- "And the Mountains as Pegs"
Allah says: ( Have we not made the earth as a wide expanse, and the mountains as pegs? ) (78: 6-7)
The Verse indicates that mountains are pegs for the earth. A peg has part of it above the surface of the earth and the bulk of it underground; its function being stabilizing something else. Geographers and geologists, however, define the mountain as a landmass that projects conspicuously above its surroundings and is higher than a hill.
Professor Zaghlul El-Naggar says: �All current definitions of mountains are confined only to the outer morphology of such landforms, without the slightest notion to their subsurface extensions which have lately proved to be several times their outward height.�
Then he adds: �This fact started to come to light only in the middle of the nineteenth century, when George Airy (1865) proposed that the enormously heavy mountains are not supported by a strong rigid crust below, but that they �float� in a �sea� of dense rocks�.
Mountains have roots deep under the surface of the ground.
(Earth, Press and Siever, p. 413)
Schematic section. Mountains, like
pegs, have deep roots embedded in the ground.
(Anatomy of the Earth, Cailleux,p.220)
Another illustration shows how mountains are peglike
in shape, due to their deep roots.
(Earth Science, Tarbuck and Lutgens, p.158)
Airy�s theory became on actual fact because of the progressive knowledge of the internal structure of the earth by means of seismic measurements. It has become definitely known that mountains have roots extending deep in the ground and may be up to fifteen times the height of the outward protrusions above ground, and the mountains play a significant role in halting the horizontal jerky movement of the lithospheric plates. This role started to be understood in the framework of plate tectonics in the late 1960.
Professor Zaghlul defines mountains in the light of this modern information by saying: �Mountains are merely the tops of great masses of rock, floating in a more dense substratum as icebergs float in water.�
The Qur�an describes mountains in respect of their shape and function. Allah says: (And the mountains as pegs.) (78: 7) and (He set on the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with you.) (3: 10) and (And we have set on the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with them, and we have made therein broad ways (between mountains) for them to pass through; that they may receive guidance.) (21: 31)
Mountains are pegs with respect to the earth�s surface, for as most of a peg is hidden in the ground for stabilization, the bulk of a mountain is hidden underground to stabilize the earth�s crust.
Moreover, as ships are anchored with anchors that are sunk in water, the earth�s crust is stabilized by its mountains with their roots extending in the mantle, a semi-liquid sticky layer upon which the earth�s crust floats.
The commentators (May Allah bestow His Mercy upon them) observed these meanings, when interpreting Allah�s saying: (And the mountains as Pegs.) Following are some examples:
Ibn Al-Jawzi said: (And the mountains as Pegs.)for the earth lest it should shake.
Al-Zamakhshari said: (And the mountains as Pegs.) means we stabilized it with mountains as a house is stabilized with pegs.
Al-Qurtubi said: (And the mountains as Pegs.) in order that the earth may get stable and may not overturn its population.
Abu Hayyan said: (And the mountains as Pegs.) means we have stabilized it with pegs, as a house is fixed with pegs.
Al-Shawkani said: (And the mountains as Pegs.) means we have made mountains as pegs for the earth to get clam and not to shake, as a house is stabilized with pegs.
The First Mountains to Be Created Were The Volcanic
When Allah created the continents they appeared in the form of a thin solid crust floating on magma. They began to shake and get restless; therefore, Allah created the volcanic mountains that were formed from under the crust, the rocks being cast outside the surface of the earth to come back attracted by the earth and accumulated gradually to form mountains. The accumulated masses would exert their weights on the mantle sending into it their roots of mountainous matter, which cause the earth�s crust to be stabilized and balanced.
In the Saying of Allah : (He set on the earth mountains standing firm.) (31: 10) there is an allusion to the way the volcanic mountains were formed, i.e. by casting their matter out of the earth�s interior upwards and then bringing it down to settle on the earth�s surface.
A tradition of the Messenger (Peace be upon him) describes this method. Anas ibn Malik narrated that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said: �When Allah created the earth it started shaking. Then He created the mountains bringing them down upon it��
Note the saying of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) which illustrates the way of creating mountains: �bringing them down upon it,� i.e. their creation was by their coming out of the earth and their returning onto it.
The Aspects of the Miracle
Mountains do not reveal the form of pegs or anchors. They just appear as prominent masses elevated upon the earth�s surface, as they are defined by geographers and geologists. Nobody can know their peg-like shape or anchor shape unless he knows their portions that submerge into the plastic matter of the mantle. It had been impossible for anybody to imagine any such things before the appearance of Sir George Airy�s theory in 1855 AD.
Who, then, told Muhammad (Peace be upon him) of the function of mountains and that they serve as pegs and anchors, a fact hidden from people till 1960 AD?
Did the Messenger (Peace be upon him) witness the process of creating the earth while it was shaking? Or the formation of the volcanic mountains through being cast out of the earth�s interior and brought back to settle on the earth?
Is this not sufficient proof that this knowledge is a Revelation from Allah to His Messenger, the illiterate Prophet, Who came from an illiterate nation at an age when superstitions and myths were prevalent?
It is the scientific proof that the source of this Qur�an is the Creator of the earth and the mountains, the Knower of the secrets of the heavens and the earth Who says:( Say: The (Qur�an) was sent down by Him Who knows the mystery (that is) in the heavens and the earth. Verily He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) (XXV: 6)
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