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Viking / Anglo-Saxon Bone and Antler bibliography

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  • rmhowe
    If I had time to sift through a couple hundred books on the Vikings I could no doubt cite a lot more. I decided last evening to see if I could help Dan
    Message 1 of 1 , Jul 4, 2006
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      If I had time to sift through a couple hundred books on the Vikings I could no doubt
      cite a lot more. I decided last evening to see if I could help Dan Carlsson on
      his new
      CD bibliography on Viking Bone and Antler items he intends to publish in about
      a month. He may use it or he may not, I don't know as I haven't sent it quite yet,
      but in the meantime you lot can get your fill of such things. I left out most
      of the
      ivory and horn related articles or the stuff that is less time specific.
      Dan's various CDs on Viking Beads, Combs, Knives, Jewelry can be found
      reasonably priced at http://www.arkeodok.com/ or expensively had through
      http://www.oxbowbooks.com Dan started the Viking Heritage website and
      while it was in print the Viking Heritage Newsletter. We are hoping for a
      resurrection of that most excellent magazine. He teaches archaeology and
      conducts Viking Age investigatory excavations in the short summers on the
      Swedish island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea. This is where more Viking artefacts
      are found than anywhere else.

      Unless you are the Florilegium or vikinganswerlady.com [M. Gunnvor you
      may use it if you wish] DO NOT publish this on a webpage.
      Steal it and let me find it under -your name- and I will make sure
      folks know it is stolen and exactly who did it. Someone who used to get
      my postings no longer does for that exact reason.

      I don't care about your local newsletters printing or local elists getting a
      copy as long as you do NOT repost to Usenet Groups like the Rialto.

      Otherwise enjoy. I hope it helps you make some iron age / early medieval period
      items.
      It is a great deal of fun. I own almost every work cited. You are getting the
      benefit
      of my research.

      Magnus
      xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

      First a few websites I hope are still working:

      http://archaeology.about.com/cs/boneandivory/ 6/02
      Conservation of Bone, Teeth, Ivory and Antler

      Making a bone needle by Angus MacCormack
      7/03 http://www.meridies.org/as/dmir/bone&horn/0401.html
      DEER TINE NEEDLE CASE By Angus MacCormack 7/03
      http://www.meridies.org/as/dmir/bone&horn/0402.html

      http://www.angelfire.com/mi4/olafvanta/Dirk/comb/comb.htm#Discussion

      How to Make Your Own War Horn (Cornette) by Lady Viviane of Glannaventa 7/03
      http://www.meridies.org/as/dmir/bone&horn/0404.html

      Cow Horn to Drinking Horn by Angus MacCormack 7/03
      http://www.meridies.org/as/dmir/bone&horn/0403.html

      http://www.regia.org/bonework.htm 7/03
      http://www.regia.org/bonework1.htm

      Making Bone Dice by Wayne and Glenda Robinson 4/04 wayne.robinson@...
      http://www.geocities.com/reenact721642/dice.htm
      xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
      Supply Sources:

      Claw, Antler and Hide
      http://www.clawantlerhide.com/

      Moscow Hide and Fur - ANTLERS
      Moscow Hide and Fur ( http://www.hideandfur.com/ )
      One of the most impressive suppliers of "dead animal parts"
      CustomerService@... Phone: 208-882-0601 | fax: 208-882-5715
      PO Box 8918, Moscow, Idaho 83843
      Hours: Monday-Friday 7 am - 6 pm, Pacific Time, USA.
      Irregular hours on weekends

      Antlers Unlimited
      World's largest selection of antler's.
      www.antlersunlimited.com
      Call (406) 682-7153 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. MST, western USA
      for more info email us! tridon@...
      xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
      Ambrosiani, K. : Viking Age Combs, Comb Making and Comb Makers in the
      Light of Finds from Birka and Ribe, Stockholm Studies in Archaeology 2,
      1981, Stockholm.

      Biddle, Martin, O.U.P., (ed.) Object and Economy in Medieval Winchester :
      Artefacts from Medieval Winchester (Winchester Studies 7 II) Dec. 1990,
      2 vols. 4to. cx + 1271pp. Cold. frontis., 387 figures, 65 plates including
      several cold. $350.00
      Oxford Univ Pr; ISBN: 0198131755 [Includes bonework. I have never had time to
      pick apart these two huge books on everything found in Winchester. If you think you
      can do it in less than a week - please - enlighten us.]

      Blair, John: Anglo-Saxon Oxfordshire; Sutton Publishing Ltd. / Oxfordshire Books,
      1994/8, 230pp., 102 illustrations. ISBN 0750917504 pb, £14.99
      Long comb, Ivory seal of Godwine the minister from Wallingford,
      Magdalen bridge Viking stirrups and spurs, shear and horseshoe.

      Blair, John, and Nigel Ramsey (Editor) English Medieval Industries: Craftsmen,
      Techniques,
      Products; Hardcover, 480pp., ISBN: 0907628877, Hambledon Pub., March 1991.
      An overview of the current level of knowledge in a number of
      disciplines, including wood, leather, fabric, and pewter casting. Hardcover; $ 83.95

      Brade, Christine: Knocherne Kernspaltfloten aus Haithabu 24. [Swan Bone Flutes].
      in: Das Archaeologische Fundmaterial III der Ausgrabung Haithabu;
      Berichte über die Ausgrabungen in Haithabu Bericht 12;
      Reports on the excavations in Haithabu, 12. The archaeological find material III
      of the
      excavation in Haithabu [Viking Hedeby]. Wachholtz Neumünster Deutschland; 1978.
      109pp.
      If I recall correctly there are some from Winchestor & York.

      Broberg, Birgitta m.fl.: Medeltidsstaden 30;
      KERAMIK, KAMMAR OCH SKOR FRÅN 7 MEDELTIDA STÄDER.
      Fyndstudie. Illustr. Sth 1981. 166 pp.
      (Ceramics, Combs and Shoes from 7 Medieval Cities.)

      Cameron, Esther: Leather and Fur; Archetype Publications for the
      Archaeological Leather Group, 1998 x 101p., Paperback, ISBN: 1873132514
      “A collection of papers on two key commodities whose importance for early
      medieval trade and craft is often masked by the lack of organics surviving in
      the archaeological record."
      Relevant articles: Hides, Horns and Bones by Arthur MacGregor;
      Animal bones from the Viking town of Birka, Sweden by Bengt Wigh;
      £ 16.50 (approx. US$ 23.89) plus shipping.

      Carlsson, Dan: Viking and Medieval Combs from the island of Gotland, Sweden;
      CD-Rom (ArkeoDok 2002) ISBN 9197330442. CD/CDRom. Price US $20.00
      "Although combs were an everyday object in the Viking period, it is clear that
      they were
      prized and many examples are found in burials inferring some ritual significance.
      This CD-Rom contains more than 100 examples of combs dating from the early
      Viking period to the Middle Ages found on the island of Gotland, along with
      examples
      from Fjale dating from the 8th and 9th centuries. Each colour photograph is
      accompanied
      by a short caption. The short resume looks at combs and comb-making, their
      production,
      place of manufacture, distribution, and the different types found. "
      http://www.arkeodok.com/ Quoting Dan in this case.

      Choyke, Alice M. and László Bartosiewicz (Editors): BAR S937 2001:
      Crafting Bone: Skeletal Technologies through Time and Space - Proceedings
      of the 2nd meeting of the (ICAZ) Worked Bone Research Group, Budapest, 31
      August – 5 September 1999 . ISBN 1 84171 229 9. £45.00. 401 pages,
      illustrated throughout with photographs, maps, plans, and drawings..
      " 36 papers (each with an additional abstract in French, and German) presented at
      the Proceedings of the Worked Bone research Group, in Budapest, in 1999.
      Research was carried out on materials from Central and North America to various
      regions of Europe and Southwest Asia. The contributors represent scientific
      traditions from Estonia, Hungary, Romania, and Russia, European countries in
      which, until recently, ideas developed in relative isolation. Other European
      countries represented include Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain,
      Greece, and Switzerland. Last but not least, the North American scholarly
      approach is also reflected here. Most of the papers include considerations of raw
      material exploitation, manufacturing and functional analyses, and all make some
      attempt to consider the social context from which the artifacts emerged."
      quoting oxbowbooks.com May they sell out every copy. ;)

      Christopherson, A.: Raw Material, Resources, and Production Capacity in
      Early Medieval Comb Manufacture in Lund. Meddelanden från Lunds
      Universitets Historiska Museum, nya ser. 3, pp. 155-65.

      Clark, John: Saxon and Norman London; The Museum of London, 1989.
      John Clark is in the Department of Antiquities (MoL), 48 page colour and black and
      white paperback, 1989, 1st printing, ISBN 0112904580 £3.95/
      A Bone Comb with a stylized Animal Head (other end missing) 22.
      Bone skates found in the Moorfield area as described by William Fitz Stephan 48

      Collis, John: Early Medieval Bone Spoons from Winchester;
      Antiq. Journal 59, 1979, pp.375-91. Concerns six spoons found in various
      excavations across the city, due to be published in different publications but
      pulled together here for this article. Spoon 1 is tenth/eleventh century, nearly
      complete, missing only the top of the handle. Where the bowl joins the handle
      there is a really simplistic animal head with incised eyes, mouth and teeth.
      The bowl has incised foliate decoration top and bottom.
      Spoon 2 may well have been a double ender, one bowl is missing but
      it’s beast head remains, the other has a similar incised beast head and a
      broken ended bowl with foliate decorations incised, similar dating to Spoon one.
      Looks like the same maker. Spoon 3 is only a bowl end with incised foliate
      decoration with a bird atop it on one side. Similar appearance and dating to the
      first two. Spoon 4 is merely a crudely decorated bowl with top and bottom
      incised. At most it is eleventh/early twelfth century. Incised decoration similar
      to the first three Spoon 5 is only a broken bowl end with heavy wear.
      The top has an owner or maker’s mark. Flatter than the others, possibly a
      spatula from Norman times. Spoon 6 is merely a handle probably from a double
      ended spoon-fork. The bowl is broken off completely, the other end has what
      may be a surviving prong. Considered similar to Spoon 2 in decoration and style.
      Crude animal heads at either end of the handle with incised eyes/mouth/teeth.
      All spoons made from a single piece of bone. Spoon 1from a cattle/horse radius.
      Spoons 2 / 3 / 4 are from cattle long bones. Spoon 5 from a cattle rib.
      Spoon six from a metapoidal.
      Comparative matter considers other spoons: Spoon A is a broken round handled
      plain bowl. B is a long rat-tailed handle on an intact spoon with very simplistic
      decoration for a beast head at the end of the handle. Spoon C is only a bowl with
      a very nicely carved animal head, mouth open, with curled tongue and is made
      of Ivory. Cannot have been deposited after 1100 found in a Norman back-fill trench.
      Spoon D was never finished and is not depicted. There follows a discussion of
      similar finds elsewhere with a bibliography of sources. A very well illustrated
      and useful article..

      Cunliffe, Barry: Iron Age Britain; Batsford, 1995/2000, English Heritage Edition,
      ISBN 0713471840. 128pp., 89 very good illustrations of artefacts, forts,
      costumes, metalwork, pottery, bronze hanging bowls, Gussage All Saints
      bone waxworking tools, firedogs, chariot fittings. This is the only set of
      metalcasting waxworking tools I can document even though it is Romano-Celtic.
      The styles of the tools are extremely similar to those used for clay and wax today.

      Curle, A: A Viking Settlement at Freswick, Caithness, Report on
      Excavations carried out in 1937 and 1938.
      (Academic Journal Offprint from -) Proceedings of the Society
      of Antiquaries - Scotland. 1, 1938-39, pages 71-108 and plates
      XXXVIII to LI and 6 figures. Is missing at least one page at
      the end. 39pp, 28figs b/w pls, Printed card cover, VGC, US$ 14.50.
      Figures 1-4 various ground plans of the houses and sections through.
      Early plates show flagging, foundations, bathhouse, site of a bed,
      a quern, some wattle daub.
      Plate XLVII shows a comb case with ring and dot decoration,
      and some small toothed combs, one of which has a smaller comb
      on the other side of a long one.
      Plate XLVIII shows objects of bone: 1-9 comprise 3 small bone pins
      from 1 5/16 to 1 21/32“ long, two holed bodkins (eyed needles) or
      piercers (one #2 looks like a normal holed dress pin w/o the
      normal decoration); several are simply piercers and one object
      (10) head of pin with a fat middled bobbin like appearance.
      and piercers, or bodkins - the foregoing made of canon bones of
      ox, deer or sheep, 11-14 (toggles) dress fasteners made of
      center perforated metacarpals of pigs. None are animorphic.
      Plate XLIX shows turn-buckles or door-snecks of cetacean
      (whale) bone, *** two spindle whorls made from femur heads.
      “Whorls. _ Hemispherical whorls made from the heads of ox femurs
      were found throughout the area excavated, and totalled 15 in number.
      As a rule they have been crudely fashioned with little effort
      to give them any elegance of form. Spindle whorls from
      femur-heads are or frequent occurrence in prehistoric and
      later excavations, and are by no means confined to Viking sites.
      They were found by Pitt Rivers in Romano-British excavations at
      Woodcuts Common, also by Sir Henry Dryden at Hunsbury or
      Danes Camp, near Northampton. They were among the relics from
      the Keiss broch in Caithness, and the broch of Burrian in North
      Ronaldshay. Though now too light to effect their original
      purpose, they would be sufficiently heavy before the osseous
      matter, which they contained perished.“

      Dalton, O.M: Catalogue of the Ivory Carvings of the Christian Era With Examples of
      Mohammedan Art & Carvings in Bone in the Department of British & Mediaeval
      Antiquities & Ethnography of the British Museum ; London : Printed by order of
      the Trustees, Sold at the British Museum. 1st edition, 1909. Large 4to., 193pp.,
      125 full page plates.

      Dijkman, Wim and Anton ErvynckAntler, Bone, Horn, Ivory and Teeth:
      The Use of Animal Skeletal Materials in Roman and Early Medieval Maastricht;
      (Archaeologica Mosana 1, 1998), 91p, 45 figs, ISBN 9075472021. Paperback.
      "Publication of all artefacts and waste products made from antler, bone,
      ivory and horn, found at Maastricht dating from the Roman and early Medieval
      period. A general introduction of Maastricht in these times and a presentation
      of the sites is followed by the actual inventory, after which the description of
      the local technology of antler working, a chronological survey of the artefacts
      and a discussion of the position of this craft in its European context is given".
      US $30.00

      The Viking Age, 1890, shows antler rounding over plane,
      appears to be for planing spear shafts, and there are some combs.
      Du Chaillu, Paul B.: The Viking Age. The Early History Manners, and
      Customs of the Ancestors of the English-Speaking Nations: Illustrated From The
      Antiquities Discovered In Mounds, Cairns, And Bogs As Well As From
      The Ancient Sagas And Eddas.; 1890 - 2 vols., gilt stamped cloth
      New York: 8vo. 2 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, 1889. xx,591; viii, 562pp.
      First Edition. Publisher's gilt decorated cloth, 1366 illustrations and a map.
      Du Chaillu, Paul Belloni (circa 1831-1903), American explorer, born in France,
      probably in Paris. He spent his youth in Gabon, French Equatorial Africa, with his
      father, a French trader. In 1852 he went to the United States and later became a
      naturalized citizen. He led expeditions in Africa and wrote travel books as well
      as histories.
      A good deal of the stuff in his books goes back to the Bronze Age. Long out of
      print.
      My wife has an animorphic comb I made her after one with two animal heads in
      these books that was sectioned from antler where two tines joined. I still hope
      to make the plane.

      Dunleavy, M.: ‘A Classification of Early Irish Combs‘; 1988, Proceedings of the
      Royal Irish Academy 88C, pp.341-422.

      Edwards, Nancy: The Archaeology of Early Medieval Ireland,
      University of Pennsylvania Press, 418 Service Dr., Philadelphia, 10914:
      1990. 1st edition. ISBN 081223085X
      (1996 /Pbk 240 pages ills, 55 figs, 40 b/w photos $42.30)
      Critical survey of the archaeological evidence remaining from the early Middle
      Ages in
      Ireland. Illustrated with site-plans, and a range of artifacts. Line drawings
      prepared by Jean Williamson. Chapter 5 / Craft, Exchange and Trade 68. Pottery: 68.
      Imported Pottery 68. Native Pottery 68. Wood 75; Leather 79; Textiles and
      dress 80;
      Bone, Antler, and Horn 83-5. Not a lot but some.

      Galloway, Patricia, and Mark Newcomer: "The Craft of Combmaking: An
      Experimental Enquiry"; Inst. Arch. 18, 1981, Depicts the whole
      process to make a double sided composite comb with modern tools
      from antler, pp. 73-90 with photos and bibliography. Dot and
      circle motif is cut into the comb plates with a double point drill scribe.

      Gibson, M.: The Liverpool Ivories, Late Antique and Medieval Ivory and Bone
      Carving in Liverpool Museum and the Walker Art Gallery; 1994, National Museums
      & Galleries on Merseyside, 4to., 121pp., 51 coloured & plain plates, dust
      wrapper. Study cataloguing this major collection. Published at £45.
      Stationery Office. 120pp, 47 colour illustrations and 50 b&w. Catalogue. Losses and
      Forgeries. Concordances. Select Bibliography. HMSO. 1994. Cloth in
      wrappers. "The collection of late antique and medieval ivory and bone carvings
      surveyed in this catalogue and housed in the Liverpool Museum has an
      international reputation.
      In the United Kingdom it is surpassed only by collections in the British
      Museum and the V&A and its pieces are in constant demand for loan and publication.
      .... Taken as a whole, this book gives a balanced picture of a remarkable
      collection
      and of the development of the art of ivory and bone carving in Europe over 11
      centuries."
      Binding is HB.(Published Price £45.00)

      Grainger, Guy, and Martin Henig: "A Bone Casket and a Relief Plaque
      from Mound 3 at Sutton Hoo", Medieval Arhaeology 27, 1983.
      pp. 136-141. Remains are very small, compared in the article
      with the Heilbronn Casket (From Goessler 1932) scale 1/2.
      The Relief Plaque is a cameo and is not depicted.

      Gravett, Christopher, Gerry Embleton, Ed Dovey: Hastings,
      Osprey Miltitary Campaign Series 13; 1992, PB, 96 pp., ISBN 1855321645.
      Depicts Antler fragment from Sigtuna, Uppland, showing a Viking Warrior
      wearing a nasal helm - 21. This is also in many other viking books. It was
      what I had on hand in the computer.

      Hall, Richard: Viking Age York; Batsford Ltd., London, English Heritage Series. 1st
      Ed. 1994. ISBN 0713470143 PB or 0713470135 HB.
      Hall, Richard: The Viking Dig: The Excavations at York; The Bodley Head, London,
      1984,
      ISBN 0370308212 PB. DA690.Y6H3
      At least one of the above contains the green dyed bone buckle from York.
      Both contain bone Items and a lot of neat A-S/Viking stuff pre-York 17 fascicules.

      Hall, Richard: Viking Age Archaeology in Britain and Ireland;
      Shire Archaeology 60, 1990/1995, 64pp., ISBN 0747800634, £4.99/ $10.60.
      Antler combs and bone comb case from York; Borre-style decoration
      on a Knife Handle from Canterbury [this depicts all four sides];
      Rune incised comb-case. I think it is out of print right now but you can
      try http://www.shirebooks.com/ or bookfinder.com.

      HALLSTRÖM, GUSTAF. Birka I. Hjalmar Stolpes grafundersökningar beskrifna av
      Gustaf Hallström. Första häftet. Teckningarna utförda af O. Sörling. Stockholm,
      Ivar
      Hæggström, 1913. Folio.Two volumes. VI,+ 83 s.+ 10 planscher, varav 2 utvikbara.
      Has many bone combs in it. The two books are very large and hard to come by.

      Hillson, Simon & Other Author(s): Mammal bones and teeth : an introductory guide
      to methods of Identification; London : Institute of Archaeology, University
      College London, 1996. Repr. with corrections. ix, 64 p., [12] folded p. of
      plates :
      ill.; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references (p. 59) and index.
      CC79.5.A5H536
      1996. Animal remains (Archaeology) Identification. Human remains (Archaeology)
      Identification. Mammals Identification. Bones Identification. Teeth Identification.

      From Hooves to Horns, from Mollusc to Mammoth: Manufacture and Use of Bone
      Artefacts from Prehistoric Times to the Present
      edited by Heidi Luik, Alice M Choyke, Colleen E Batey and Lembi Lougas
      " The papers are divided chronologically into the
      Palaeolithic and Mesolithic, Neolithic, fortified Bronze Age settlements,
      Iron Age Europe and the eastern and western provinces of the Roman Empire,
      Viking Age and the Middle Ages. Sections also examine artefacts made from
      special raw osseous material (shells, bird bone, elk antler, fish bone, Walrus
      ivory, skeleton of a marine turtle) and their manufacture, and experimental work."
      Papers in English. 445p, many b/w figs and pls (Muinasaja Teadus 15, 2005)
      ISBN 998550383X. Paperback. Price US $47.50 oxbowbooks.com

      MacGregor, Arthur: Barred Combs of Frisian Type in England; in Medieval
      Archaeology. 19, 1975, pp. 195-8 with multi-sided line drawings of six combs.

      MacGregor, Arthur: Bone, Antler, Ivory and Horn - The Technology of
      Skeletal Materials Since the Roman Period; Croom Helm, London
      and Sydney, , ISBN (OOP) 0709932421, 1985 TT288.M#
      LoC 84-18535, 245pp with illus.,
      Contents: Raw Materials, Bone and Antler as Materials, Availability,
      Handicraft as Industry, Working Methods and Tools, Artefacts of
      Skeletal Materials - a typological review, Bibliography, Index.
      The Bible of Boneworking in English, this is the reprint of the 1985 edition.
      Barnes and Noble, Totowa, New Jersey.

      MacGregor, Arthur & Ailsa Mainman: ‘The Bone and Antler Industry in
      Anglo-Scandinavian
      York: The Evidence from Coppergate‘ from The Worked Bone Research Group,
      Budapest, 1999, pages 343-54. Late 9th Century to the second half of the 11th
      Century.
      Introduction. 16-22 Coppergate, (Jorvik) York. Depicts two long single sided
      decorated combs, One double sided comb. One solid handled single sided comb.
      One handled single sided composite comb (with two scales). A Bone Comb Case.
      Bone mounts made largely from split ribs making a cover for the remains of
      a lid of an oak box or casket. Finally the Antler Bow Saw, as found at Coppergate
      with a theoretical reconstruction.

      MacGregor, A, A.J. Mainman, and N.S.H. Rogers: Bone, Antler, Ivory and Horn
      from Anglo-Scandinavian York; The Archaeology of York, the Small Finds, fasicule
      17/12 Craft, Industry and Everyday Life; Published by the British Council for
      Archaeology, Bowes Morrell House, 111 Walmgate, York, Y01 9WA,
      England, ISBN 1872414990, 936.2'843, Published for the York Archaeological
      Trust, 1999, 213 pp. with Illustrations. pp. 1869-2072.
      In: The Small Finds, Craft, Industry and Everyday Life series, ed. P.V. Addyman.

      MacGregor, Arthur & Ailsa Mainman: ‘The Bone and Antler Industry in
      Anglo-Scandinavian
      York: The Evidence from Coppergate‘ from The Worked Bone Research Group,
      Budapest, 1999, pages 343-54. Late 9th Century to the second half of the 11th
      Century.
      Introduction. 16-22 Coppergate, (Jorvik) York. Depicts two long single sided
      decorated combs, One double sided comb. One solid handled single sided comb.
      One handled single sided composite comb (with two scales). A Bone Comb Case.
      Bone mounts made largely from split ribs making a cover for the remains of
      a lid of an oak box or casket. Finally the Antler Bow Saw, as found at Coppergate
      with a theoretical reconstruction.

      MacGregor, Arthur.: Bone Skates: A Review of the Evidence; in Arch. Journal 133,
      1976. pp. 57-74 with illustrations and plate IV. Large bibliography.

      MacGregor, Arthur: "Hides, Horns and Bones - Animals and Interdependant
      Industries in the Early Urban Context" by Arthur MacGregor in:
      Leather and Fur, Aspects of Early Medieval Trade and Technology,
      edited by Esther Cameron, 1998, London, pp. 11-26.;
      Archetype Publications for the Archaeological Leather Group, 1998 x 101p.,
      Paperback, ISBN: 1873132514 “A collection of papers on two key commodities
      whose importance for early medieval trade and craft is often
      masked by the lack of organics surviving in the archaeological record."

      MacGregor, A.: ‘Antler, Bone, and Horn.’ In: English Medieval Industries, by J.
      Blair (ed.) & N. Ramsey. 1991, London, pp. 355--378.

      Mann J.: Early Medieval Finds From Flaxengate Lincoln-Objects of Antler, Bone,
      Stone, Horn, Ivory, Amber and Jet; Council for British Archaeology and Lincoln
      Archaeological Trust; 1982; 68pp., 47 figs., A4 card.

      Myres J.: The Anglo-Saxon Cemeteries of Caistor by Marshall and Markshall;
      Society of Antiquaries, No. XXX, 1973, 335pp. with 71 pp of line figs, 3 maps &
      24 b/w pls, Large Folio Cloth with DJ. London : Society of Antiquaries of London:
      distributed by Thames and Hudson, 1973. Subject(s): Cemeteries, Anglo-Saxons,
      Caistor St. Edmund, Archaeology, Medieval England. DA155.M89 ,. very well
      ill.Pottery designs; combs and other artefacts.

      National Museum of Ireland: Viking and Medieval Dublin - National Museum
      Excavations 1962-73 - Catalogue of Excavation; 1973. Elo Press, Ltd., Dublin.
      53pp plus XVIII Plates. Bone trial piece with Ringerike patterns (High St.,
      12th C.);
      Bone Pine with bird-headed terminal (Christ Church, 10/11th C.); Cut pieces of
      antler waste from combmaking, 12th C.; Bone comb asssembled before teeth
      cut (High St., 10th C.); Three bone combs from Hight St, 11th C.; Bone comb and
      comb-case (Winetavern St., 11th C.)

      O'Connor, Terry: Animal bones from Flaxengate, Lincoln, c. 870-1500; with
      contributions by Mike Wilkinson. London : Council for British Archaeology for
      the Lincoln Archaeological Trust ; [Atlantic Highlands, N. J. : Distributed in
      the U.S.A.by Humanities Press,] 1982. DA690.L67O36

      O'Connor, T. P. (Terence Patrick), 1954-: The Archaeology of Animal Bones;
      College Station : Texas A&M University Press, 2000. ix, 206 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
      Series: Texas A & M University anthropology series ; no. 4. Includes
      bibliographical references pp. 177-200 and index. CC79.5.A5O36 2000b
      Animal remains / Archaeology Methodology.

      O'Meadhra, Uaininn: Early Christian, Viking and Romanesque Art: Motif-Pieces from
      Ireland - 1; (Theses and Papers in North-European Archaeology 17).
      Almqvist and Wiksell, International, Stockholm, Sweden, 1987. Description: 4:o.;
      Illustrated with drawings and plates. Publisher's printed wrappers. Paperback.
      Mostly bone and antler trial carvings. 197 pages and 57 large plates
      with many drawings in the text. Covers about 200 motif pieces, some with multiple
      picture close-ups of details of the same items. Ideal for bone carving, metal
      engraving, or wood
      carving. In a set with the following book:
      O'Meadhra, Uaininn: Early Christian, Viking and Romanesque Art: Motif-Pieces from
      Ireland - 2, A Discussion of find context and function; (Theses and Papers in
      North-European Archaeology 17).
      Description: 4:o. 200 pp., Ill. Publisher's printed wrappers.
      Came from http://www.Ronnells.se/ in Sweden 5/04.
      Overall, a great set of books.

      Owen, Olwyn: The Sea Road-a Viking Voyage Through Scotland; Historic Scotland,
      Canongate Books, 1999. ISBN: 0862418739
      Jarlshof settlement: Bone Die page 21, 5 bone pins of which 4 are animorphic on
      page 20 (Pins are in National Museum of Scotland).
      Pig metatarsals were often worked into toggles page 20.

      Owen, Olwyn: The Scar Boat Burial; Historic Scotland, Christina Unwin.-
      found in 1991, Scar, Sanday, Orkney, 3 bodies, 7.15m oak rowing boat, child of ten,
      Man 30, woman 70’s, Game-board and pieces, sword, shield, quiver, arrows, bow,
      whale bone plaque, maple box/chest, shears, brooch. Not too easy to find unless
      it has been reprinted. Took me over a year to locate one to buy.

      T.G. Padley: Wooden, Leather and Bone Objects from Castle Street, Carlisle:
      Excavations 1981-2; Cumberland & Westmoreland Antiquarian & Archaeological, 1991.
      Spiral-bound 147 pages (December 1991); English; ISBN: 1873124058

      Reichstein, Hans: Investigations of antlers remainders of Red Deer. Nothing
      particularly interesting.
      In Berichte über die Ausgrabungen in Haithabu 2: Neumünster, Wachholtz, 1969. 71
      S. [pages]
      22 Abb. [illus.] 5 Taf. [plates] 8 (1 Falt-) Tab. 26 cm Kt
      \Untersuchungen d.botanischen Materials d.frühmittelalter l.
      [Reports on the excavations in Haithabu 2: Investigations of botanical material
      of the early medieval
      settlement Haithabu [Viking Hedeby] by.K.-E.Behre/
      Investigations of antlers remainders of Red Deer, by H.Reichstein.]

      Richards, Julian D.: Viking Age England; Tempus Publishing Ltd., The Mill,
      Brimscombe Port, Stroud, Gloucestershire, GL5 2QG UK; PB 190pp.,
      ISBN 0752414895 £14.99. York 10th C bone and antler combs, spindle whorls,
      needles and textile fragments. cow rib bone trial piece from Coppergate p.114;
      Viking Grave finds drawing from Hesket in the Forest (Cumbria) depicting
      antler comb fragments;

      Riddler, Ian [editor]: Materials of Manufacture: The choice of materials in the
      working of bone and antler in northern and central Europe during the first
      millennium AD;
      (Archaeopress BAR S1193, 2003; . 75 pp., b/w figs. ISBN 184171559X.
      Paperback. Price US $59.00
      " The first millennium AD introduced new technologies, such as the lathe, which
      motivated a resurgence in bone and antler working in Europe. New raw materials
      also became popular, particularly elk antler. This collection of seven papers,
      originally prepared for a small conference held at the British Musem in 1997,
      reflect on these and other changes that marked the transition from the Roman to
      the medieval world. Subjects include: elk antler finds from the Roman town
      `Old Virunum' in southern Austria; the identification of fallow deer remains from
      Roman Monkton in Kent; workshop debitage and reused objects from Roman Pannonia;
      antler remains from the Late Antique site of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte; the working of
      roe deer antler in Anglo-Saxon England; boneworking at Middle Saxon Hamwic in
      Southampton; Late Saxon worked antler waste from Holy Rood in Southampton.
      One paper in French, the rest in English." Again, from oxbowbooks.com
      This has extensive bibliographies with each article. Riddler has
      noted his various chapters and books in preparation. Seems to be
      headed for the position in writing on bone that Dr. Arthur MacGregor
      cemented twenty one years ago for himself. There are a number of
      turned objects in it - mostly discs turned on both sides, pins,
      comb remains, Indian objects - a weaving comb and carved bone
      plaque.

      Riddler, L.: ‘Saxon Handled Combs from London’, in Transactions of the London and
      Middlesex Archaeological Society 41, 1990, pp.9-20.

      Ritchie, Carson I. A. : Bone and Horn Carving - A Pictorial History; South
      Brunswick and
      New York, A.S. Barnes and Co.; London: Thomas Yoseloff Ltd., 1ST ed., 1975,
      166 pp, many illustrations, 285 x 220, dustwrapper. NK 6020R52 736'6
      LoC#73-22601,
      ISBN 0498014045. Crafts / Bone Carving / Horn Carving / Scrimshaw / Hornbill
      Carving.
      An older book, not expensive, not hard to find, until this goes out... Has a number
      of medieval objects in it.

      Roesdahl, Else: The Vikings in England and in Their Danish Homeland, Exhibition
      Catalog, (with James Graham-Campbell, Patricia, Connor and Kenneth Pearson);
      Publ. by Anglo-Danish Viking Project, London 1981, 192 pp. Pb, Color
      and b&w photos of metalwork, weapons, jewelry, daily items, beads, coinage,
      houses, ships, costume, combs, maps, bone and antler items, whetstones, dies,
      Bamberg Casket - Kunigunde's Jewel Box, spoons, frying pan, horn mounts,
      and sculpture - architectural and memorial, and amber.

      Rogers, N.S.H.: ‘Anglian and Other Finds from Fishergate‘. In The Small Finds,
      ed. P.V. Addyman. The Archaeology of York 17, 1993, London, pp. 1203-1512

      Schietzel, Kurt. Berichte über die Ausgrabungen in Haithabu. Bericht 16: Stand der
      siedlungsarchäologischen Forschung in Haithabu - Ergebnisse und Probleme.
      [Reports on the excavations in Haithabu # 16 - conditions of the
      settlement-archaeological research in Haithabu - results and problems.]
      Neumünster. Karl Wachholtz Verlag. 1981. 123 S., 18 x 25 cm. sehr guter
      Zustand. O Brosch. Maps, various problems and methods concerning
      the excavation with techniques illustrated. Division and classification techniques
      of objects. Historical methods of connecting and constructing walkways.
      Cross sections of walls from houses, seen vertically, various methods.
      Entrances and door construction. Construction of oven base.
      House plans including the hearth locations. Wells of hollowed logs, barrels,
      and square framed timbers. House plans, one with an oven in one end.
      *** Red stag antler, how cut, making combs, beads, game pieces and dice.
      Bead shapes, pendants and game pieces of antler.

      Smith, Cyril Stanley: Mappae Clavicula: A Little Key to the
      World of Medieval Techniques. Edited by Cyril Stanley Smith
      & John G. Hawthorne. The American Philosophical Society:
      Philadelphia. ISBN: 0871696444. 128 pages pages. 1974.
      Includes a copy of the original text, translation,
      bibliography, appendices and an index.
      Includes almost 300 "chapters" (generally a paragraph
      long) describing an amazing breadth of techniques ranging
      from glue recipes and pigment preparations to soap and candy
      making.
      Sample topics for the jeweler are: niello, cleaning
      silver vessels without damage, black inscriptions on silver,
      tin-copper alloy, various solder recipes, the polishing of
      gems, alum for etching iron, various dye recipes, dyeing bone,
      horns and woods, recipes for colored glasses and an aid for extinguishing fires.
      I am thinking I bought my copy at Pennsic from the Known World
      Limners' Guild booth.

      Smirnova, Lyubov: Comb-Making in Medieval Novgorod (950-1450):
      An Industry in Transition; 334p, b/w figs, CD (Archaeopress
      BAR S1369, BAR 2005) ISBN 1841718114. Paperback.
      "Many hundreds of bone and antler combs
      have been uncovered during half a century of excavation at the medieval
      settlement of Novgorod in Russia. Recovered from sites across the city,
      and spanning its entire medieval history, the combs reveal much
      about the changes in comb-making during the transition from the Viking
      to medieval period, while their archaeological provenance contributes to
      our understanding of the cultural and economic development of Novgorod.
      At the heart of the study is a detailed, illustrated typology of combs,
      along with analyses of their distribution, their decoration, the bone material,
      the location of possible industrial centres and chronological changes in design".
      Additional data is presented on a CD. BARs usually sell out quickly and
      are then hard to find. oxbowbooks.com.
      Price GB £42.00 plus tax and shipping.

      St. Clair, Archer, and Elizabeth Parker McLachlan, eds. 1989.
      The Carver's Art, Medieval Sculpture in Ivory, Bone, and Horn;
      ISBN 9990468397. A nice book, not terribly thick. From a small exhibition.

      Schwarz-Mackensen, G.: Die Knochennadeln von Haithabu [Bone Needles], v.
      G.Schwarz-Mackensen. Neumünster, Berichte über die Ausgrabungen in Haithabu, 9:
      Reports on the excavations in Haithabu, 09: The bone needles of Haithabu, by
      G.Schwarz-Mackensen. Wachhholtz, 1976. 94 S. [pages] 40 Abb. [illustrations]
      26 cm Kt Widm.a.V.
      A very large selection of carved bone needles for dress accessories, bodkins, and a
      comparison to styli for writing implements in early illustrations (4). My favorite
      after Waterman.

      Tcherikover, A.: Two Romanesque Ivory Combs; Academic Journal Offprint from -
      Journal of the British Archaeological Association 132, 1979; 15pp, 5figs, 3b-w
      pls,
      Printed card cover, Depicts two highly carved ivory combs, one from the Musee
      de la Pricerie, in Verdun, France; and the other from the Victoria and Albert
      Museum
      in London. Both are very intricately carved. The London comb has scenes of the
      Nativity and passion of Christ. On the Verdun comb Oassion only scenes are depicted.
      The sides of the combs are carved with wyverns, soldiers, and an annunciation to a
      shepherd. Possibly tenth or eleventh century.

      Tempel, Wolf-Dieter : Kamme aus Haithabu pp. 34-45. Many Combs.
      in: Berichte uber die Ausgrabungen in Haithabu, Bericht 4.
      Das Archaeologische Fundmaterial I, (1963-1964).
      [Reports on the excavations in Haithabu, Volume 4.
      The Archaeological Find Material I, (1963-1964) of Viking Hedeby]

      Ulbricht, I.: ‘Die Geweihvararbeitung in Haithabu‘, Berichte über die
      Ausgraben in
      Haithabu 7, 1978, Wachholtz, Neumunster.

      Wainwright G.: The Iron Age settlement of Gussage All Saints -
      Part I: The Settlement. Part 2: The Bronze Foundry.
      Description: 22pp 1figs 5b/w pls Printed Card Cover
      Academic Journal Offprint from - Antiquity 186 1973.
      +
      Wainwright, G.J.: Gussage All Saints - An Iron Age Settlement in Dorset;
      Department of the Environment, Archaeological Report Number 10., London,
      Her Majesty's Stationery Office 1979. ISBN 0 11 670831 X, 202 pages, index
      plus 87 plates; First Edition, US$ 50.00
      This principally deals with casting horse fittings for chariots, but the tools,
      molds,
      and crucibles are illustrated. The interesting thing here is their ability to
      cast rings
      within rings. The surviving bone modeling tool set is remarkable - being the only
      one I know of that survived together. However, the time period is Romano-British,
      which is why I include it. Nearly identical tools are still used for clay and wax
      modeling for casting today.

      Ward Perkins, J B.: London Museum Medieval Catalogue 1940. Anglia Publishing,
      1993. Catalogue of the wide-ranging collection: weapons, tools, horse furniture,
      pendants, keys, purses, weights, lighting, household utensils, plate, pottery,
      tiles, pilgrim souvenirs, buckles, chapes, figures, wood, bone, ivory, glass,
      pipeclay, whetstones, seals. 322pp, illustrated boards, profusely illustrated
      with photos and drawings. New. Book # 16 £24.50 (approx. $38.89)
      Anglia Publishing , Unit T, Dodnash Priory Farm Hazel Shrub, Bentley, Ipswich,
      United Kingdom , IP9 2DF Phone 01473 311138 / Fax 01473 312288 ,
      anglia@... ('99)

      Ward Perkins, J.B.: A Medieval Spoon in the Guildhall Museum,
      London; The Antiquaries Journal reprint, July 1939, (Vol XIX,
      No. 3), pp.313-6. and plates LXI-V and includes illustrations
      of wooden, metal and bone spoons from other time periods.

      Waterman, Dudley M.: Late Saxon, Viking, and Early Medieval Finds
      from York; in Archaeologia 97, 1959, pp. 59-105. Includes bronze
      bowl, knives, axes, spears, swords, sword chape, arrowhead,
      horse furniture (bits, spurs, stirrups), strapends, hooks,
      brooches, pendants, pins, bone pins and bodkins, wooden
      and bone spoons, bone combs and cases, oak casket with bone mounts,
      ornamental bonework including flutes, worked antler, spindle whorls,
      jet objects (gamepiece, pendant, whorl), glass beads, linen
      smoothers, amber, stone whetstones and line sinker, pottery vessels
      and lamps, shears.

      West, Barbara: " A Note on Bone Skates from London";.
      London & Middlesex Archaeology 33, 1982, pp. 304-20.
      xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

      Re: [Regia-NA] Bone Spoon from Winchester
      Date: Sat, 26 Feb 2005 01:11:45 -0500
      From: rmhowe <mmagnusm@...>
      To: list-Regia-NA <list-regia-na@...>
      CC: regia@yahoogroups.com

      Russ wrote:

      > Greetings All!!
      >
      > I am looking to find some documentation of the bone spoon that was found at
      > Winchester. Currently the only information on it I can find is on the Regia
      > site. Would anyone happen to know which publication or even a web site that
      > would have the Archaeological data on it?

      There are more than one bone spoon, there were several.
      The one I like best is ivory, all are somewhat fragmentary.
      I know because I have used them as patterns for my bone work.
      The document they are in was written in 1959 originally but
      they may also be in Biddles Object and Economy in
      Biddle, Martin, O.U.P., (ed.) Object and Economy in Medieval
      Winchester : Artefacts from Medieval Winchester (Winchester
      Studies 7 II) Dec. 1990, 2 vols. 4to. cx + 1271pp. Cold.
      frontis., 387 figures, 65 plates including several cold.
      $350.00 [the old price, would be higher in US versus GBPs now.]
      Oxford Univ Pr; ISBN: 0198131755,
      The huge two volume set on all the small finds.
      Far too big for me to have taken days for making notes on them
      and typing them into the computer.

      The article I use a lot is:

      Waterman, Dudley M.: Late Saxon, Viking, and Early Medieval Finds
      from York; in Archaeologia 97, 1959, pp. 59-105. Includes bronze
      bowl, knives, axes, spears, swords, sword chape, arrowhead,
      horse furniture (bits, spurs, stirrups), strapends, hooks,
      brooches, pendants, pins, bone pins and bodkins, wooden
      and bone spoons, bone combs and cases, oak casket with bone mounts,
      ornamental bonework including flutes, worked antler, spindle whorls,
      jet objects (gamepiece, pendant, whorl), glass beads, linen
      smoothers, amber, stone whetstones and line sinker, pottery vessels
      and lamps, shears.

      While I was looking for Waterman I happened to see too:
      Ward Perkins, J.B.: A Medieval Spoon in the Guildhall Museum,
      London; The Antiquaries Journal reprint, July 1939, (Vol XIX,
      No. 3), pp.313-6. and plates LXI-V and includes illustrations
      of wooden, metal and bone spoons from other time periods.

      IF there is one thing I've done it is assemble a sizable amount
      of skeletal materials references.

      De nada,
      Magnus

      > Thanks Much!!
      >
      > Russ []/ Danelaw
      xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
      Spindle Whorls of Femur Heads - Viking Context
      Date: Sun, 18 Jul 2004 15:41:25 -0400
      From: rmhowe <MMagnusM@...>
      To: - Regia Anglorum - North America <list-regia-na@...>

      I said I would post this when I found it on femur headed
      spindle whorls. Wrong book though I think that I suggested
      it might be in the first time. Brain like a magic 8 ball.
      Most of the notes are mine except for quotations taken in "".
      Happened to see it in my bibliography notes whilst looking
      for the dragon head for a "windsock" that Martin wants.
      I have that too -somewhere-.

      Magnus

      Curle, A: A Viking Settlement at Freswick, Caithness, Report on
      Excavations carried out in 1937 and 1938.
      (Academic Journal Offprint from -) Proceedings of the Society
      of Antiquaries - Scotland. 1, 1938-39, pages 71-108 and plates
      XXXVIII to LI and 6 figures. Is missing at least one page at
      the end. 39pp, 28figs b/w pls, Printed card cover, VGC,
      US$ 14.50.

      Figures 1-4 various ground plans of the houses and sections through.
      Early plates show flagging, foundations, bathhouse, site of a bed,
      a quern, some wattle daub.

      Plate XLVII shows a comb case with ring and dot decoration,
      and some small toothed combs, one of which has a smaller comb
      on the other side of a long one.

      Irish Brooch found at Croy, Inverness-shire (appears to be
      beast heads biting at something similar to a sundisc. unusual)
      and a dragon head - part-brooch found at Freswick.
      These are pennanulars.

      Plate XLVIII shows objects of bone: 1-9 comprise 3 small bone pins
      from 1 5/16 to 1 21/32“ long, two holed bodkins (eyed needles) or
      piercers (one #2 looks like a normal holed dress pin w/o the
      normal decoration); several are simply piercers and one object
      (10) head of pin with a fat middled bobbin like appearance.
      and piercers, or bodkins - the foregoing made of canon bones of
      ox, deer or sheep, 11-14 (toggles) dress fasteners made of
      center perforated metacarpals of pigs. None are animorphic.
      Plate XLIX shows turn-buckles or door-snecks of cetacean
      (whale) bone,
      *** two spindle whorls made from femur heads. “Whorls. _
      Hemispherical whorls made from the heads of ox femurs were
      found throughout the area excavated, and totalled 15 in number.
      As a rule they have been crudely fashioned with little effort
      to give them any elegance of form. Spindle whorls from
      femur-heads are or frequent occurrence in prehistoric and
      later excavations, and are by no means confined to Viking sites.
      They were found by Pitt Rivers in Romano-British excavations at
      Woodcuts Common, also by Sir Henry Dryden at Hunsbury or
      Danes Camp, near Northampton. They were among the relics from
      the Keiss broch in Caithness, and the broch of Burrian in North
      Ronaldshay. Though now too light to effect their original
      purpose, they would be sufficiently heavy before the osseous
      matter, which they contained perished.“

      5 + 7 are quartz plummets.
      6 is a sinker of steatite.
      8 is a small ended hone.
      (“Twelve sharpening stones or hones, of quartzose schist from
      the Moine shcists, were found on various sites, five of them
      coming, as might be expected, from the smithy. They are all,
      with one exception of the haunched type, the exception being
      a straight-sided hone of black phyllite or clayey schist,
      a different material from that of any other. only one example
      is shown. A sharpening stone, probably of Caithness flagstone,
      to be used for some narrow, round pointed metal instrument,
      has a deep groove the length of each of the two opposite faces,
      and is considerably abraded at one end.”)

      9 + 10 are pot-lids of stone.

      ?Polishers - there are two polishers, an ovoid pebble of
      porphyry, flattened by use on each side, which was found in
      the smithy, and a larger water-worn ovoid pebble of quartzite.
      The latter, at one end has been reduced to an angular section
      by rubbing, and has the opposite end has been slightly abraded.

      Plate L - Two knives, one long, the other hog-backed.
      3. an unusual key, not terribly interesting.
      4. Butt or socket, end missing.
      5. Long Belt chape of twined animorphic form.
      9-10 Penanullar finger rings of uninteresting design.
      6 - round bracelet with grooves around it.
      7 - A long hammer-headed (cuboid) pin. Bronze patch for a cauldron.
      Plate LI and figure 6: Examples of Viking pottery - most crudely made.
      The pottery is identical to that found at Jarlshof. Comparison
      is made to Jarlshof. Conclusion: the inhabitants were poorer or
      more isolated.

      xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
      Saxon handled combs from London by Ian Riddler
      Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society.Volume 41.
      http://www.lamas.org.uk/abstracts/riddler1990.html
      Fourteen handled combs have been recovered from the London area. Seven of these
      – in the collections of the British Museum and the Museum of London – are
      illustrated and described in detail, and arranged in a chronological sequence
      extending from the Middle Saxon period (c 8th-9th century AD) to the Late Saxon
      (10th century). They exhibit a wide range of decorative schemes, and appear to
      demonstrate a transition from the use of bone as well as antler in earlier times
      to the exclusive use of antler in the later period.
      It has generally been assumed that combs of this type are Frisian, their
      presence indicating trade, exchange, or the presence of Frisians themselves.
      Recent research, however, has identified nearly a hundred from Anglo-Saxon
      sites, together with evidence for manufacture. This suggests that they were all
      produced in England, and that in fact they should be regarded as one of the most
      representative forms of Middle-Late Saxon comb.
      [Transactions 41 (1990), pp 9 – 20; abstract by Francis Grew, 02-Jan-1998]

      A Bone riveted 4 piece manicure set was found aboard the Mary Rose which sunk in
      1545.

      4 Jun 2003 New combmaking page
      http://www.angelfire.com/mi4/olafvanta/Dirk/comb/comb.htm#Discussion

      Combs in Birka I: Die Graber, Holger Arbman. Almqvist & Wiksells, 1943.

      Taylor, Michael: THE LEWIS CHESSMEN. Publisher: British Museum Press
      (1991, c1978). 12+ illustrations. 16-page stapled pamphlet.

      Stratford, Neil: Lewis Chessmen and the Enigma of the Hoard;
      Softcover, ISBN: 0714105872 Publisher: British Museum Press, $11.95
      British MUSEUM PRESS 1997; 64pp.

      Finkel, Irving: The Lewis Chessmen: What Happened to Them; British
      Museum Publications Ltd; Sept. 1999, ISBN: 0714105929, Paperback,
      48 pp., $16.95.

      GIBSON, Margaret: The Liverpool Ivories. Late Antique and Medieval Ivory and
      Bone Carving in Liverpool and the Walker Art Gallery; HMSO 1994, 4to. xxvi,
      121pp; f/p, illus, many col 1994; Dw,. illustrated throughout in b/w and
      colour. Cloth. (Published Price £45.00)

      Archaeology of Lund - Studies in the Lund Excavation Material I - Animal
      Skeletal Remains from Medieval Lund. (Bergquist H) Museum of Cultural History
      Lund Sweden 1957
      ISBN: 103pp figs b/w pls card VGC
      xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
      Master Magnus Malleus, OL / aka R.M. Howe
      Great Barony of Windmasters' Hill; the Manx, Great Dark Horde;
      Society of Archer-Antiquaries
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