Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

Some Early Ornamented Leatherwork: Book Satchels and Bindings; Irish Shoes; Scottish/Irish Targes; A-S Bed

Expand Messages
  • rmhowe
    Since this is -out of copyright- as I understand the Berne Convention and it took me six or so years to obtain an original Journal for myself I will submit the
    Message 1 of 1 , Sep 18, 2004
    • 0 Attachment
      Since this is -out of copyright- as I understand the Berne
      Convention and it took me six or so years to obtain an original
      Journal for myself I will submit the following article for your
      perusal. I have noted the citations of the plates, which
      unfortunately I have no means of sending. It does however
      contain a wealth of information about early medieval leatherwork
      with additional notes below on other resources, including some
      illustrations on the web which are pertinent:

      Buckley, J.J. in:
      Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland:
      Series VI, Vol. V, Part IV, 31, December 1915:
      Contents:
      Thomas Johnson Westropp, MA, Fellow, Prehistoric Remains
      (Forts and Dolmens) in Burren and its South-Western Border, Co. Clare,
      Park XII: -North-Western Part- continued (illustrated)... page 249- 274.

      Goddard H. Pripen, M.R.I.A, Member - The Normans in Tirowen and
      Tirconnell...275-88.
      H.Th. Knox, Fellow - Rath Brenainn (illustrated) 289-99.
      *** J.J. Buckley, Member - Some Early Ornamented Leatherwork -
      (Illustrated) pp. 300-309,
      "The ornamentation of leatherwork, (1) [The technique of the
      ornamentation applied to the objects described in this paper consists
      of - (1) simple tooling, as in modern bookbinding, or (2) softening
      and impressing (cuir bouilli), or (3) incising with a sharp instrument.]
      classed in our day as one of the minor arts, held a relatively important
      position in the domain of applied art in the early Christian and
      mediaeval periods in Ireland. There are, it is true, very few
      examples surviving from those early times, a fact due of course,
      to the perishable nature of the material. These survivors are,
      however, of such a character as to indicate to us that even when
      dealing with such a substance so commonplace as leather, the art
      craftsmen of those days did not disdain to expend on it all the
      resources of their artistic skill. The beauty of the art products
      of those old Irish craftsmen in metal and stone, and on vellum,
      is now so well known and so widely recognised that there is not
      any necessity to deal collectively with the objects which remain
      to us, and it will, perhaps, serve some useful purpose to group
      together in the Journal for convenient reference figures and
      descriptions of as many as possible of the known specimens.
      Satchel in Trinity College, Dublin, (Plates xxv - front, back,
      and xxiv - top, bottom and sides) in Trinity College, Dublin.
      “The Satchel associated with the Book of Armagh, in the Library of
      Trinity College, Dublin, is the most elaborately ornamented of
      the leather objects which have survived. It is formed of a single
      oblong piece of leather, folded and stitched so as to form a
      wallet-shaped receptacle about 12 inches high, nearly 13 inches
      wide, and 2 1/2 inches in thickness. The outer surface is
      entirely covered with impressed ornament, consisting of bands
      and medallions of inter-laced ribbonwork, medallions of single
      and interlocked double and triple grotesque animal forms, and
      two bands of debased spiral ornament. Petrie refers to one of
      these bands as “triplicate pear-shaped ornament”; the other
      he describes as ’the cross formed between four segments of
      circles within a circle.(1) [The Round Towers of Ireland]
      One medallion contains a curious device in the form of a cross,
      the details of which are suggestive of Gothic letters used as
      Roman numerals. Were those intended as a date, or as an index
      number for the contents of the satchel?
      The Book of Armagh, a manuscript containing copies of the
      Gospels and other matter, is attributed to Ferdomnach, who
      died in the early part of the ninth century.
      (2)[Graves]
      The satchel , which is probably a good deal later, was obviously
      not made for the manuscript, the leaves of this measuring only
      7 3/4 inches by 5 3/4 inches. Besides, the book is thicker than
      the receptacle.(3)[Facilities for making the photographs of this
      satchel were very kindly given by Mr. Deburgh, the Assistant
      Librarian.
      Satchel Contained in the National Museum, Dublin (Plate xxvi
      front and back with strap) The Satchel associated with the shrine
      called the Breac Moedo’ig, in the Irish Antiquities Division of
      our National Museum, like that associated with the Book of Armagh,
      is an oblong piece of leather, folded and stitched. The flap is
      missing. The ornament, whilst not so elaborate as that of the
      Trinity College satchel, is more elegant in design, consisting
      of two different schemes of bold interlacing on the back and
      front, and ont the ends two bands of flowing tendrils. The design
      on the front covers only about two-thirds of the space, the upper
      portion, which would have been hidden by the flap being plain.
      The Strap by which it was carried still remains, but it is not
      decorated. The height of the satchel is about 9 inches, and the
      width about 10 1/2 inches.
      As with the Trinity College satchel, there is not much
      reason to doubt that it was originally made for the object
      associated with it. The shrine is of the cha^sse type - that
      is, the form is that of a house or church with a high-pitched
      roof; whilst the satchel, with its parallel lines, was
      apparently intended to receive an object of a different
      shape and size.(4)[The Council of the Royal Irish Academy
      kindly granted permission to reproduce the photographs of this
      satchel.]
      Satchel in Oxford (Plate xxvii patched front? with various
      straps laced together) - In the Library of Corpus Christi College,
      Oxford, is an old Irish missal, enclosed in a satchel, which,
      judging from the closeness of the fitting appears to have been
      specially made for it. The missal is about six inches high and
      about 5 inches wide, and is very thick consisting of 211 pages
      of vellum. It fits snugly into the satchel, and although the
      latter shows signs of having been a good deal used, the ornament
      remains quite visible. This is a bold design of interlaced bands,
      running lozenge-wise in pairs, and having a closed ring made of
      a single band interlacing each of the crossings, somewhat
      resembling the design on the back of the satchel of the Breac
      Moedo’ig. The sling strap, much broken and repaired with thongs,
      still remains attached to it.
      (1)[The authorities of the College, through the librarian, Mr.
      Livingstone, kindly permitted the reproduction of a photograph
      of this satchel.
      Bookbinding in the Franciscan Library, Dublin (plates xxviii
      obvers / xxix reverse / xxx hinge end) - One of the many treasures
      in the Library of the Franciscan Convent, Merchant’s Quay, Dublin,
      is a seventeenth century vellum Life of St Columba, which, in all
      probability, first belonged to the Franciscan Convent in Donegal,
      and was carried to the Irish Franciscan Convent of St. Antony of
      Padua at Louvanin by Michael O’Cleary, who died there in 1643.
      At the time of the French Revolution the collection at Louvain
      was broken up, some of the manuscripts being taken to Brussels,
      and others to the Francisan Convent of Sant’ Isidoro, Rome.
      The Life of St Columba was probably amongst the latter. At any
      rate it was one of a number of Irish Manuscripts brought thence,
      in 1872, to its present resting place, by permission of the
      General of the Franciscan Order.
      This valuable manuscript is bound in a cover of dark brown
      leather, tooled over the whole of the outer surface. It measures
      about 13 inches in height and about 9 inches in width. The front
      design consistes of three horizontal bands of interlacing, with
      two intermediate strips of what may, perhaps, be described as
      debased fret ornament. The other side is made up of twelve
      squares each, enclosed with interlaced bands, and having closed
      rings at the angles, somewhat resembling the design on the Oxford
      satchel and the back of the satchel of the Breac Moedo’ig. The
      hinge is tooled with tooled with with a very simple fret pattern.
      (2)[Father O’Reilly, the Librarian, very kindly permitted the
      cover to be photographed for this paper.]
      The design on the front, somewhat modified, was taken by the
      late Dr. Abbot for the block used on the cover of his valuable
      work, _Celtic Ornaments from the Book of Kells_.
      Bookbinding in Stonyhurst College (Plate xxxi, one view,
      front and back well illus., spine curved in and obscured by
      shadow - what‘s there looks like wrinkles) - There is in the
      celebrated College of Stonyhurst, Lancashire, an interesting
      binding on a manuscript copy of the Gospel of St John. It is
      composed of two thin boards of lime-wood 5 1/2 inches high
      and 3 1/4 inches wide, covered with dark crimson-stained leather.
      On the front is a panel divided into three compartments
      surrounded by a narrow border. The central compartment is
      occupied by a foliated ornament in good relief, bearing traces
      of colour. The upper and lower compartments have interlaced
      ornaments - the fine lines forming these being coloured blue
      or yellow. The border is formed of two fine lines arranged
      en guilloche. The other side has a plain wide border of two
      fillets enclosing a trellis pattern, all done in fine incised
      lines.
      According to an inscription on the first leaf of the
      manuscript, it was found on the body of St Cuthbert (d. 687)
      when his tomb was opened in 1105. At the spoliation of the
      monasteries in the 16th century the volume was annexed by Dr.
      Lee, one of the Commissioners of Henry the Eighth. It
      afterwards came into the possession of the English Jesuits,
      with whom it remains at present. In 1806 it was exhibited at
      the Society of Antiquaries, London, when the suggestion was
      made that the binding “was made in the time of Queen Elizabeth.”
      In 1862 it was included in an exhibition at South Kensington
      Museum, and the manuscript and the binding were described as
      caeval/coeval (linked 2/3 letters)- i.e., seventh century.
      To this opinion Mr. W.H.J. Weale inclined when cataloguing
      the rubbings of bindings in the National Art Library in 1898.
      He says the binding “stands quite by itself as the only known
      specimen of ornamental binding anterior to the twelfth century.”
      Count Plunkett, who has made a special study of bookbindings,
      places it as late as the beginning of the 17th century.
      Mr. H.S. Crawford, B.E., has noticed a similarity between the
      ornament in the central compartment and a panel he calls the
      “vine ornament” on the High Cross at Duleek.(1)[The president
      of Stonyhurst College, Re. Wm. Bodkin, S.J., kindly supplied
      a photograph at the instance of Re. Professor Browne, National
      University of Ireland.]
      Shield in the National Museum, Dublin - In 1908 an
      extremely interesting shield of bull’s hide was dug out of a
      bog near Clonbrin, Co. Longford, and was presented to the Royal
      Irish Academy by Colonel W.H. King-Harman, D.L., on whose
      estate it was found. It was stated to have been embedded in
      the peat at a depth of 9 feet below the surface. Slightly oval
      in shape, it measures 20 inches by 19 inches approximately,
      and bears in relief concentric rings, and studs in groups of
      three, around a large umbo. A Bronze shield from Loch Gur,
      Co. Limerick, also in the National Museum, the ornamentation
      on which likewise cosists of concentric rings and studs, has
      been assigned to the Late Bronze Age, which in the British Isles
      ended about the fifth century B.C.. And while it is difficult
      to imagine that the leather shield is at all as old as the
      bronze one, even making allowance for the antiseptic properties
      of the peat in which it was found embedded, yet it is of
      sufficiently great antiquity to cause us to marvel at its good
      state of preservation.
      This shield has been fully described by one of our
      Vice-Presidents, Mr. E.C.R. Armstrong, F.S.A., in the
      Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. xxvii.
      Shield in the Collection of Mr. D.M. Bell (plate xxxii,
      frontal full view only) - A very beautiful shield was lent
      to the Art and Industrial Division of the National Museum by
      Mr. David M. Bell, of Belfast, in 1914. Mr. Bell had obtained
      it from a member of the Hamilton-Rowan family, in whose
      possession it had been for many years. It is a circular shield,
      19 inches in diameter, approximating to that of the shield which
      in Scotland is known as the targe. The material is deer-hide laid
      down on two plies of thin board, arranged so that the grain of one
      crosses that of the other at right angles--to prevent warping.
      It bears an elaborate scheme of impressed interlaced ornament,
      consisting of three broad concentric rings, each divided into
      four equal parts by two lines running entirely across the shield
      at right angles to each other, and thus dividing it into twelve
      separate compartments of interlacing. All the four panels into
      which each is divided contain the same interlaced design : but
      the design in each ring is different from that in the other two.
      The whole scheme is very beautiful, and it has been very
      skilfully worked out. Rows of brass nails, many of which are
      now missing, outlined the panels, thus making four complete
      circles of nails, and four straight lines, running from the
      outer edge towards the centre. In addition there were two
      groups of three nails each in each of the four panels of the
      innermost ring. There is no umbo, or boss, nor is there any
      trace of anything of the kind being applied to the centre,
      which is quite flat and undecorated, save for the crossing
      of the impressed lines above mentioned.
      Shoes in the National Museum, Dublin - There is a numerous
      collection of boots and shoes in the Irish Antiquities Division
      of the National Museum, but only three of the later come within
      the scope of this paper.
      One from Carrigallen Co. Leitrim, figured at page 284 of
      Wilde’s Catalogue, and at page 74 of the R.I.A. Celtic
      Christian Guide (1910) bears incised interlaced ornament on
      the instep and fret pattern at the heel. It was evidently made
      for a personage of good position. Mr. Coffey places it
      “probably not later than the eleventh century.”
      Two others -- not a pair, from Cragywarren Crannog, Co.
      Antrim, have incised, spiral ornament, and are assigned to a
      period not “later than the ninth century.” They are figured at
      page 73 of the R.I.A. Celtic Christian Guide.
      Case of St Malachy’s Cup at Obrier - The following is
      taken from O’Laverty’s _Down and Connor_, vol. v.pp. 130,131 :--
      “Father Patrick Fleming, the writer of the Collectanea Sacra,
      wrote to Father Hugh Ward, then engaged in collecting the notices
      of the Irish saints which were afterwards published by Father John
      Colgan, a letter which was published with a translation by Cardinal
      Moran in the Irish Ecclesiastical Record for November, 1870.
      “ ’ Rev. Father, --I wrote to you from the Clairvaux . . .
      We met another memorial of St Malachy in the monastery of Obrier,
      which is about ten leagues distant from Clairvaux, that is, the
      cup which he brought with him from Ireland, and from which we had
      the privilege of drinking. It is made of wood, and its cover or
      case is more precious than itself, being of leather wonderfully
      embossed and adorned with intertwinings according to the Irish
      style, of singular ornamentation generally used on the sheaths
      of oblong knives. . . “ Lyons, 8th May, 1623.’
      “The following is the original Latin description of the cup and
      its cover : -- ’ Est autem ligneus, et cooperculum seu bursa sius
      ipso practiosior est, ex corio multis nodis et pressuris varie
      incisis more Hibernico in vaginis oblongorum cultrorum curiose
      decorandis servari solito.’ ”
      Mr. Charles M’Neill, our Hon. Gen. Secretary, who gave me the
      above citation, note that Fleming speaks as if that style of
      decoration were customary in his own day---”servari solito.”
      The Tanning of Leather - There is quite good evidence that
      the Irish in very early times were acquainted with the use of
      oak bark for converting hides into leather. Two citations will
      suffice.
      One is from a manuscript in Trinity College relating to the
      Brehon Laws. It is quoted in O’Donovan’s _Irish Grammar_,
      page 448, and is translated : “Bark for tanning [a pair of]
      shoes, or a bridle, as told in the books : there in an inherent
      right to strip it from a neighboring tree, so as it is not
      exceeded. If it is exceeded, however, if it be bark for tanning
      a cow-hide that is stripped, the penalty is two women’s shoes
      worth half a a screpall. . . .(1)[Screpul, screaball
      (= scripulus .) .i. secht pinginne oir, seven pennies of
      gold (Stokes, _Lives of the Saints from the Book of Lismore_,
      p. 399).]
      The other citation is from the “Life of St Colum Cille” in
      the _Book of Lismore_’ (Stokes), P. 176). It also describes
      a penalty, but of another kind--namely, the penalty of Sacrilege.
      “Now there was a great oak tree under which Colomb Cille dwelt
      while he was in that place (Cennanus, Kells), and it remained
      to these later times, when it fell through the crash of a
      mighty wind. And a certain man took somewhat of its bark to
      tan his shoes withal. Now when he did on the shoes he was
      smitten with leprosy from his sole to his crown.”
      The material in the several objects described here has the
      appearance of leather ; but it is not possible to say with any
      degree of certainty that this appearance of having been
      subjected to the process of tanning may not, at any rate in some
      instances, be attributed to the effects of time and use.
      Satchels - The references to book satchels are, as might
      be expected, fairly numerous in the early writings describing
      the doings of the Irish missionaries. One of the most
      interesting of these is indicated in a description by Miss
      Stokes (Six Months in the Apennines, p. 158) of the sarcophagus
      containing the body of St Colombanus in Bobio. Giving details
      of the five compartments containing representations in
      bas-relief of incidents in the life of the Saint she says --
      “ The first represents the miracle of the Saint in the forest
      of Bobio, when he commanded the bear to submit to the yoke
      of the bullock. Here it should be noted that the book satchel
      is carried in the hand of St Columban, according to the custom
      of his country-men. This may be a representation, made in 1484,
      of the very book-satchel which contained the Bobion MS. of the
      Gospels of St Mark and St Matthew, now numbered G. vii in the
      National Gallery of Turin, which is thus spoken of by Dr.
      Worksworth : --
      “ : The chief interest attaching to our manuscript arises
      from the tradition which connects it to the life of St.
      Columban, generally esteemed the earliest of those noble
      Celtic missionaries who evangelized Central Europe. The
      inscription still found in the volume declares that ‘
      “ According to tradition that was the same book which the
      blessed Abbot Columban was accustomed to carry about with
      him in his satchel.” It was, therefore, if this to be true,
      the companion of those travels wich ended at Bobio in 613,
      about two years before his death.’ ”
      The use of the strap attached to the satchel was two-fold.
      The more obvious purpose related to the carrying of the book
      from place to place outside the monastery. But the strap
      served another purpose, which is revealed in a couple of
      passages in the Calendar of Oengus : -- “ In tan din ba marb
      Longarad issed innisit eolaig tiaga, lebar Erenn dothuitim
      inaidchesin : “
      Translated by Whitney Stokes --
      “Now when Longarad was dead, men of lore say this, that the
      book-satchels of Ireland fell down on that night.”
      And --
      “No isiat natiaga irabutar liubair cechdanai isinaracul
      iraibe Colum Cille rothuitset and 7 machtnaigid Colum Cillle
      7 cach bui sintigsin 7 sochtait uile fri tairmchrith na lebar:“
      Translated -- Or it is the satchels wherein books of every
      science, in the cell where Columbcille was, that fell then,
      and Colombbcille and everyone in that house marvel, and all
      are silent at the noisy shaking of the books.”
      It is somewhat difficult to realise that the usage
      indicated in these passages, of suspending from hooks in the
      walls the satchels containing the service-books, still
      obtained in the nineteenth century amongst communities of
      relgious men. The Hon Robert Curzon in his interesting book,
      _Visits to Monasteries of the Levant_(1)[London, 1849] has
      described such an apartment as the one indicated above.
      When visiting the Monastery of Souriani, on the Natron Lakes,
      Abyssinia, he saw the monks carry suspended from a shoulder
      strap, “a case like a cartridge-box, of thick brown leather,
      containing a manuscript book.” Their library contained,
      “perhaps nearly fifty volumes.” “The room was about 26 feet
      long, 20 feet wide, and 12 feet high ; the roof was formed
      of the trunks of palm trees, across which reeds were laid,
      which supported the mass of earth and plaster of which the
      terrace was composed ; the interior of the walls was plastered
      white with lime ; the windows, at a good height from the
      ground, were unglazed, but were defended with bards of
      iron-wood, or some other hard wood ; the door opened into
      the garden, and its lock, which was of wood also, has been
      used in Egypt from time immemorial. A wooden shelf was
      carried, in the Egyptian style round the walls, at the
      height of the top of the door, and on this shelf stood
      sundry platters, bottles and dishes for the use of the
      community. Underneath the shelf various wooden pegs
      projected from the wall; they were each about a foot and
      a half long, and on them hung the Abyssinian manuscripts,
      of which this curious library was entirely composed.”
      “The books of Abyssinia are bound in the usual way,
      sometimes in red leather and sometimes in wooden boards,
      which are occasionally elaborately carved in rude and
      coarse devices; they are then enclosed in a case, tied up
      with leather thongs ; to this case is attached a strap
      for the convenience of carrying the volume over the shoulders,
      and by these straps the books were hung to the wooden pegs,
      three or four on a peg, or more if the books were small;
      their usual size was that of a small very thick quarto.
      The appearance of the room . . . resembled less a library
      than a barrack or guard-room, where the soldiers had hung
      up their knapsacks and cartridge-boxes against the wall.”
      In the _Book of Lismore_ there are several references
      to book-satchels. The two following pages are taken with,
      with the translations, from Whitley Stokes’ _Lives of the
      Saints_ : --
      “Uair babes dosom crosa 7 polaire 7 tiagha leabur 7
      aidhme eclusdai arcena [do denum]. Senais immorro .ccc.
      cros 7 tiprat 7 .c. polire 7 .c. bachall 7 tiagh.”
      “For it was his wont (i.e. St Colomb-Cille’s) to make
      crosses, and writing tablets, and book-satchels, and
      other church gear. Now he sained three hundred crosses,
      and three hundred wells, and a hundred tablets, and a
      hundred croziers, and a hundred satchels.”
      “. . . . co tuc-side Colum mac Crimhthain cona
      theigh liubhar.”
      “and (the guardian angel) brought Colum, som on Crimhthan,
      with his book satchel” : (to St Findian of Clonard on his
      death bed).
      The use of the word “ polaire “ above alongside “tiagh“
      and “tiagha leabur“ is noteworthy.
      Its later use as a synonym of “ tiagh liubair “ is curious.
      The derivation seems to be from pugillar, a writing tablet.
      Irish and Scottish Shields - Edmund Spenser, writing
      in 1597, describes the Irish as using “round leather targets.”
      He also saw in use amongst the northern Irish and the Irish
      Scots a long wicker shield that should cover their whole
      bodies. He did not see this shield in the southern parts
      of Ireland.(1)[View of the State of Ireland. Henry Morley,
      London, 1890. p. 100.
      There is in the collection of the O’Donovan of Lissard
      a circular shield of deer-skin on a wood base about 19 inches
      in diameter, which is reputed to have belonged to the last
      Chieftain of the O’Donovan family, in the sixteenth century.
      It is studded with brass nails arranged in a sort of sexfoil
      design, and it has a bronze boss, or umbo, about an inch in
      height in the centre.(2)[Journal of the Royal Historical and
      Archaeological Association of Ireland (1879-82, p. 443).
      Scottish Shields, a good many of which have survived, and
      are preserved in public and private collections in Scotland,
      are of three kinds---namely the buckler, about 12 inches in
      diameter, used in the Lowlands; the target, about 3 feet in
      diameter ; and the targe, a sort of compromise between the
      other two, about 18 inches in diameter, used chiefly in the
      Highlands."
      - end of arcticle in its entirety sans plates -
      xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
      It might be worth noting here that Cumdachs and Polaires
      have long been illustrated on the following webpage:
      http://www.eskimo.com/~hmiller/cumdachs.html

      Also that Waterer, John W. wrote the following article:
      ‘Irish Book-Satchels or Budgets’;
      in Medieval Archaeology vol. 12, 1968, pp.70-82.
      This is a complementary work on Book Satchels as described
      in Buckley.

      A similarly related work:
      Wilson, David M., F.S.A: An Anglo-Saxon Bookbinding at Fulda
      (Codex Bonifatianus); Antiquaries Journal 41, 1961,
      pp. 199-217 and plates XXXV-VIII, including five figures.
      Probably binding is Northumbrian of late seventh century /
      eighth century date. Depicts metal mounts, schematic drawings
      of both covers, the press-blech pattern (patterned metal foil
      made on a matrix), photos of front and back, mounts, detail
      of Hexham bucket (similar design), channel and cord inside
      the back board, reconstruction of the lower cover with
      mounts (this thing is tooled). several similar bookbinding
      mounts from three other finds, an Anglo-Saxon bookbinding
      stamp from Swanley, Kent (A round stamp with a short tang
      and a celtic knot style cross design), disposition of the
      stamps on the lower front cover, binding mechanism (channels
      cut in the front and back boards) shown diagrammatically,
      general and historical descriptions of the whole book.

      And one which contains an early satchel:
      Speake, G.: A Saxon Bed Burial on Swallowcliffe Down (Wiltshire)
      English Heritage Archaeological Report, English Heritage,
      London 10, 1989, vii, 135 pp, pls, figs, table, refs, index,
      18#, paper, 1850742111, "A BA barrow had been excavated by
      L. and F. de M Vatcher in 1966 had been reused in 7th C AD for
      a richly furnished Anglo-Saxon inhumation of a female aged
      18 to 25 years. She lay on an ash wood bed with elaborate iron
      fittings, and was surrounded by high quality grave-goods
      including an iron bound bucket, a maplewood casket containing
      a sprinkler, a spoon, and personal items, an ornate satchel
      with gold foil mounts of possible Christian significance,
      and a bronze-mounted bucket. The burial’s significance is
      considered in its local and national context. Documentary
      and topographical evidence suggest the possible identification
      of the barrow with Posses Hlaewe, recorded in a charter of AD 940."
      OS report 10. Publ: 1/1/89
      ISBN: 01-85074-211-1 £22.20 PRODUCT CODE: XA13010
      Price: Paperback £10 / Customer Services on 0870 333 1181 or
      customers@... Copies of the English Heritage
      publications are available from Room 209, 23 Savile Row,
      London W1X 1AB http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/
      A leather satchel of 800 AD. Remains of the satchel, satchel
      reconstructed; fancy satchel mounts with archaeological
      comparisons to other jewellery.
      Looks a bit like St. Cuthbert's cross to me; Moylough,
      Ireland belt reliquary. Ardagh Chalice fitting; various mould
      fragments from the Mote of Mark.
      Big Bibliography.
      .............
      Several years ago I obtained from Unicorn Ltd
      http://www.scotpress.com :
      Drummond, James: Highland Targets and Other Shields; 70pp. pb.
      "Full color, heavy paper reprint of the 1873 edition (which was
      issued in a limited run of just 50), with additional material
      by Drummond on shields. Many of you are familiar with Drummond's
      work on Ancient Scottish Weapons; this is an additional, little
      known work which concentrates upon the targets and other shields
      used in the Highlands, with illustrations and text on them.
      Such information always is difficult to locate, and this
      invaluable study shows numerous shields and their designs in
      great detail."
      SP-197. $24.95 plus shipping from http://www.scotpress.com/ 2/02
      It may now be available on CD-ROM as they are reproducing more
      and more books that way that are out of print.
      .............
      On Irish Shoes one article in particular is the most extensive:
      Lucas, A.T.: Footwear in Ireland; Journal of the Archaeological
      Society of County Louth, Vol. XIII, Number. 4, pp.309-94,
      (a lot of which involves making a sock style peculiar to the
      Irish) 1956. (Boston College - O'Neill Library).

      They also appear briefly but less extensively for the number
      of examples of these very handsome one-piece shoes in:
      Hald, Margrethe: Primitive Shoes, An Archaeological-Ethnological
      Study based upon Shoe Finds from the Jutland Peninsula; (Covers
      also Eng.(York), Scotland, Faeroes, Ireland, Norway, Sweden,
      Finland, Aaland, Estonia, Norway, and Iceland). National Museum
      of Denmark, Copenhagen 1972. Publications of the National Museum
      Archaeological-Historical Series I Vol. XIII, Printed by Bianco
      Lunos Bogtrykkeri A/S, Copenhagen Copyright by the National
      Museum, Copenhagen 1972, ISBN 87-480-7282-6
      Prior to _Stepping Through Time_ this was the book to obtain for
      early shoes.
      xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
      Master Magnus Malleus, OL, SCA; Regia.org; The Manx; Great
      Dark Horde; mundanely a member of the Society of Archer-Antiquaries.
      *****
      Please do NOT resend this to usenet newsgroups like rec.org.sca.
      - I don't need the spam or arguments this would generate. -
      I avoid newsgroups like the plague.

      However, you may resend it on to various subscriber based
      email groups like your local medieval group; your kingdom,
      barony, canton, shire, or arts list, friends, etc.
      This is a non-profit service to the medieval reenactors at
      large. Please respect that. Thank You.

      Marc Carlson and Sandy Sempel may use this on their webpages
      if they like. So may the http://www.Florilegium.org/ and
      the Atenveldt A&S newletter.
      *****

      * I promised the Tournaments Illuminated editor some book reviews
      a month ago but I have been out of town for nearly a month working
      on my late parent's extensive estate. I will try to get to them.
      Right now I am in a bit worse shape and pain than usual from the
      activity.

      I'm also over 500 emails behind and for some reason the filter
      dumps some new ones in the trash doubling my load to find them.
      If you wrote to me please don't think I have ignored you.

      Magnus
    Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.