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3750RE: [lxx] 2 Sam 23:1

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  • andrew fincke
    Oct 28, 2011
      Dear John,
      Thanks for the translation. If you’d like some more French on the subject, get hold of R. Tournay, “Les ‘dernières paroles de David’, 2 Samuel 23:1-7” in RB 88/4 (1981), 481-504. Meanwhile here are some clips from G. Lete, “David’s Farewell Oracle (2 Samuel XXIII 1-7): A Literary Analysis” in VT 34/4 (1984), 414-438 and N. Richardson, “The Last Words of David: Some Notes on II Samuel 23:1-7” in JBL 90 (1971), 257-266:

      (Lete) hüqam cäl: the three alternatives are equally sound: hüqam cäl (MT; cf. Gevirtz), hêqîm V/ (4QSama; cf. Cross), hëqîm cäl (cf. Carlson, Richardson, Freedman, Mettinger); in the three cases we have an asyndetic relative clause. The antithetic parallel ben yïsay does not help us to decide, for it only brings into relief the contrast between David's human, "low", origin and his "establishing" or "exalting" (by God): "who was placed on high (by God)"/"whom the Most High/God established (on high/on the throne)". In one case the grammatical subject5 becomes more explicit, in the other, the adverbial modifier.

      (Richardson) hqm. Vocalize hêqlm (hiph. pf.).12 This is the older spelling which later became hqym. In Hebrew orthography medial matres lectionis begin to appear about 700 B.c., as evidenced by ^rwrlz in the late eighth century Shebna inscription and by zyp on the royal seal impressions.14 In 4QSama we read hqym.15
      על. Long ago E. Dhorme suggested that על should be viewed as an abbreviation for עליון.1Q Both of these, along with עלי, probably derive from the same root. However, in the light of cly ncm in Ugaritic (126:III:6f., 8f. [Herdner, CTA, l6:III:6f., 8f.] ) as an epithet of Baal and the name yhwcly in the Samaria ostracon No. 55,17 על would be better viewed as an alternative to עליון rather than an abbreviation. In 4QSama we find אל; the LXX reads κύριος. This change from אל to על may be noted if one will compare Ps 18:42 with II Sam 22:42, where the former has על while the latter has אל. "The redactor of II Sam xxii did not understand the meaning of על which he altered to the preposition אל" (M. Dahood, Psalms I1 -5O [AB 16; 1966], p. 117). 8 It is also possible that this change from אל to על is the result of the confusion of laryngeals in the late period, as is so well illustrated in the Qumran documents. Whatever the reason, it seems beyond doubt that על as a divine epithet was original in both this text and in II Samuel 22 = Psalm 18. Finally the presence of אל in 4QSama strongly suggests that such an understanding of the text, rather than that על should be an adverbial accusative (as in the RSV), persisted into the first century.
      9 W. F. Albright, Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan (1968), p. 13.
      10 For a recent discussion, see M. Dahood, Psalms 111 101-150 (AB 17A; 1970), pp. 400ff.
      n F. M. Cross, Jr., and D. N. Freedman, "A Royal Song of Thanksgiving," p. 34.
      12 See H. P. Smith, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Books of Samuel (ICC; 1904), p. 382; S. Mowinckel, "'Die letzen Worte Davids' II Sam 23 1-7," ZAW,
      45 (1927), pp. 32, 40.
      13 Called to my attention by D. N. Freedman in his unpublished notes.
      14 Y. Aharoni, "Three Hebrew Ostraca from Arad," BASOR, 197 (1970), pp. 20, n. 15.
      *NAB.
      19 E. Dhorme, Les livres de Samuel, in loe; see also H. Cazelles, "La titulature du roi David" in Melanges Bibliques rédigés en l'honneur de André Robert (1957), pp. 133f.; A. Johnson, Sacral Kingship in Ancient Israel (1967), p. 16; H. Nyberg, Studien zum Hoseabuch (1935), pp. 58ff.; "Studien zum Religions-wissenkampf," Archiv für Religionswissenschaft, 35 (1938), ρ. 329.

      (Fincke) Seems to me that when Jonathan in pleading David’s case to Saul reminded the king that his “deeds serve you well” (1 Samuel 19:4) he was talking about the songs David composed to calm Saul’s tensions. See 1 Samuel 16:16 and 23. Now “his deeds” is מַעֲשָׂיו – that is ma‘asayv, for which LXX has ποιήματα αὐτοῦ. It doesn’t take a lot to see that מְשִׁיחַ “anointed one” at 2 Samuel 23:1 translates “Messiah,” which the scribe – working from dictation – erroneously jotted down instead of ma‘asayv, and that מְשִׁיחַ אֱלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב is corrupt for מַעֲשָׂיו אֶל יָהּ יַעֲקֹב “his works (songs) to the LORD of Jacob,” which the following text in the verse corroborates with “and pleasant are the songs of Israel.” We don’t have יָהּ יַעֲקֺב “LORD of Jacob,” but we do have אֵל יַעֲקֺב “God of Jacob” at Psalm 146:5. As for “deed” = “song/psalm” in the case of David, see 1 Samuel 20:19: “where you were hidden in the day of the deed.” David spent his lonely time in hiding composing songs. LXX: ποιήματα “works, deeds, poems” at 1 Samuel 19:4 (see above) captures the ambiguity well. 2 Samuel 23:1 describes David as “the man put in charge of the poems to the God of Jacob” and concludes with “And the psalms of Israel are pleasant.”
      Andrew Fincke




      To: lxx@yahoogroups.com
      From: johnisaacmilton@...
      Date: Wed, 26 Oct 2011 19:51:05 -0400
      Subject: Re: [lxx] 2 Sam 23:1






      Dear All,

      One more thing. Barthelemy notes in his Critique Textuelle de l'Ancien
      Testament (Orbis et Orientalis 50/1) page 310:
      *
      *
      *huqam 'al* [A] M V T // facil : Qa G *heqim el* ---> rest : g *anastehsen
      kurios epi* / theol. S clav *heqim 'ol.*
      *
      *
      Ici Qa, avec* heqim el* (Ulrich 113) a preserve la Vorlage du *G ancien
      (antiochienne) :* an anestehsen o theos*. La recension palestinienne, ayant
      sous les yeux *hqm 'l* et estimant *'al *non traduit, le traduit par
      *epi*sans retoucher le verbe, mais en se servant de
      *Kurios* pour expliter le sujet de ce verbe, comme elle le fera encore au
      v.4

      [my translation] Here Qumran along with *heqim el* (Ulrich 113) has
      preserved the vorlage of *G ancient[OG] (antiochene or lucianic): * an
      anestehsen o theos. *The palestinian(?) recension, saw *hqm 'l *and believed
      that the *'al* not to be translated, they translated it by *epi* without
      touching or linking it to the verb, but so that it is linked to *Kurios* in
      order to explain the subject of this verb, as it will also do in verse 4.

      Any thoughts on this would be most welcome - my apologies for the crude
      transliteration and poor translation
      *
      *
      *
      *
      On Fri, Oct 21, 2011 at 12:57 PM, John Milton <johnisaacmilton@...>wrote:

      > Hi Andrew,
      >
      > Thanks for your emails. What an interesting observation re. the link or
      > echo found in Psalm 63:2. I read it and also found curious that there is
      > clear allusion to divine provision of nourishment in the desert (Moses and
      > David). God provides leaders for the people in the wilderness or exile. yet
      > at the end of the psalm there is a decisive turn: But the king will rejoice
      > in God; all who swear by God's name will praise him, while the mouths of
      > liars will be silenced. (Ps 63:11 NIV), which calls to mind the last words
      > of Jacob and the mention of of a victorious king from the tribe of Judah who
      > will bring peace and redemption (Gen 49, Num 24) And here we have a
      > reflection of the hope in the coming king from David himself - which recalls
      > the (formulaic) last words of David as well as the preceding poem (22:51).
      >
      > My Best,
      >
      > John
      >
      >
      > On Wed, Oct 19, 2011 at 9:12 PM, andrew fincke <finckea@...>wrote:
      >
      >> **
      >>
      >>
      >>
      >>
      >> Dear John,
      >> Not to butt in on your conversation with Ken and Dick, but I’ve got an
      >> idea. At Psalm 63:1 (LXX 62:2) we have an hapax legomenon – the verb כָּמָהּ
      >> – that is kama – which seems to mean “long for” in the verse: “O God, Thou
      >> art my God, earnestly do I seek Thee, Thirsted for Thee hath my soul, Longed
      >> for Thee hath my flesh, In a land dry and weary, without waters.” The phrase
      >> “Longed for Thee” was vocalized by the masoretes as kama leka, כָּמַהּ לְךָ.
      >> Problematic for you at 2 Sam 23:1 is הֻקַם עָל – that is, hukam al, which
      >> sounds like hu kama l, i.e. הוּא כָּמָהּ ל “he longed for” with ל
      >> introducing the longed for object, which in Psalm 63:1 is God. In 2 Sam 23:1
      >> the subject is David, who – so it seems from his assertion in Psalm 63:1 –
      >> longed for “my God,” Who in 2 Samuel 23:1 is described as “the anointed God
      >> of Jacob.” David longed for his spiritual heir, the anointed Son of David. 2
      >> Samuel 23:1 isn’t erroneous but rather reiterates Psalm 63:1 phonetically.
      >> Andrew Fincke
      >>
      >>
      >>
      >>
      >> To: lxx@yahoogroups.com
      >> From: johnisaacmilton@...
      >> Date: Tue, 18 Oct 2011 09:50:06 -0400
      >> Subject: Re: [lxx] 2 Sam 23:1
      >>
      >>
      >>
      >>
      >>
      >>
      >> Hi Ken and Dick,
      >>
      >> It still seems that the 'al is superfluous in the MT. The verb qwm is
      >> sufficient and not necessary to have the collocation of the verb and 'al .
      >>
      >> Even the internal link or echo to 2 Sam 7:12 has only the verb qwm. Why
      >> does
      >> the MT's reading add the substantive - how does it add to the reading?
      >> Finally, can wee say that the kaige recension reflects the reading of 'al
      >> as
      >> a preposition (breaking from the MT on its vocalization as well as its
      >> accent)?
      >>
      >> Best,
      >>
      >> John
      >>
      >> On Mon, Oct 17, 2011 at 11:00 AM, Saley, Richard <saley@...>wrote:
      >>
      >>
      >> > **
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > Hi Ken,
      >> >
      >> > No wonder you were confused! My statement in the previous email that
      >> “the
      >> > Hebrew Vorlage of the Old Greek επι was clearly אל” was erroneous! It
      >> should
      >> > have read: “The Hebrew Vorlage of the Old Greek was clearly אל.”
      >> Apologies .
      >> > . .
      >> >
      >> > I'm heartened, though, that despite my slipup you came to the right
      >> > conclusion: "the OG had εις/προς, and that the επι was from the kaige
      >> > recension."
      >> >
      >> > Cheers,
      >> > Dick
      >> > <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
      >> > Richard J. Saley, Ph.D.
      >> > Lecturer on the Ancient Near East
      >> > Dept. of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations
      >> > Harvard University
      >> > Six Divinity Avenue
      >> > Cambridge, MA 02138-2091 USA
      >> > Tel: 617-495-4239
      >> > Fax: 617-496-8904
      >> > <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
      >> >
      >> > ________________________________________
      >> > From: lxx@yahoogroups.com [lxx@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Ken Penner
      >> [
      >> > kpenner@...]
      >> > Sent: Monday, October 17, 2011 6:23 AM
      >> > To: lxx@yahoogroups.com
      >> > Subject: RE: [lxx] 2 Sam 23:1
      >> >
      >> > Thanks for this helpful explanation, Dick.
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > One confusion remains in my mind: do you think the OG here was εις/προς
      >> or
      >> > επι?
      >> >
      >> > In point #5 and 6 below, I would think the OG had εις/προς, and that the
      >>
      >> > επι was from the kaige recension, but earlier you spoke of “The Hebrew
      >> > Vorlage of the Old Greek επι”.
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > Ken
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > Ken M. Penner, Ph.D.
      >> >
      >> > Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic vocabulary memorization software:
      >> >
      >> > http://purl.org/net/kmpenner/flash/
      >> >
      >> > kpenner@...
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > From: lxx@yahoogroups.com [mailto:lxx@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
      >> Saley,
      >> > Richard
      >> >
      >> > Sent: October-16-11 7:56 PM
      >> >
      >> > To: lxx@yahoogroups.com
      >> >
      >> > Cc: Saley, Richard
      >> >
      >> > Subject: RE: [lxx] 2 Sam 23:1
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > Hi Ken,
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > In your last comments on the subject you state: 'I take it that the
      >> > discussion in DJD 17 seeks to determine only the original Hebrew, and
      >> not
      >> > the Vorlage of the Old Greek. Where did the επι come from, if not from
      >> על?'
      >> > Actually, DJD 17 is attempting to establish the Vorlage of the Old
      >> Greek.
      >> > Let me see if I can explain:
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > 1) When all is said and done, the Old Greek for 2 Sam 23 is lost. The
      >> best
      >> > mss for the Old Greek in the books of Samuel are B-y-a2. However, from 2
      >> Sam
      >> > 10:1 (or 11:2) though the end of 2 Sam the Old Greek has been
      >> overwritten by
      >> > Kaige Greek, a late (1st cent. BCE?) revision of the Old Greek on the
      >> basis
      >> > of the proto-Masoretic Hebrew text. This text reads επι which presumes
      >> > Hebrew על as you have noted.
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > 2) The main hexaplaric mss for Samuel are A-c-x. These also read επι,
      >> > presuming על, and like B-y-a2 reflect a Masoretic-type text.
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > 3) The Lucianic Greek texts b-o-c2-e2 read ο θεος which reflects a
      >> Vorlage
      >> > of אל (taken as the word 'God' and made subject of the [unpointed] verb
      >> > הקם). The Old Latin, almost certainly rendering the Lucianic tradition,
      >> also
      >> > reflects Hebrew אל.
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > 4) If you are using Rahlfs for your Septuagint text, it should be noted
      >> > that Rahlfs is primarily based on the uncials Vaticanus (B), Sinaiticus
      >> (S)
      >> > and Alexandrinus (A). Sinaiticus is not extant for this passge and
      >> Vaticanus
      >> > and Alexandrinus both reflect the Masoretic reading as noted above. In
      >> > addition, it should be stated that Rahlfs, despite all of his
      >> brilliance,
      >> > completely misjudged the Lucianic tradition and considered it basically
      >> > worthless (and hence for a passage as this, of no value).
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > 5) The Qumran scrolls of 4QSam-a,b,c repeatedly reflect Hebrew Vorlagen
      >> > that read אל in agreement with the Old Greek (1 Sam 1:1--2 Sam 9:13 [or
      >> > 11:1]) reading of εις or προς (appearing also with regularity in the
      >> > Lucianic tradition).
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > 6) So, the bottom line is that we have EARLY witnesses in both Hebrew
      >> (and
      >> > Greek) that reflect אל (εις/προς) and LATE witnesses in both Hebrew (and
      >>
      >> > Greek) that reflect על (επι). These data in Samuel, as well as other
      >> data
      >> > elsewhere, strongly suggest that the difference is best accounted for by
      >> the
      >> > process stated in DJD 17, i.e., the confusion of אל and על in late
      >> Hebrew
      >> > occasioned by the weakening of the laryngeals and the coloring of the
      >> > associated vowel of על to an ‘e’ sound.
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > I hope this is helpful in understanding the write-up in DJD 17.
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > Cheers,
      >> >
      >> > Dick
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
      >> >
      >> > Richard J. Saley, Ph.D.
      >> >
      >> > Lecturer on the Ancient Near East
      >> >
      >> > Dept. of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations
      >> >
      >> > Harvard University
      >> >
      >> > Six Divinity Avenue
      >> >
      >> > Cambridge, MA 02138-2091 USA
      >> >
      >> > Tel: 617-495-4239
      >> >
      >> > Fax: 617-496-8904
      >> >
      >> > <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > ________________________________________
      >> >
      >> > From: lxx@yahoogroups.com<mailto:lxx%40yahoogroups.com> [
      >> > lxx@yahoogroups.com<mailto:lxx%40yahoogroups.com>] On Behalf Of Ken
      >> Penner
      >> > [kpenner@...<mailto:kpenner%40stfx.ca>]
      >> >
      >> > Sent: Sunday, October 16, 2011 11:06 AM
      >> >
      >> > To: lxx@yahoogroups.com<mailto:lxx%40yahoogroups.com>
      >> >
      >> > Subject: RE: [lxx] 2 Sam 23:1
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > Thanks, Andy.
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > I take it that the discussion in DJD 17 seeks to determine only the
      >> > original Hebrew, and not the Vorlage of the Old Greek. Where did the επι
      >>
      >> > come from, if not from על?
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > Ken
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > From: lxx@yahoogroups.com<mailto:lxx%40yahoogroups.com> [mailto:
      >> > lxx@yahoogroups.com<mailto:lxx%40yahoogroups.com>] On Behalf Of andrew
      >> > fincke
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > Sent: October-16-11 12:31 AM
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > To: lxx@yahoogroups.com<mailto:lxx%40yahoogroups.com>
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > Subject: RE: [lxx] 2 Sam 23:1
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > Dear Ken,
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > Here it is!
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > The reading of 4QSama makes clear that the corruption of the phrase in M
      >>
      >> > was owing to the well-known interchange of אל and על, rooted in the
      >> falling
      >> > together of the two with the weakening of the laryngeals and the
      >> subsequent
      >> > colouring (sic!) of the associated vowels (both pronounced with
      >> 'e-class'
      >> > vowels) in late Hebrew. Examples of the confusion may be found in 2
      >> Samuel
      >> > above in VARIANTS to 3:37, 22:43 and passim. Thus the superior reading
      >> is
      >> > הקים אל, with 4QSama, Old Latin and the Lucianic Greek manuscripts. So,
      >> > (sic!) Cross, Canaanite Myth, 234, n. 66. For a brief history of the
      >> > discussion, see McCarter, II Samuel, 477. Compare the standard formula
      >> for
      >> > the establishment of kings by God: והקים יהוה לו מלך (1 Kgs 14:14); יהוה
      >>
      >> > אלהיו ... להקים את בנו (1Kgs 15:4); יהוה והקמתי (Jer 23:5); יהוה אלהיהם
      >> ...
      >> > אקים (Jer 30:9). (Cross/Saley, 186).
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > Andrew Fincke
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > To: lxx@yahoogroups.com<mailto:lxx%40yahoogroups.com><mailto:
      >> > lxx%40yahoogroups.com>
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > From: kpenner@...<mailto:kpenner%40stfx.ca><mailto:
      >> kpenner%40stfx.ca>
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > Date: Sat, 15 Oct 2011 22:29:05 -0300
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > Subject: RE: [lxx] 2 Sam 23:1
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > Thanks for your willingness, but it seems the list strips attachments.
      >> If
      >> > you had a chance to send it directly, that would be great.
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > Cheers,
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > Ken
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > Ken M. Penner, Ph.D.
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > Assistant Professor, Religious Studies
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > St. Francis Xavier University
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > 902-867-2265
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > kpenner@...<mailto:kpenner%40stfx.ca><mailto:kpenner%40stfx.ca>
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > From: lxx@yahoogroups.com<mailto:lxx%40yahoogroups.com><mailto:
      >> > lxx%40yahoogroups.com> [mailto:lxx@yahoogroups.com<mailto:
      >> > lxx%40yahoogroups.com><mailto:lxx%40yahoogroups.com>] On Behalf Of John
      >>
      >> > Milton
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > Sent: October-15-11 12:43 PM
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > To: lxx@yahoogroups.com<mailto:lxx%40yahoogroups.com><mailto:
      >> > lxx%40yahoogroups.com>
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > Subject: Re: [lxx] 2 Sam 23:1
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > Hi Ken,
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > I've attached a copy of the discussion on page 186 of DJD 17.
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > Thanks,
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > J
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > On Sat, Oct 15, 2011 at 6:09 AM, Ken Penner <kpenner@...<mailto:
      >> > kpenner%40stfx.ca><mailto:kpenner%40stfx.ca><mailto:kpenner%40stfx.ca>>
      >>
      >> > wrote:
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > > **
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > > Dick wrote:
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > > “The Hebrew Vorlage of the Old Greek επι was clearly אל, the reading
      >> of
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > > 4QSam-a as has already been pointed out.”
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > > I don’t have DJD 17 here at home to check page 186, could you
      >> summarize
      >> > the
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > > reasons for thinking the OG’s Vorlage was אל rather than על? It seems
      >> to
      >> > me
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > > επι represents על three times as frequently as אל in Samuel. If the
      >> > Hebrew
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > > Vorlage were אל, I would expect the Old Greek to read προς, which is
      >> the
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > > typical translation of אל.
      >> >
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      >> > >
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      >> > > Ken
      >> >
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      >> > >
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      >> >
      >> > >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > > Ken M. Penner, Ph.D.
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > > Moderator, Dead Sea Scrolls scholars email discussion list:
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > > http://mailman.mcmaster.ca/mailman/listinfo/g-megillot
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > > St. Francis Xavier University
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > > kpenner@...<mailto:kpenner%40stfx.ca><mailto:kpenner%40stfx.ca
      >> > ><mailto:kpenner%40stfx.ca><mailto:kpenner@...<mailto:
      >> > kpenner%40stfx.ca><mailto:kpenner%40stfx.ca><mailto:kpenner%40stfx.ca>>
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      >> > ------------------------------------
      >> >
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > Yahoo! Groups Links
      >> >
      >> >
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      >> > ------------------------------------
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      >> > Yahoo! Groups Links
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