Re: [medieval-leather] Sources for info on armor construction.
- In a message dated 10/3/01 7:23:41 AM, owly3@... writes:
>At the British Museum the part a pice of leather armorThe Brit Museum piece is for an arm, probably the upper arm as if you were to
>plate of some kind that seems to be from the 13-15th
>century (it's covered with those typical vines) I have
>no idea which part it is though,though if I had to
>guess maybe from the torso armor.
curl it (it's currently flat) it would resemble the upper cannon of an arm
harness. It has holes for arming points on the top and fittings for straps
(possibly bifurcate where they attach) on the side. Unfortunatley I know of
no published pictures of the inside. Close examination of the piece in the
display allows one to see where the straps attach. Don't have my photos to
hand to speak more definatively.
- Regrettably, all my "information" would be concerning my various levels of success
with fabricating leather-faced shields. I do not have much/anything in the way of
historical documentation beyond what could be considered common knowledge about
Viking, Roman, or Pictish shields.
Jonathan T Getty wrote:
> Anyone else have information on leather shields?
- In a message dated 10/2/01 4:27:46 PM, frojel@... writes:
<< Have you got the URL? >>
just add the "http" thingie to the beginning of the site: daviddfriedman.com
- Sorry I missed this earlier-look in the archives under leather
shield-I know this has come up before and was discussed.
On Thu, 04 Oct 2001 00:48:18 -0200 Joel Tracy <wyrdwitch@...>
> Regrettably, all my "information" would be concerning my various"Better is alive than lifeless to be; the living can always get a cow.
> levels of success
> with fabricating leather-faced shields. I do not have much/anything
> in the way of
> historical documentation beyond what could be considered common
> knowledge about
> Viking, Roman, or Pictish shields.
> Jonathan T Getty wrote:
> > Anyone else have information on leather shields?
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- Jonathan T Getty wrote:
> Anyone else have information on leather shields? <Some notes I have on computer from my books, which is far from
complete, I left in the bits on other leather items in them.
If I had a month with absolutely nothing else to do I could
come up with a more complete reference but you'd have to pay me
for it. ;) We're talking looking in several hundred books minimum.
Charlesworth, Dorothy: Leather Found in Mediobogdum, the Roman Fort of
Hardknott, Britannia 4, 1973. pp. 141-52 and plates XXI-II, finds of
about half a dozen well drawn shoes (calceus) with multiple views and
some shield covers.
de Récy, Georges: Leather Work; From the French of Georges de Récy (The
Decoration of Leather) translated by Maude Nathan, (1905) Reprinted
The Caber Press, Jack C. Thompson, Editor. Originally 104 pages reduced
48, retaining the period Middle Ages and Renaissance information and
dropping the modern material. Eleven pictures depict leather caskets
Italian 15th C.case of cut and embossed leather cuir bouilli; a French
Coffret, incised, colored and gilt, a case of cut and punched leather -
15th C., an Italian cover of a Case for a cup in wood covered embossed
cuir bouilli, embossed, painted and gilt, about 1500; A Powder-flask of
covered with leather - cuir bouilli, cut and embossed - Italian 16th C.;
An Italian 16th C. Shield of cut and embossed cuir bouilli; A Blind
leather bookbinding of the Winchester Domesday Book - English 12th C.;
A 15th C. German Brown Leather bookbindind, cut and engraved with
punched background - German MS. Chronicle of Events; A blind-stamped
Morroco binding with gilt roundels and coloured cameo design - Celsus.
De Medicina, Venice 1477, A cover of a work box of wood covered with
embossed leather, cuir bouilli, German 16th C.. Sections include Tools
Leather, Choice of Skin, Methods of working in leather: tracing the
on the leather, Incising the leather, Modelling Tools, Embossing
modelled leather with Punched background, Leather Hangings and
Furniture, Some extracts from the report of the commitee on leather for
bookbinding appointed by the Society of Arts, February 1900.
$8.95, The Caber Press, 7549 N. Fenwick, Portland, OR 97217
"SP-197. Highland Targets and Other Shields. By James Drummond. 70pp.
pb. Full color, heavy paper reprint of the 1873 edition (which was
issued in a limited run of just 50), with additional material by
Drummond on shields. Many of you are familiar with Druumond's work
on Ancient Scottish Weapons; this is an additional, little known
work which concentrates upon the targets and other shields used
in the Highlands, with illustrations and text on them. Such
information always is difficult to locate, and this invaluable
study shows numerous shields and their designs in great detail."
$24.95 plus shipping.
Early Anglo-Saxon Shields by Tania Dickinson and Heinrick Harke,
Archaeologia, volume 110, 1992/3, Society of Antiquaries of London,
Burlington House, Picadilly, London H1V 0HS, ISBN 0854312609.
Evison, Vera: Sugar Loaf Shield Bosses, Antiquaries Journal 43,
1963; 59pp, 40figs, pp. 38-96 and 40 figures - usually depicting
multiple drawn objects, maps of provenance, 88 shield bosses of
varying shapes, some shield struts, reconstruction of shield from
Thetford, Norfolk; sword from Boars Lowe, Tissington, Derbyshire;
shield grips, spear heads and a ferrule, pans similar to bosses,
Bronze garnet inlaid pyramid, knife blades, two glass cups and a
glass vessel, belt buckles, silver rims for the Alton coopered
wooden drinking vessels, the Alton Buckle, iron clips, a purse
mount, comb, bone strip holed at the ends, one shear blade, gold
filigree open work brooch with garnets, pot, glass counters,
seax (sax) pommel.
Evison, V: Anglo-Saxon Finds near Rainham, Essex, with a Study of
Glass Drinking-horns; Archaeologia 96, 1955. 38pp, 12figs,
11b/w pls, pp. 159-98 and plates LIX-LXX, last plate is the
Torrs Chamfrein which uses drinking horn ends as horns.
A-S Square-headed brooch, glass whorls, girdle hanger, coopered
bronze-bound drinking vessels, diagrams of pattern welded swords,
shield bosses, pottery cups (4), spearheads, round mouthed pitchers,
pots, gold pendant, 36 views of mostly different drinking horns.
GALL, GÜNTHER.: Leder im europäischen ; Kunsthandwerk. Braunschweig,
4to., orcl., xii, 406 pp., w. 16 pl. in color 304 ills. in text. (Bibl.
für Kunst u. Antiquitätenfreunde, Bd. XLIV). Klinkhardt & Biermann
- Braunschweig. There are a number of leather covered shields in it.
A few early ones, many from around 1600. A number of the pieces such
as the shields and caskets are illustrated from more than one view.
Hastings 1066 - The Fall of Anglo-Saxon England; by Christopher Gravett;
Illustrations by Gerry Embleton, Ed Dovey; Osprey Miltitary Campaign
Series 13, 1992, PB, 96 pp., ISBN 1855321645.
Depicts: A depiction from a Norman St. Augustines Commentaries (Bib.
Munic. Rouen, Ms A 19) depicting David and Goliath. David is carrying
a shoulder strap slung bag or pouch at his side - late 11th C. -
page 17. French infantry assembly with shields from the Apocalypse
manuscript of 1028-72. Two crossbowmen - with simple crossbows, in a
modern depiction, one wearing a gambeson and helm and quiver, the other
a simple knife page 26, in color. Gokstad Shield survival - 33.
Scaled Seax and Sheath 34. Scale armored French knight depiction with
Banner 38. Norseman wearing a tough hide coat, said to be as strong
as mail, with axe - 46. Round and Kite shields 58. Tapestry archers
with quivers - 65. A Norman archer in a modern depiction wearing
Phrygian Cap, red tunic, and quiver - 79.
Greece and Rome at War by Peter Connolly has reconstructions of
then period shields.
Kraus, Henry: The Living Theatre of Medieval Art: University of Penn.
Philadelphia, 1967, xvii + 248p, 135 Illustrations, ISBN 0812210565.
Shoemaker on Bench 74, Writing Slope with little rack on side for
and little scalloped rack on wall for three pens with scribe 98 - 12th
Chartres; Quatrefoils of the Seasons; Albigensian Crusade stories 132,
Simon de Montfort, eyeballs and teeth everywhere 58, traction catapult
sculpture 135; Tied Belted Sword Scabbard, and shield on sculpture -
Ekkehard and Uta from Naumburg Cathedral, Germany 13th C. p.95;
Reims Cathedral 13th C. sculpture of Abraham with tied belted sword
scabbard 134.; Notre Dame de Paris 114 - Virtue of Courage 13th C. -
seated, armored knight with sword and shield (with lion) and roundel of
the vice of Cowardice.
Bronze Age Metalwork in England and Wales; by Nancy G. Langmaid, Shire
Archaelogy, 1976 first publication, 64pp.. ISBN 0852632665, .
£3.80 / $6.36. The Early Bronze Age (c. 1850-1400 BC); The Middle Bronze
Age ( (c.1400-1000 BC); the Late Bronze Age (1050 - 700 BC); The Final
Bronze Age and Earliest Iron Age (in England 600BC), Museums, Select
Bibliography, Glossary, the Illustrations, depicts items in copper,
gold, mostly daggers, swords, a few shields, dress accessories, a bowl
furnace for casting, an open stone mould, molds can be either bronze,
El Cid - Champion of Spain; by John Matthews, Illustrated by James
1998; ISBN 185314004X; 48pp., pb.. Illustrations: Mangonel, large siege
engine; Moorish infantry and cavalry, armed with bows, swords,
spears, and small shields, one carrying a banner; Casting of three
of about 1150 with conical helms, long mail shirts, and carrying
shields, armed with swords and spears; knights battling - from an
century manuscript; three individuals of Royal bodyguard of King
III (866-909) armed with swords, lances and shields - both round and
kite-shaped; Eleventh Century sword and sheath of the type carried by
Rodrigos followers; Spanish Soldier from the door of a Spanish
depicting the type of Soldier that followed El Cid; picture of 11th C
Spanish Soldier with spear, mail, helmet, coif, sword and kite shield;
Twelfth C. Sword in scabbard.
Monnich, Ted / Lord Karl von Nordmark: Construction of the Medieval
Knightly Shield in Tournaments Illuminated 104:15 was a good article
including raised decoration in period. Ted Monnich, last I knew
was State Conservator for the S.C. History Museum in Columbia, S.C.
There are lots of articles in early Tournaments Illuminateds on the
construction and weights of shields in Period.
Moscati, Sabatino & Venceslas Kruta (eds): The Celts.
New York, Rizzoli, 1999. 719pp, Bibliography, Photo. & Illus., 8vo,
First Edition paperback, New Softcover. $35.00, or 1991 Hardback,
ISBN: 0-8478-1407-6, 712 pp., dustjacket. Huge book, lots of color
for a major exhibition. A great many tools, including the remains of a
leather bag with the (many) tools in it. Pottery reproductions of
This thing is indexed by locality only. Lots of chariots and wagons,
armor, shields (with diagrams good enough to reproduce). Kinda the
Celt Book, at least 2" thick by many authors in many countries. Lots of
metalwork and pottery, and everyday items, sculpture, drawings of
graves, oppida (forts), etc. Tremendous amount of jewelry and fittings.
Nicolaysen, Nicolay: Langskibet Fra Gokstad Ved Sandefjord / The
Discovered at Gokstad in Norway; Softcover. Gregg International,
Reprint of 1882 ed. , Kristiania: A. Cammermeyer, Farnborough, England
is available in "print on demand" at http://www.alibris.com/ $53 inc.
Print On Demand: 2001 black and white facsimile of original book. Charts
graphics may be obscured or resized to fit pages. No cover art (generic
softcover binding). pp. 118. Norwegian/English. more details
ISBN: 0598010394 Alibris I.D.: 8014706741
It is the original book from the man who discovered the ship. Pictures
plates and repinted in swedish and english in facing columns. The the
has to do with the Gokstad ship plan, the furniture, beds, carvings, the
Faering (small boat), the dress accessories (cast metal bits), shields,
treen (woodenware), etc.
Nicolle, David, Phd: Granada 1492 - The Twilight of Moorish Spain;
ISBN 1855327406, PB, 96 pages, 1998. Battlescene Artwork by Angus
Depicts: clothing, armor, weapons, horse fittings and saddles.
The sceptre, crown, sword, psalter, and chest said to have belonged to
Isabel of Aragon page 20. The Ceremonial Sword and Scabbard of Los Reyes
Catolicos which was later used by the Habsburg Emperors (Inv. G1 and G2
of Real Armeria, Madrid) page 20. Islamic belt, eared dagger and its
scabbard, small pouch, larger pouch taken from Muhammed XII during his
8first captivity (Real Armeria, Madrid). The slippers and ran or
of Muhammed XII, made of tan colored leather (Museo Ejercito, Madrid).
Various Islamic Sword hilts and upper scabbards. An undecorated 15-16th
C. leather Spanish ardaga shield page 32. Moorish Archers with Quivers
from The Army of Firuz in the early 16th C. Sulwan al-Muta.
A reasonable representation of a Granadan army during the final war.
Ms. 528, Library, Escorial, Monastery, page 72-3. Pages 88-9 depict
Moresque stirrups (ex Lady Ludlow and Met Collections) and an early 16th
C. Tunisian saddle with a small drum attached to the front (Real
Madrid); Part of a late 15th C. Moorish bridle.
Knights Hospitaller (1) 1100-1306; by David Nicolle, Phd.;
Illustrated by Christa Hook; Osprey Warrior Series 33; ISBN 1841762148;
PB, 64 pages including 10 plates. Bibliography and Glossary one page
Depicts: maille above leather sole. Plate A showing brothers in
gambeson for horse with exposed saddle (riderless), arming cap and
of leather?; Plate C with Arms and Armour C. 1140 in views:Gambeson and
full mail coat with coif, shoe and prick spur. Sword lacing and scabbard
and buckleless belt construction, Construction and padding of an oval
(not exploded, back and above views, nasal helms, sheet metal sword
Plate E. Clothing Allocation according to the Hospitaller Statue of 1206
- showing cloaks, tunics, chausses, undershirts and underpants, simple
cloth coifs. Plate G: Arms and Armour circa 1230 showing buckless belt,
sword, scabbard construction with belt laced to scabbard (front and
and decorative design down front of scabbard; Faced convoluted helm,
and cloth arming coifs, two gambesons, simple exploded knife
pinned whittle tang; laced and leather covered lower leg mail - hung
individually from laces to underwear tied at waist; ties at wrists for
and mail mittens with leather slit palms, mail coat; heater construction
from reverse. Plate I - Various devices (sheilds) of Masters of the
of the Hospital of St. John and a banner bearer with sword, belt, large
dagger. Page 44 showing mail leg and sword scabbard details from
Temple Church, destroyed in WWII.
The Vikings! Norse Film and Pageant Society Book:
Parker, David E., and E. Rachel Lowerson: Anglo Saxon Costume, Arms and
Armour; The Vikings! Society Handbook, 1992, 80pp., Arms and Armour: a.)
the shield, b.) helmets, c.) armour, d.) the spear, e.) the seax, f.)
sheaths, g.) swords, h.) scabbards, i.) axes;
Viking Arms and Armour: a.) introduction, b.) armour, c.) the byrnie,
d.) alternatives to mail, e.) the helmet, f.) the shield, g.) the spear,
h.) the seax, i.) the sword, j.) the axe, k.) banners, l.) missle
List of Abbreviations; List of References.
Regia Anglorum: The Regia Anglorum Members Handbook by Ben Levick, Kim
Siddorn, et al: 1992, 216 pp. softbound. $25. from Kim Siddorn.
Arms and Armour chapter by N. Harrison and B. Levick:
a.) Weapon Types, b.) Sword Types, c.) Armour, d.) Shields, e.)
Banners. All pictorial illustrations by C.R. Levick, all other
by Ben Levick.
Richards, Julian D.: Viking Age England; Tempus Publishing Ltd., The
Brimscombe Port, Stroud, Gloucestershire, GL5 2QG UK; PB 190pp.,
ISBN 0752414895 £14.99. Illus: Warrior cross base, Middleton, North
Yorkshire - depicts conical helmet and saxe sheath; Viking Grave finds
drawing from Hesket in the Forest (Cumbria) depicting antler comb
whetstone, spurs, shield boss, axe, sword, spearheads, bridle bits,
Viking male burial from Repton with folding knife, sword, key, boar tusk
penis substitution, silver thors hammer, leather bound wooden scabbard
with a fleece lining (Biddle 1992); Viking carved grave slabs from York;
Middleton Cross depicting Viking warrior on gift seat with sax sheath,
axe, spear, sword and shield.
Robinson, H. Russell, F.S.A, and Ronald Embleton: The Armour of the
Legions; published by Frank Graham, 6, Queens Terrace, Newcastle upon
Tyne, NE2 2PL, Printed by Howe Brothers (Gateshead) Ltd. ISBN
40 page paperback, fully illustrated in color drawings and black and
photos. Depicts many helmets, a variety of cavalry, legionaires in full
kit with tools and accessories, fragments of bows and arrows, an ox
barrel cart, the only surviving roman scuta (shield) from Dura Europas,
in full equipment of the roman legionary, belt, dagger, anti-castration
the bronze scaled 3cAD Horse armour from Dura Europas, Balearic
and a scorpion catapult, the laced leather scale armour from Dura
(possibly a leather thigh guard), A bronze laminated thigh defence for a
cavalryman front and back, reconstructions of a 1st C Pompeii sword, and
Augustan Sword from Mainz with their scabbards, A long spatha cavalry
original, and a 1st C. Dagger and sheathe, three pilum (spear) remains,
Roman Officers in armor, Reproduction armor front, back and side with
drawings showing the full reconstuctions of lorica segmentatas. A
in color of a heavily armored horseman on mount - 3rd C. Cataphractus.
OSPREY WARRIOR SERIES: 32 - Greek Hoplite 480-322 BC - Weapons - Armour
- Tactics; by Nicholas Sekunda, Osprey Warrior Series 32; 2000, plates
Adam Hook; ISBN 1855328674, 64 pages. Depicts: Various views of Warriors
from sculpture and pottery. A rare metal outer covering for a hoplite
Plate A shows a 5th C. BC Greek Hoplite in full armor, with exploded
of helmet, lorica, shield, and greaves from several views.
Page 50 shows a diagram of the joining of the shield from pieces
of poplar wood. Page 52 shows armorers forging and burnishing helmets
plates. Page 56 shows a leather shield cover being removed, a shield
for polishing the metal shield covering with oil until it gleamed.
Siddorn, J. Kim: Viking Weapons and Warfare; Tempus Publishing Ltd, The
Brimscombe Port, Stroud, GL5 2QG. FP2000 UK, lSBN 075241419 4
160 pages, 88 line drawings, 31 colour plates, in English. UK, £15.99
Waateringe, Willy Groenman-van: Romein Lederwerk uit Valkenburg Z.H;
J.B. Wolters, Groningen 1967, 221 pages, many illustrations - both
archaeological drawings and photos, a page specific English summary, and
several page bibliography. This has Roman horned saddle parts, some
some pouches, tents, shield covers and some odd bits.
Wagner, Eduard, Dr. Zoroslava Drobna, and Jan Durdik:
Medieval Costume, Armour and Weapons 1350-1450 also known as:
Tracht, Wehr Und Waffen Des Spaten Mittelalters (1350-1450)
Artia Prag, Czechoslovakia, 1957. Currently being reprinted by
Waterer, John William: Leather and the Warrior : an Account of the
Importance of Leather to the Fighting Man from the Time of the Ancient
Greeks to World War II; ISBN 0950418218 Museum of Leathercraft,
Bridgestreet, Northampton, Eng. Issue Price £25.00
Master Magnus Malleus, OL © 2001 R.M. Howe
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