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[lxx] the divine name in the LXX?

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  • grant polle
    LXX: Is there any evidence that the divine name once appeared in the Septuagint? grant polle usa
    Message 1 of 7 , Mar 3 8:22 PM
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      LXX:

      Is there any evidence that the divine name once appeared in the
      Septuagint?

      grant polle
      usa
    • David C. Hindley
      ... Septuagint?
      Message 2 of 7 , Mar 4 5:32 AM
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        Grant Polle said:

        >>Is there any evidence that the divine name once appeared in the
        Septuagint? <<

        Yes. This will, of course, open up a can of worms.

        The Jehovah's Witnesses, for whom the Divine Name is of special interest,
        point out that there are numerous examples of extant ancient Greek
        translations of the Jewish scriptures (which is generally, although not
        correct in a technical sense, lumped together under the label "LXX") which
        indicate the Divine Name in a distinct manner (_The Kingdom Interlinear
        Translation of the Greek Scriptures_, Brooklyn: WTBTS, 1969, pp.11-15).

        I presume that you are thinking cases where the Tetragrammaton (YHWH) in
        the original Hebrew script was used in copies of the LXX? The _Kingdom
        Interlinear_ cites P. Fouad 266 (LXX Deuteronomy, ca. 2nd century BCE); a
        Cairo LXX palimpsest (LXX 3 & 4 Kings, C. Taylor, _Hebrew-Greek Cairo
        Ginezah Palimpsests_, 1900); and the column of Origin's hexapla which
        transliterated the Hebrew text into Greek characters (presumably as
        described by later writers, although citations are lacking), as examples
        where the Hebrew box script was employed to represent the Divine Name.

        In my own reading I have noted that the literature relating to Biblical
        and non-Biblical texts discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls (this
        includes more than the Qumran finds, BTW, such as Masada and the Bar
        Kosiba era finds) gives additional examples of the archaic paleo-Hebrew
        script being employed to represent the Tetragrammaton in texts which were
        otherwise written in the box script. I am not sure if the DSS LXX
        fragments yield any examples of the Divine Name being rendered in one of
        the Hebrew scripts.

        In addition to the above, the _Kingdom Interlinear_ quotes Origin,
        commenting on Psalm 2:2, to the effect that "in the most faithful
        manuscripts THE NAME is written in Hebrew characters, that is, not in
        modern <box script>, but in archaic <paleo> Hebrew" (location of citation
        not provided, and the bracketed comments are mine). Similarly, Jerome is
        quoted as saying "[w]e find the four-lettered name of GOD (i.e., YHWH) in
        certain Greek volumes even to this day expressed in the ancient letters"
        (citation not provided).

        Alternatively to using Hebrew scripts, they provide examples where other
        representations were employed.

        The columns of the Hexapla containing the Greek translations of Aquila,
        Symmachus and the old LXX, "represented the Tetragrammaton by the similar
        Greek characters" (I presume they mean similar looking, i.e., Pi and Iota,
        see below); Jerome is quoted as saying "[t]he ninth [name of God] is a
        tetragrammaton ... which is written with the letters Iod, He, Vau, He.
        Which certain ignorant ones, because of the similarity of the characters,
        when they would find then in Greek books, were accustomed to pronounce Pi
        Pi" (Epistola 25 Ad Marcellam, 384 CE).

        Finally, they give the example of P. Oxyrhynchus vii.1007 (LXX Genesis,
        3rd century CE, ed. A. S. Hunt, 1910), which abbreviated the
        Tetragrammaton by a double Yod, in a shape resembling a pair of the
        English letter "Z", with a single horizontal line drawn through both Yods.
        In other words, this was a form of Nomina Sacra. Nomina Sacra were
        commonly used by Christian Scribes copying the NT. I am not sure whether
        there are other examples of Christian (or any other) Scribes employing
        Nomina Sacra for certain names or titles in the LXX.

        It is traditional to discount the JW's as authorities, but they summarize
        what is published elsewhere, so I don't have any problem with using their
        literature. It likely represents the sum total of examples known to the
        WBTS as of the date of publication.

        There are, as far as I know, no examples of any NT text which employs the
        Tetragrammaton in either a Hebrew script or as an abbreviation (like the
        Nomina Sacra mentioned above). If there were, I'm sure the WTBTS would
        have been quick to point it out.

        In the epistles of Paul, I have noted, whenever the word KURIOS does *not*
        take the definite article, it always seems safe to take it as a
        circumlocution for God's Name (the exceptions are quotations from the LXX,
        which sometimes employs a definite article before KURIOS when representing
        God's Name). If KURIOS *does* take the definite article, then it almost
        always (as in about 95% of the time) refers to a title for Jesus/Christ.

        However, FWIW, the WTBTS does not agree with me on this. They base their
        determinations of which instances of KURIOS represent God's Name on the
        authority of 19 Hebrew translations of NT books ranging in date between
        the 14th and 20th centuries, and the example of _The Emphatic Diaglott_
        (tr. Benjamin Wilson, New York: Fowler & Wells, 1865), which apparently
        was the first American NT translation to introduce the convention of using
        "Jehovah" for some instances of Greek KURIOS. Yet in checking their
        citations, I find so much variance between these sources that they are
        able to pick and choose the citations as necessary to confirm the choices
        they made in their _New World Translation_. Chances are that the choices
        made by the Hebrew translations, _The Emphatic Diaglott_, and the NWT were
        affected by theological considerations.

        You might check the archives for threads I seem to recall seeing in this
        list last year (although it *could* have been TC-list, Synoptic-L, or
        XTalk).

        Regards,

        Dave Hindley
        Cleveland, Ohio, USA
      • David C. Hindley
        Grant, I remember where I saw the thread I mentioned in the last post. It was in the B-Greek list, this year. Regards, Dave Hindley Cleveland, Ohio, USA
        Message 3 of 7 , Mar 4 9:42 AM
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          Grant,

          I remember where I saw the thread I mentioned in the last post. It was in
          the B-Greek list, this year.

          Regards,

          Dave Hindley
          Cleveland, Ohio, USA
        • Grant
          David, I would just like to sincerely thank you for your time and assistance. May you continue your studies. sincerely, grant polle usa
          Message 4 of 7 , Mar 4 4:05 PM
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            David,

            I would just like to sincerely thank you for your time and assistance.
            May you continue your studies.

            sincerely,
            grant polle
            usa
          • Grant
            David, Thank you for your help once more. I may just like to add that it was very interesting about your reference to the Jehovah s Witnesses Watchtower and
            Message 5 of 7 , Mar 6 8:04 AM
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              David,

              Thank you for your help once more. I may just like to add that it was
              very interesting about your reference to the Jehovah's Witnesses' Watchtower
              and Awake along with the Kingdom Interlinear because I have been one of
              Jehovah's Witnesses for 9 years. It's delightful to see someone appreciate
              that the literature does indeed hold scholastic credibility. I am 18 years
              old and have been studying the bible for the last 9 years even as a young
              child. So all my life I've been familiar with the conquest of Jerusalem in
              70 AD and many other biblically historical significant events at a very
              young age. But I can not take credit b/c many of the Watchtower's articles
              have taught me so many things. I hope you do not feel that your e-mail was
              in vain since I already had the Kingdom Interlinear. You threw much light
              upon the subject whereas before I was unclear of a few things.
              On a personal note, thank you for your kind attention to questions that
              are ostensibly mediocre. Of course, everyone has a mediocre learning
              relative to the field they have just engaged in study.
              One thing that captured my attention was when you said you were a
              "non-Christian." Please do not think that I am harboring a bias. I'm just
              interested by your use of the term. Do you believe in the biblical Jesus?
              Do you believe in an historical Jesus? Do you believe in God? My question
              is essentially one question. Please do not think that I am "badgering" you
              either. I am merely curious and I write with the utmost respect, honor, and
              sincerity. I have no hidden agenda. haha Just to reiterate, I am writing
              with a genuine disposition.

              P.S. thanks for your help on the flood also.

              your friend in studies,
              grant polle
              usa
            • Grant
              My reply to David was intended to be a personal e-mail. I did not mean to write to the list. My apologies, grant polle usa
              Message 6 of 7 , Mar 6 8:06 AM
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                My reply to David was intended to be a personal e-mail. I did not mean to
                write to the list.

                My apologies,
                grant polle
                usa
              • Tyler F. Williams
                It appears (at least accoridng to the biblio below) that the use of the tetragrammaton in the LXX is not OG, but is a later development. A couple good
                Message 7 of 7 , Mar 7 9:41 PM
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                  It appears (at least accoridng to the biblio below) that the use of the
                  tetragrammaton in the LXX is not OG, but is a later development. A couple
                  good references are:

                  Skehan, P. W. (1980). “The Divine Name at Qumran, in the Masada Scroll, and
                  in the Septuagint.” BIOSCS 13: 14-44.

                  Pietersma, A. (1984). Kurios or Tetragram: A Renewed Quest for the Original
                  Septuagint. De Septuaginta. Studies in Honour of John William Wevers on His
                  Sixty-fifth Birthday. A. Pietersma and C. Cox. Mississauga, ON, Benben
                  Publications: 85-101.

                  There was also a article in JBL that I can't find the reference to. Hope
                  this helps.

                  -Tyler
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                  Tyler F. Williams
                  Assistant Professor of Old Testament/Hebrew Bible, NABC/EBS
                  11525 - 23 Avenue, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6J 4T3
                  Phone: (780) 431-5217/ Toll Free: 1-800-567-4988/ Fax: (780) 436-9416
                  Web Page: http://www.nabcebs.ab.ca/~twilliam
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