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Gender Differences Found In Forgiveness

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  • medit8ionsociety
    Over the years we had 4000+ students in our Adult Education Meditation classes, and I d guess that 75% of them were female. This article seems to point to a
    Message 1 of 3 , Mar 4, 2008
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      Over the years we had 4000+ students in our
      Adult Education Meditation classes, and I'd
      guess that 75% of them were female. This
      article seems to point to a characteristic that
      goes hand in hand with Humility as the most
      important factors in spiritual evolution that
      women may possess in greater amounts than men,
      and that is Compassion. And that is perhaps why
      there have been so many women ready to fill with
      the blessed knowledge and practice of meditation.
      I hope you enjoy and benefit from this article in
      spite of its scientific jargon:

      Gender Differences Found In Forgiveness
      Forgiveness can be a powerful means to healing, but
      it does not come naturally for both sexes. Men have
      a harder time forgiving than women do, according to
      Case Western Reserve University psychologist Julie
      Juola Exline. But that can change if men develop
      empathy toward an offender by seeing they may also
      be capable of similar actions. Then the gender gap
      closes, and men become less vengeful.

      Exline is the lead author on the Journal of Personality
      and Social Psychology's article, "Not so Innocent: Does
      Seeing One's Own Capability for Wrongdoing Predict
      Forgiveness?" She collaborated with researchers Roy
      Baumeister and Anne Zell from Florida State University;
      Amy Kraft from Arizona State; and Charlotte Witvliet
      from Hope College.

      In seven forgiveness-related studies Exline conducted
      between 1998 through 2005 with more than 1,400 college
      students, gender differences between men and women
      consistently emerged. When asked to recall offenses
      they had committed personally, men became less vengeful
      toward people who had offended them. Women reflecting
      on personal offenses, and beginning at a lower baseline
      for vengeance, exhibited no differences in levels of
      unforgiving. When women had to recall a similar offense
      in relation to the other's offense, women felt guilty
      and tended to magnify the other's offense.

      "The gender difference is not anything that we predicted.
      We actually got aggravated, because we kept getting it
      over and over again in our studies," said Exline. "We
      kept trying to explain it away, but it kept repeating
      in the experiments."

      The John Templeton Foundation-supported studies used
      hypothetical situations, actual recalled offenses,
      individual and group situations and surveys to study
      the ability to forgive.

      Exline said prior studies have shown that at baseline
      (without any interventions), men tend to be more
      vengeful than women, who have been taught from
      childhood to put themselves "in the shoes of others"
      and empathize with them.

      In Exline's study, women who recalled similar offenses
      of their own did not show much difference in their
      levels of vengeance, in contrast to men. Women, having
      been taught from an early age to be more empathetic,
      lean toward relationship building and do not emphasize
      the vengeful side of justice to the degree that men do.

      The researchers found that people of both genders are
      more forgiving when they see themselves as capable of
      committing a similar action to the offender's; it tends
      to make the offense seem smaller. Seeing capability
      also increases empathic understanding of the offense
      and causes people to feel more similar to the offenders.
      Each of these factors, in turn, predicts more forgiving
      attitudes.

      "Offenses are easier to forgive to the extent that
      they seem small and understandable and when we see
      ourselves as similar or close to the offender," she said.

      Exline found this ability to identify with the offender
      and forgive also happens in intergroup conflicts in a
      study that she related to forgiveness of the 9/11 terrorists.

      "When people could envision their own government
      committing acts similar to those of the terrorists,
      they were less vengeful," she stressed. "For example,
      they were less likely to believe that perpetrators
      should be killed on the spot or given the death
      penalty, and they were more supportive of negotiations
      and economic aid."

      ----------------------------
      Article adapted by Medical News Today from original press release.
      ----------------------------
    • Balasubramanian Radhakrishnan Kumar
      ________________________________ Why women are closer to enlightenment ? Generally speaking, it is easier for a woman to feel and be in her body, so she is
      Message 2 of 3 , Mar 4, 2008
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        ________________________________"Why women are closer to enlightenment ?

        Generally speaking, it is easier for a woman to feel and be in her body, so she is naturally closer to Being and potentially closer to enlightenment than a man. This is why many ancient cultures instinctively chose female figures or analogies to represent or describe the formless and transcendental reality. It was often seen as a womb that gives birth to everything in creation and sustains and nourishes it during its life as form. In the Tao Te Ching, one of the most ancient and profound books ever written, the Tao which could be translated as Being, is described as "infinite, eternally present, the mother of the universe." Naturally, women are closer to it than men since they virtually "embody"the Unmanifested. What is more, all creatures and all things must eventually return to the Source. "All things vanish into the Tao. It alone endures." Since the Source is seen as female, this is represented in the light and dark sides of the archetypal feminine in psychology and mythology. The Goddess or Divine Mother has two aspects: She gives life and she takes life.

        -- Excerpts from THE POWER OF NOW - A guide to spiritual enlightenment written by ECKHART TOLLE
        > To: meditationsocietyofamerica@yahoogroups.com
        > From: no_reply@yahoogroups.com
        > Date: Tue, 4 Mar 2008 14:44:01 +0000
        > Subject: [Meditation Society of America] Gender Differences Found In Forgiveness
        >
        >
        > Over the years we had 4000+ students in our
        > Adult Education Meditation classes, and I'd
        > guess that 75% of them were female. This
        > article seems to point to a characteristic that
        > goes hand in hand with Humility as the most
        > important factors in spiritual evolution that
        > women may possess in greater amounts than men,
        > and that is Compassion. And that is perhaps why
        > there have been so many women ready to fill with
        > the blessed knowledge and practice of meditation.
        > I hope you enjoy and benefit from this article in
        > spite of its scientific jargon:
        >
        > Gender Differences Found In Forgiveness
        > Forgiveness can be a powerful means to healing, but
        > it does not come naturally for both sexes. Men have
        > a harder time forgiving than women do, according to
        > Case Western Reserve University psychologist Julie
        > Juola Exline. But that can change if men develop
        > empathy toward an offender by seeing they may also
        > be capable of similar actions. Then the gender gap
        > closes, and men become less vengeful.
        >
        > Exline is the lead author on the Journal of Personality
        > and Social Psychology's article, "Not so Innocent: Does
        > Seeing One's Own Capability for Wrongdoing Predict
        > Forgiveness?" She collaborated with researchers Roy
        > Baumeister and Anne Zell from Florida State University;
        > Amy Kraft from Arizona State; and Charlotte Witvliet
        > from Hope College.
        >
        > In seven forgiveness-related studies Exline conducted
        > between 1998 through 2005 with more than 1,400 college
        > students, gender differences between men and women
        > consistently emerged. When asked to recall offenses
        > they had committed personally, men became less vengeful
        > toward people who had offended them. Women reflecting
        > on personal offenses, and beginning at a lower baseline
        > for vengeance, exhibited no differences in levels of
        > unforgiving. When women had to recall a similar offense
        > in relation to the other's offense, women felt guilty
        > and tended to magnify the other's offense.
        >
        > "The gender difference is not anything that we predicted.
        > We actually got aggravated, because we kept getting it
        > over and over again in our studies," said Exline. "We
        > kept trying to explain it away, but it kept repeating
        > in the experiments."
        >
        > The John Templeton Foundation-supported studies used
        > hypothetical situations, actual recalled offenses,
        > individual and group situations and surveys to study
        > the ability to forgive.
        >
        > Exline said prior studies have shown that at baseline
        > (without any interventions), men tend to be more
        > vengeful than women, who have been taught from
        > childhood to put themselves "in the shoes of others"
        > and empathize with them.
        >
        > In Exline's study, women who recalled similar offenses
        > of their own did not show much difference in their
        > levels of vengeance, in contrast to men. Women, having
        > been taught from an early age to be more empathetic,
        > lean toward relationship building and do not emphasize
        > the vengeful side of justice to the degree that men do.
        >
        > The researchers found that people of both genders are
        > more forgiving when they see themselves as capable of
        > committing a similar action to the offender's; it tends
        > to make the offense seem smaller. Seeing capability
        > also increases empathic understanding of the offense
        > and causes people to feel more similar to the offenders.
        > Each of these factors, in turn, predicts more forgiving
        > attitudes.
        >
        > "Offenses are easier to forgive to the extent that
        > they seem small and understandable and when we see
        > ourselves as similar or close to the offender," she said.
        >
        > Exline found this ability to identify with the offender
        > and forgive also happens in intergroup conflicts in a
        > study that she related to forgiveness of the 9/11 terrorists.
        >
        > "When people could envision their own government
        > committing acts similar to those of the terrorists,
        > they were less vengeful," she stressed. "For example,
        > they were less likely to believe that perpetrators
        > should be killed on the spot or given the death
        > penalty, and they were more supportive of negotiations
        > and economic aid."
        >
        > ----------------------------
        > Article adapted by Medical News Today from original press release.
        > ----------------------------
        >
        >
        >

        _________________________________________________________________
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      • jogeshwarmahanta
        From the swayambar pandal Bhishma took away Amba,Ambika and Ambalika for getting them married to his step brothers Chitrangada and Bichitraveerya. Amba said
        Message 3 of 3 , Mar 4, 2008
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          From the swayambar pandal Bhishma took away Amba,Ambika and Ambalika
          for getting them married to his step brothers Chitrangada and
          Bichitraveerya. Amba said that she already loved king Shalwa. So
          with full dignity Bhishma sent her to Shalwa. Shalwa refused to
          marry her. So she came back and asked Bhishma to marry her. Bhishma
          said that on oath he was a celebate. So he would not marry. Then she
          went to the Ashram of her maternal grand father to seek help. Her
          maternal grand father expressed his inability. Suddenly Parasuram,
          the guru of Bhishma appeared there. Listening the story he went to
          Bhishma and asked him to marry her. Bhishma declined. So Parsuram
          asked to be ready for a war. The war between Bhishma and Parasuram
          went for 23 days. On 23rd day he got a mantra in dream to get
          Praswap arrow which would kill Parasuram.

          On the next day in the battlefield Bhishma reverberated the mantra
          and got Praswap arrow. While going to use it, Narad was seen in the
          sky to stop Bhishma from using the arrow. So Bhishma requested Narad
          to ask Parasuram to pull back. So Parasuram pulled back on the
          request of Narad. He came back and told to Amba that he was help
          less.

          Amba in turn did tapadya for 3 births to get the power to kill
          Bhishma. In her third birth she became Shikhandini and became the
          cause of the fall of Bhishma in Mahabharat war but not the killer.

          Now there are plenty Ambas and plenty Parasurams too. How to
          become sure that these researchers are not Parasurams?
          regards






          --- In meditationsocietyofamerica@yahoogroups.com, medit8ionsociety
          <no_reply@...> wrote:
          >
          > Over the years we had 4000+ students in our
          > Adult Education Meditation classes, and I'd
          > guess that 75% of them were female. This
          > article seems to point to a characteristic that
          > goes hand in hand with Humility as the most
          > important factors in spiritual evolution that
          > women may possess in greater amounts than men,
          > and that is Compassion. And that is perhaps why
          > there have been so many women ready to fill with
          > the blessed knowledge and practice of meditation.
          > I hope you enjoy and benefit from this article in
          > spite of its scientific jargon:
          >
          > Gender Differences Found In Forgiveness
          > Forgiveness can be a powerful means to healing, but
          > it does not come naturally for both sexes. Men have
          > a harder time forgiving than women do, according to
          > Case Western Reserve University psychologist Julie
          > Juola Exline. But that can change if men develop
          > empathy toward an offender by seeing they may also
          > be capable of similar actions. Then the gender gap
          > closes, and men become less vengeful.
          >
          > Exline is the lead author on the Journal of Personality
          > and Social Psychology's article, "Not so Innocent: Does
          > Seeing One's Own Capability for Wrongdoing Predict
          > Forgiveness?" She collaborated with researchers Roy
          > Baumeister and Anne Zell from Florida State University;
          > Amy Kraft from Arizona State; and Charlotte Witvliet
          > from Hope College.
          >
          > In seven forgiveness-related studies Exline conducted
          > between 1998 through 2005 with more than 1,400 college
          > students, gender differences between men and women
          > consistently emerged. When asked to recall offenses
          > they had committed personally, men became less vengeful
          > toward people who had offended them. Women reflecting
          > on personal offenses, and beginning at a lower baseline
          > for vengeance, exhibited no differences in levels of
          > unforgiving. When women had to recall a similar offense
          > in relation to the other's offense, women felt guilty
          > and tended to magnify the other's offense.
          >
          > "The gender difference is not anything that we predicted.
          > We actually got aggravated, because we kept getting it
          > over and over again in our studies," said Exline. "We
          > kept trying to explain it away, but it kept repeating
          > in the experiments."
          >
          > The John Templeton Foundation-supported studies used
          > hypothetical situations, actual recalled offenses,
          > individual and group situations and surveys to study
          > the ability to forgive.
          >
          > Exline said prior studies have shown that at baseline
          > (without any interventions), men tend to be more
          > vengeful than women, who have been taught from
          > childhood to put themselves "in the shoes of others"
          > and empathize with them.
          >
          > In Exline's study, women who recalled similar offenses
          > of their own did not show much difference in their
          > levels of vengeance, in contrast to men. Women, having
          > been taught from an early age to be more empathetic,
          > lean toward relationship building and do not emphasize
          > the vengeful side of justice to the degree that men do.
          >
          > The researchers found that people of both genders are
          > more forgiving when they see themselves as capable of
          > committing a similar action to the offender's; it tends
          > to make the offense seem smaller. Seeing capability
          > also increases empathic understanding of the offense
          > and causes people to feel more similar to the offenders.
          > Each of these factors, in turn, predicts more forgiving
          > attitudes.
          >
          > "Offenses are easier to forgive to the extent that
          > they seem small and understandable and when we see
          > ourselves as similar or close to the offender," she said.
          >
          > Exline found this ability to identify with the offender
          > and forgive also happens in intergroup conflicts in a
          > study that she related to forgiveness of the 9/11 terrorists.
          >
          > "When people could envision their own government
          > committing acts similar to those of the terrorists,
          > they were less vengeful," she stressed. "For example,
          > they were less likely to believe that perpetrators
          > should be killed on the spot or given the death
          > penalty, and they were more supportive of negotiations
          > and economic aid."
          >
          > ----------------------------
          > Article adapted by Medical News Today from original press release.
          > ----------------------------
          >
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