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The Morality of Meditation

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    By DAVID DeSTENO Published: July 5, 2013 MEDITATION is fast becoming a fashionable tool for improving your mind. With mounting scientific evidence that the
    Message 1 of 1 , Jul 8, 2013
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      By DAVID DeSTENO
      Published: July 5, 2013

      MEDITATION is fast becoming a fashionable tool for improving
      your mind. With mounting scientific evidence that the practice
      can enhance creativity, memory and scores on standardized intelligence tests, interest in its practical benefits is
      growing. A number of "mindfulness" training programs, like
      that developed by the engineer Chade-Meng Tan at Google,
      and conferences like Wisdom 2.0 for business and tech
      leaders, promise attendees insight into how meditation can
      be used to augment individual performance, leadership and productivity.

      This is all well and good, but if you stop to think about it,
      there's a bit of a disconnect between the (perfectly
      commendable) pursuit of these benefits and the purpose
      for which meditation was originally intended. Gaining
      competitive advantage on exams and increasing creativity
      in business weren't of the utmost concern to Buddha and other
      early meditation teachers. As Buddha himself said, "I teach
      one thing and one only: that is, suffering and the end of
      suffering." For Buddha, as for many modern spiritual leaders,
      the goal of meditation was as simple as that. The heightened
      control of the mind that meditation offers was supposed to help
      its practitioners see the world in a new and more compassionate
      way, allowing them to break free from the categorizations
      (us/them, self/other) that commonly divide people from one
      another.

      But does meditation work as promised? Is its originally
      intended effect — the reduction of suffering — empirically demonstrable?

      To put the question to the test, my lab, led in this work by
      the psychologist Paul Condon, joined with the neuroscientist
      Gaëlle Desbordes and the Buddhist lama Willa Miller to conduct
      an experiment whose publication is forthcoming in the
      journal Psychological Science. We recruited 39 people from
      the Boston area who were willing to take part in an eight-week
      course on meditation (and who had never taken any such
      course before). We then randomly assigned 20 of them to take
      part in weekly meditation classes, which also required them
      to practice at home using guided recordings. The remaining 19
      were told that they had been placed on a waiting list for a
      future course.

      After the eight-week period of instruction, we invited the participants to the lab for an experiment that purported to
      examine their memory, attention and related cognitive abilities.
      But as you might anticipate, what actually interested us was
      whether those who had been meditating would exhibit greater compassion in the face of suffering. To find out, we staged a situation designed to test the participants' behavior before they were aware that the experiment had begun.

      WHEN a participant entered the waiting area for our lab, he
      (or she) found three chairs, two of which were already occupied. Naturally, he sat in the remaining chair. As he waited, a
      fourth person, using crutches and wearing a boot for a broken
      foot, entered the room and audibly sighed in pain as she leaned uncomfortably against a wall. The other two people in the room —
      who, like the woman on crutches, secretly worked for us — ignored
      the woman, thus confronting the participant with a moral
      quandary. Would he act compassionately, giving up his chair
      for her, or selfishly ignore her plight?

      The results were striking. Although only 16 percent of the nonmeditators gave up their seats — an admittedly disheartening
      fact — the proportion rose to 50 percent among those who had meditated. This increase is impressive not solely because it
      occurred after only eight weeks of meditation, but also because
      it did so within the context of a situation known to inhibit considerate behavior: witnessing others ignoring a person in
      distress — what psychologists call the bystander effect — reduces
      the odds that any single individual will help. Nonetheless,
      the meditation increased the compassionate response threefold.

      Although we don't yet know why meditation has this effect, one
      of two explanations seems likely. The first rests on
      meditation's documented ability to enhance attention, which
      might in turn increase the odds of noticing someone in pain
      (as opposed to being lost in one's own thoughts). My favored explanation, though, derives from a different aspect of
      meditation: its ability to foster a view that all beings
      are interconnected. The psychologist Piercarlo Valdesolo and
      I have found that any marker of affiliation between two people,
      even something as subtle as tapping their hands together in synchrony, causes them to feel more compassion for each other
      when distressed. The increased compassion of meditators, then,
      might stem directly from meditation's ability to dissolve
      the artificial social distinctions — ethnicity, religion,
      ideology and the like — that divide us.

      Supporting this view, recent findings by the neuroscientists
      Helen Weng, Richard Davidson and colleagues confirm that
      even relatively brief training in meditative techniques can
      alter neural functioning in brain areas associated with
      empathic understanding of others' distress — areas whose responsiveness is also modulated by a person's degree of
      felt associations with others.

      So take heart. The next time you meditate, know that you're
      not just benefiting yourself, you're also benefiting your
      neighbors, community members and as-yet-unknown strangers
      by increasing the odds that you'll feel their pain when the
      time comes, and act to lessen it as well.

      David DeSteno is a professor of psychology at Northeastern University, where he directs the Social Emotions Group. He is the author of the forthcoming book "The Truth About Trust: How It Determines Success in Life, Love, Learning, and More."

      http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/07/opinion/sunday/the-morality-of-meditation.html?src=me&ref=general
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