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Renaissance Music and First Printed Music

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  • doctorcrichton@aol.com
    Music Theory :: (http://www.dolmetsch.com/musictheory36.htm#top) * The sixteenth-century saw the revival of certain aspects of ancient Greek musical
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      Music Theory :: (http://www.dolmetsch.com/musictheory36.htm#top)

      * The sixteenth-century saw the revival of certain aspects of ancient
      Greek musical practice. The application of Greek thought to music lingered
      behind other fields because the Greek writings on music were generally rather
      technical. The situation was not helped either by the lack of existing
      translations from the Greek into either Latin or the vernacular. The only widely
      available text that preserved Greek music treatises in Latin was the De
      institutione musica of Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius (c.480-c.525). This text
      played a central role in shaping the thought of Nicola Vicentino (1511-1576),
      the author of L'Antica Musica ridotta alla moderna prattica, first published
      in Rome, 1555, and reprinted in 1557, that attempted to revive the Greek
      musical system, reconcile it with contemporary practice, and demonstrate its
      applicability to contemporary composition. Vicentino adapted the three genera
      (diatonic, chromatic, and enharmonic) of the tetrachord to the Western musical
      system. Each genus consists of four notes (hence, tetrachord) spanning the
      interval of a perfect fourth (e.g. C-F), of which the two outside notes are
      fixed, and the two interior notes move according to the genus. The diatonic and
      chromatic genera can be accommodated within the prevailing musical system in
      the West; the enharmonic genus, however, requires a division of the semitone,
      which is normally the smallest interval in the Western system. Consequently,
      Vicentino devised a special keyboard instrument, the archicembalo, that used
      thirty-one keys for the octave (instead of the usual twelve in conventional
      keyboards). His motivation in reintroducing these genera was to recapture
      the legendary power of ancient music to affect the soul, particularly, in the
      modern application, through the expression of the sentiments of sung literary
      text. Plato and Aristotle insisted that various modes had different ethical
      effects. Renaissance theorists and composers mistakenly assumed that the old
      Greek modes were identical to the similarly-named Church modes and that the
      legendary powers of the former could be attributed to the latter. Vicentino
      seems to have been unaware of the principal ancient sources for tetrachord
      theory, Aristoxenus (fl 300 BC) and Ptolemy (fl 120 AD). Rather, Vicentino's
      account is adapted from that of Boethius Book 1 which is probably a translation
      of a longer treatise of Nicomachus (fl 100 AD), which has, otherwise, not
      survived. The influence of other works, for example, the Lucidarium (1317-18) of
      Marchetto of Padua, a work widely read in Italy until at least the end of the
      fifteenth century, (latest extant source from the sixteenth century was
      copied in Venice in 1509), remains to be demonstrated.
      In the treatise Musica practi (1482) by Spanish-born Bartolomeo Ramis (c.1440
      –1500), which may have been influenced by earlier treatises by Al-Farabi,
      Ibn Sina, and Safi Al-Dinm, Ramis writes:
      "The regular monochord has been subtly divided by Boethius with numbers and
      measure. But althought this division is useful and pleasant to theorists, to
      singers it is laborious and difficult to understand. And since we have
      promised to satisfy both, we shall give a most easy division of the regular
      He then goes on to give the earliest description of a 12-note chromatic
      Franchino Gaffurio (1451-1522) incorporated the tuning system devised by
      Ptolemy into his treatises, Theorica musice (1492), Practica musice (1496) and
      De harmonia musicorum intrumentorum opus (1518), the most influential of the
      late 15th and early 16th centuries. Jonathan Walker writes:
      "Ptolemy rejected both the dogma of Pythagoras and the pure subjectivism of
      Aristoxenus, describing the Greek genera in terms of the lowest-numbered
      ratios he could judge, by ear, to correspond to the intervals used by musicians;
      for example, he replaced the Pythagorean description of the major third (to
      use our term) (81:64) with the simpler ratio (5:4), which he judged to be in
      accordance with practice. His approach was therefore to account for practice
      without abandoning the precision of ratio terminology, but to use this
      terminology without the prescriptivism of the Pythagoreans."
      By the early 16th century, instrumental tunings were adjusted to make thirds
      and sixths sound acceptable; as a result, the use of triads became more
      frequent, even in the final note of cadences. A sharper distinction was made
      between dissonance and consonance, and the masters of counterpoint invented new
      rules for controlling dissonance. Johannes Tinctoris (1435-c.1511), a Flemish
      composer at the Naples court of King Ferrante, wrote and published the Liber
      de Arte Contrapuncti in 1477. Heinrich Glarean or Glareanus (1488-1563), the
      Swiss humanist, published his Dodekachordon in 1547. In establishing his
      theory of twelve modes he added four new modes to the eight already adopted, and
      misnamed, from the Greeks. Tinctoris' rules for introducing dissonances were
      further refined in later treatises by other authors, including Lodovico
      Fogliano (?-c.1538) in Musica Theorica (1529), and Gioseffo Zarlino (1517-1590)
      in Le istitutioni harmoniche (1558).
      * _Tuning into the Renaissance_
      * _Western Tuning Theory and Practice - Just Intonation_
      * _The Just Intonation System of Nicola Vicentino_
      * _Johannes Tinctoris_ (http://www.stoa.org/tinctoris/tinctoris.html)
      * _Heinrich Glarean(us)_ (http://www.bautz.de/bbkl/g/glareanus.shtml)
      * _Intonational Injustice: A Defense of Just Intonation in the
      Performance of Renaissance Polyphony_
      (http://www.societymusictheory.org/mto/issues/mto.96.2.6/mto.96.2.6.walker.tlk) by Jonathan Walker


      Music Printing :: (http://www.dolmetsch.com/musictheory36.htm#top)
      * Francisco de Peñalosa (c.1470-1528) was one of the most famous
      Spanish composers of his generation. His compositions were highly regarded at the
      time. Unfortunately for him, his music was not widely distributed; he did not
      benefit from the invention of printing, since he remained mostly in Spain,
      away from those cities, Venice and Antwerp, that would become the first
      centres of music printing. Later generations of Spanish composers — Francisco
      Guerrero (1528-1599), Cristóbal de Morales (c.1500-1553), Tomás Luis de Victoria
      (1548-1611) — who went to Italy for parts of their careers, arranged for the
      printing of their compositions, and as a result their compositions were as
      widely distributed as that of the Franco-Flemish composers who dominated music
      in Europe in the 16th-century.
      Johann Gutenberg perfected the art of printing from moveable type in 1450.
      The first printing press in Hungary was established in Buda in 1473 during the
      reign of Matthias Corvinus (1458-1490); a German named Andreas Hess printed
      the Chronica Hungarorum which he dedicated to his patron, László Karai. In
      the 1470s, printing was applied to monophonic music, coinciding with a new
      blossoming of native composition in Italy. Ottaviano de' Petrucci's anthology of
      chansons from ca. 1470-1500 called the Odhecaton was the first polyphonic
      music printed using triple impression. Michel de Toulouze had, in fact, printed
      at Paris, some time between 1488 and 1496, and without attribution to an
      author, L’Art et instruction de bien dancer, the text and musical content of
      which are largely the same as the famous Brussels MS 9085 that is supposed to
      have belonged to Margaret of Austria. Petrucci, however, occupies a position
      analogous to Gutenburg as a printer of books, for, though Petrucci was not the
      first to print music or even the first to do so from movable type, he was the
      earliest to accomplish printing in an important way with respect to music
      other than plainsong. Printed music naturally gained wider circulation than
      Using wood blocks, metal blocks or movable type, the last probably invented
      in Italy, early music printers had to represent a wide range of musical
      material whether monophonic Gregorian Chant, polyphonic music, or short musical
      examples in theoretical or other works. In the first known printed book that is
      meant to include music, the Psalterium, printed by Johann Fust and Peter
      Schöffer, Gutenberg's associates, at Mainz, in 1457, only the text and three
      black lines of the staff were printed; the fourth line was drawn by hand in
      red, and the notes were also written in manually. Hand-written insertions
      continued to be made in many liturgical works, even after the general adoption of
      music printing, since individual copies from large editions could thus be made
      to conform with local traditions.
      The earliest attempt to depict actual music in print appeared in the
      Collectorium super Magnificat of Charlier de Gerson, produced at Esslingen in 1473
      by Conrad Fyner. Here, sol, la, mi, re, ut, mentioned in the text, are
      represented, without staff lines, by five black squares placed in a diagonally
      descending row and preceded by the letter f as an F clef.
      In Italy, a Roman Missale completed at Milan by Michael Zarotus of Parma on
      April 26, 1476, is the earliest known instance of the printing of music from
      movable type. Gothic-style (lozenge-shaped) notes are used; however, the
      printing of the music is not continued throughout. Six months later another
      Missale, also employing movable type but using Roman-style (square) notes, was
      produced by Ulrich Han (or Hahn) at Rome. In both books, double-impression
      printing was employed: the staves were printed in red in one impression, the
      plainsong notes in black in another.
      Mensural note-shapes seem to have been printed for the first time in
      Franciscus Niger's Grammatica brevis, produced at Venice in 1480, by Theodor von
      Würzburg. It is not clear whether these were printed from type or from a metal
      block. Three note-shapes are drawn upon to illustrate five poetic meters.
      There are no staves, but the ascending and descending spacing of the note-heads
      probably indicates that melodies were intended. In 1487 there appeared, in
      Nicolo Burzio's Musices Opusculum, produced at Bologna by Ugo de Rugeriis, the
      first known, complete, printed part-composition. This was made from a wood
      block. It is noteworthy that printing from movable type, a more advanced
      technique, preceded printing from blocks.
      Among the liturgical incunabula printed in Italy are several examples by
      Ottaviano Scotto. The presses yielded also various books on theory.
      A petition, addressed by Petrucci to the Signory of Venice and dated May 25,
      1498, requested the exclusive privilege for twenty years of printing music
      for voices, lute, and organ. Not until May 14, 1501, however, did Petrucci's
      first publication appear. This was the famous Harmonice Musices Odhecaton A,
      which is the earliest printed collection of part-music. It includes
      compositions by Ockeghem and Busnois, as well as by several later Franco-Flemish
      composers. It was followed by Canti B and Canti C, published in 1502 and 1504,
      respectively. Together with the Odhecaton, these form a series particularly rich
      in Franco-Flemish chansons. All three are in choirbook form, like most of
      Petrucci's later prints of secular part-music. His aim was evidently to offer
      "raw material," from which copies for specific performance requirements could
      be derived. He printed sacred music in partbook form, however, for direct
      practical use.
      Ten out of a series of eleven Petrucci books (1504-1514) preserve a treasury
      of frottole (Book X is lost). The earliest piece of the type to find its way
      into print, however, is the Viva el gran Re Don Fernando, a barzelletta (=
      frottola) celebrating the Spanish conquest of Granada and rejoicing that the
      powerful city de la falsa fè pagana è disciolta e liberata. Probably first
      sung at Naples, it was included in a Roman publication of 1493 that was devoted
      primarily to a play commemorating the event. A few of Petrucci’s pieces are
      by Andrea Antico, who not only composed, but also worked as a type cutter,
      printer and publisher. In association with Giovanni Battista Columba, an
      engraver, and Marcello Silber (alias Franck), a printer, he produced in 1510, at
      Rome, his first published collection of frottole, the Canzoni nove con alcune
      scelte de varii libri di canto. Venice had temporarily become an unfavorable
      scene for artistic enterprise, owing to the serious defeat inflicted upon the
      republic by the League of Cambrai in 1509. However, shortly before 1520
      Antico apparently returned to Venice, where he later brought out some prints in
      partnership with Ottaviano Scotto. In connection with works produced by
      partners, it is often hard to determine the exact role of each. Some printers not
      only did their own work, but also commissioned the printing of certain
      editions from other shops and printed for others as well. In 1513, Antico secured
      papal privileges for the printing of music and soon thereafter emerged as a
      serious competitor of Petrucci.
      In 1525, an important advance in printing was made by Pierre Haultin of
      Paris (d. 1580). Whereas Petrucci had printed the staff and the notes separately,
      Haultin achieved one-impression type-printing: he made type-pieces in which
      small fragments of the staff were combined with the notes, and with these
      pieces the whole composite of staves and notes was built up. His method
      fathered, in principle, the kind of music type-printing still occasionally employed.
      However, it was not at once universally adopted: double printing re-emerged
      sporadically for more than 250 years.
      Haultin's type was used by the Parisian publisher Attaingnant, among whose
      important publications (1528-1549) 'sacred and secular, vocal and
      instrumental' there are about seventy collections that contain nearly 2000 chansons
      (including, however, some duplications). It is significant, particularly in
      relation to chansons and madrigals, that Attaingnant was probably the first printer
      to insist on the careful placing of words under their appropriate notes.
      Haultin's system was applied also in the type made by Guillaume Le Bé for the
      famous house of Ballard that Robert Ballard together with his half-brother
      Adrian Le Roy established in Paris in 1551 and which would go on to print Lully
      in the 17th century and Couperin in the 18th and retained its privileges until
      the revolution of 1789.
      The printing of new music was carried on side by side with attempts to
      preserve the best of the past. In 1537 and 1538, Hans Ott published Novum et
      insigne opus musicum (Nürnberg: Formschneider, 1537-1538), a two-volume anthology
      of 100 motets, 25 of which are attributed to Josquin des Prez. Le Roy &
      Ballard published Livre de meslanges (1560) in which the court poet Pierre de
      Ronsard justified the print's melange of old and new songs: "There is... no
      reason for your Majesty to be surprised if this livre de mellanges... is composed
      of the oldest chansons that can be found today, because the music of the old
      (masters) has always been considered to be the most divine, the more so,
      since it was composed in a century happier and less tainted by the vices which
      prevail in this vilest Iron Age. ...Among such men in the last six or seven
      score years are exalted Josquin des Prez, native of Hainaut and his disciples
      Mouton, Willaert, Richafort, Janequin, Maillard, Claudin, Moulu, Jaquet,
      Certon, Arcadelt, and at present, the more than divine Orlando....".
      Another innovation is attributable to the type-founder Etienne Briard
      (working at Avignon, ca. 1530). Instead of the square and lozenge-shaped noteheads
      generally used for mensural music at that time, he employed oval ones. The
      first printer known to have adopted this reform was Jean de Channey of Avignon,
      who employed Briard's type when printing Carpentras's four publications of
      Lamentations and other sacred music between 1532 and 1537. Important, in
      addition, was Jacques Moderne (known, because of his obesity, as "Grand Jacques")
      who founded a music house at Lyons and among whose famous publications is the
      Parangon des chansons (eleven books, 1538-1543). He was probably the first
      to print choir-books in which two voice-parts face in opposite directions on
      each page, to enable people sitting on either side of a table to sing from
      the same volume. Noteworthy, too, is Nicolas Du Chemin (ca. 1510-1576), whose
      issues appeared in Paris from 1540 to 1576 and included a seventeen-volume
      chanson collection.
      Music publishing flourished also in the Low Countries, notably in Antwerp
      and Louvain. Tielman Susato, one of the best-known Belgian printers,
      established himself in Antwerp, ca. 1529, as music copyist, flutist, and trumpeter, and
      later as publisher. In 1543, he produced the Premier Livre des chansons à
      quatre parties . . . . including eight chansons by himself. Hubert Waelrant, an
      important composer, and the printer Jean Laet in 1554 established a
      publishing house, which continued to operate until Laet's death in 1597.
      The collections issued by Pierre Phalèse of Louvain include both French and
      Flemish chansons, as well as lute music. At first a publisher employing
      independent printers, he undertook his own printing in 1552. After his death, his
      son moved the firm to Antwerp.
      The reign (1515-1547) of that typically Renaissance monarch, François I,
      corresponds closely to the first period of the 16th-century chanson. Then and
      later the chanson drew on Italian and Netherlandish elements, spicing them with
      native French grace and wit. Its textual charm-of varying shades of
      respectability-was calculated to delight the courtiers of Fontainebleau and Paris.
      Despite the extremely broad humor evinced, many of the chanson composers wrote
      serious motets and Masses and even held positions in the Church.
      The two earliest collections published by Attaingnant, apparently the first
      prints of polyphonic chansons, indeed the first prints of polyphonic music in
      France, appeared in 1528. The older one is actually dated April 4, 1527, but
      under a calendar in which the year began on Easter eve. Of this collection,
      only two parts remain. Nevertheless, its contents can be largely
      reconstructed from later sources in which some of the same pieces recur. The second
      collection survives complete but bears no date; this, however, can be approximated
      through circumstantial evidence.
      One of the first Attaingnant collections that are not only dated but also
      extant in complete form is the Trente et une chansons musicales (1529). The two
      main composers included in it are Claudin de Sermisy, whom the music books
      usually name just Claudin, and Clement Janequin, to whom the entire second
      collection had been devoted. Despite the latter's greater fame today, and
      probably in his own time, we may well consider Claudin at least his equal among
      chanson composers of the type which, with certain differences, they both
      represent. These composers have been said to comprise a Paris school.
      * _Early Music Printing_
      (http://www.hoasm.org/IVI/EarlyMusicPrinting.html) from which part of this extract has been taken

      kindest regards & best wishes
      Concordia, Integritas, Industria
      Prorsum Semper, Invicta Veritate, Garde Ta Foy, Dominus Illuminatio Mea
      Soli Deo Gloria

      Professor Sir Harvey Crichton."Crites"
      PhD(Phil) DD MA (Psych/Logics) MBA BMus GSKCKT KT KM FRIP
      Fellow of The Royal Institute of Philosophy, Lecturer:- The University of

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