecuted. They were labelled Schizophrenic; I listed a few of the
          valuable characteristics of this dreaded complaint. Nobody disagreed with

          When I came to Broadmoor I looked hard at the attendant psychiatric staff
          and decided my lot was forlorn. I had delivered a petition to No.10 Downing
          Street appealing for the abolition of forced psychiatric treatment on the
          grounds that at best it did little good and at its worst it did an
          astronomical amount of damage. I asked for monies thereby saved to be
          expended on bettering communities. I was arrested and without a trial
          committed to a mixed locked ward along with prison transfers, arsonists and
          suicides. I escaped, spent 3 months trying to obtain an explanation for
          the invasion into my property and person but received nothing but
          prevaricating, silly answers. To bring the case to court I stabbed a
          psychiatrist in the bottom; the ensuing fight resulted in him being stabbed
          elsewhere. Nasty, but not fatal; the last I saw of him he had walked into
          his office and was giving orders for his staff to call an ambulance. Since
          then the treatment I have received among those who are sometimes grateful to
          the mental health system has not made me change my views. In the same way
          that God always forgives, the psychiatrist pronounces recovery if his
          prescription is consumed. Some can tolerate the medication, others cannot.

          After 25 years in Broadmoor I have been put on the Admittance Ward, a record
          even for Broadmoor. I have wondered if the Russian psychiatrists had
          revolted at the Communist regime and had appealed secretly to their Western
          counterparts. They, in turn, gained prestige for contributing to the
          downfall of the Iron Curtain. The same condition does not apply in this
          country; it is hard to believe that psychiatrists are being made to medicate
          where unnecessary and one can only assume that the heavy-handed approach
          stems from their own doctrine. If this is the case, then psychiatrists are
          running their own system, thereby using party politics as convenient. IRA
          terrorists are treated better than dissidents of psychiatry; the former have
          Christmas home leave which is never applied for by Broadmoor psychiatrists.
          All branches of the medical profession should be concerned solely with
          curative practices. Their failure should be acknowledged and rectified, as
          far as possible. The victims should not be penalised to conceal the errors
          at public expense.

          © Janet Cresswell
          October 2001
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