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Crafting the Printed Liturgical Book

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  • Father Robert Lyons, SST
    Friends, I am currently working on typesetting an Eastern Rite liturgy book. I have studied many different liturgy books in my day, but for some reason, none
    Message 1 of 12 , May 1, 2007
      Friends,

      I am currently working on typesetting an Eastern Rite liturgy book. I
      have studied many different liturgy books in my day, but for some
      reason, none of them seem to offer the right balance in appearance
      that I feel is proper for the project at hand.

      What suggestions might the folks on this list have for the layout,
      design, appearance, etc... of a contemporary liturgy book? What would
      make the book easy to use for you if you were visiting a local
      congregation, worshipping in a different rite than you were used to
      (or, for that matter, worshipping liturgically for the first time)?

      Rob+
    • Art Hebbeler
      I m guessing this is for the pew-sitter, not the presider? Large print, lots of white space, consistent fonts. If providing hymns or other music, be
      Message 2 of 12 , May 1, 2007
        I'm guessing this is for the pew-sitter, not the presider?

        Large print, lots of white space, consistent fonts. If providing hymns or
        other music, be consistent in how the stanzas are shown (all in same
        typeface, alternate regular/italics, whatever but be consistent!)

        Don't follow the example of the new Evangelical Lutheran Worship or,
        frankly, the BCP. Lay out the liturgies in a logical sequence, and put the
        applicable music or text in place, rather than having the worshipper flip
        back and forth a thousand times in one service.

        YMMV

        Art
        --This message has been virus-checked prior to sending--

        | -----Original Message-----
        | From: liturgy-l@yahoogroups.com [mailto:liturgy-l@yahoogroups.com] On
        Behalf Of Father
        | Robert Lyons, SST
        | Sent: Tuesday, May 01, 2007 8:11 AM
        | To: liturgy-l@yahoogroups.com
        | Subject: [liturgy-l] Crafting the Printed Liturgical Book
        |
        | Friends,
        |
        | I am currently working on typesetting an Eastern Rite liturgy book. I
        | have studied many different liturgy books in my day, but for some
        | reason, none of them seem to offer the right balance in appearance
        | that I feel is proper for the project at hand.
        |
        | What suggestions might the folks on this list have for the layout,
        | design, appearance, etc... of a contemporary liturgy book? What would
        | make the book easy to use for you if you were visiting a local
        | congregation, worshipping in a different rite than you were used to
        | (or, for that matter, worshipping liturgically for the first time)?
        |
        | Rob+
        |
        |
        |
        | Visit the liturgy-l homepage at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/liturgy-l/To
        write to the
        | owners/moderators, please send an email to:
        | liturgy-l-owner@yahoogroups.com
        | Yahoo! Groups Links
        |
        |
        |
      • Simon Kershaw
        ... Clarity, dignity, worthiness for its sacred role, easy to hold (if it s to be handheld). Minimize page turns -- never break a ministerial congregational
        Message 3 of 12 , May 1, 2007
          Robert Lyons wrote:
          > What suggestions might the folks on this list have for the layout,
          > design, appearance, etc... of a contemporary liturgy book? What would
          > make the book easy to use for you if you were visiting a local
          > congregation, worshipping in a different rite than you were used to
          > (or, for that matter, worshipping liturgically for the first time)?

          Clarity, dignity, worthiness for its sacred role, easy to hold (if it's
          to be handheld).

          Minimize page turns -- never break a ministerial congregational text
          across a page turn, and if possible avoid across facing pages too. If a
          text is too long to fit on a single page then it must be broken: always
          break it at a paragraph break or similar. These are simple practical
          details for any liturgical book.

          When drafting the text pay attention to the rubrics. Don't write them in
          some kind of remote ecclesiastical style, but use ordinary language
          wherever possible (some technical terms are no doubt inevitable).

          Make it easy to distinguish in the printed text who is saying which
          bits. For example, it has become a convention in Britain across the
          denominations since the 1970s to print congregational words in bold
          type. Whilst one might argue about the over-use of bold type from a
          typographical perspective it does have the advantage of being quite clear.

          Minimize the number of cross-references that must be followed. Better
          perhaps to move forwards to another page and continue from there than to
          have to go forwards then back to the page you came from. Again, this may
          be hard to achieve. But ribbon bookmarks are expensive things to insert
          into book manufacture -- and too many ribbons are too confusing for all
          but the cognoscenti anyway.

          Choose paper that provides contrast to the type, remembering that the
          book may be used in poor lighting conditions, and by people with failing
          eyesight. Choose paper that is not so thin that it is hard to turn and
          shows the print from the next page or pages. Choose paper that is not so
          thick that the book is unwieldy.

          Choose a binding that will withstand wear and tear and frequent opening
          and closing.

          simon

          --
          Simon Kershaw
          simon@...
          Saint Ives, Cambridgeshire
        • Douglas Cowling
          ... Anglicans love churchy euphemisms: the basement becomes an undercroft and the porch becomes a narthex . Never underestimate the alienating effect this
          Message 4 of 12 , May 1, 2007
            On 5/1/07 9:03 AM, "Simon Kershaw" <simon@...> wrote:

            > When drafting the text pay attention to the rubrics. Don't write them in
            > some kind of remote ecclesiastical style, but use ordinary language
            > wherever possible (some technical terms are no doubt inevitable).

            Anglicans love churchy euphemisms: the basement becomes an "undercroft" and
            the porch becomes a "narthex". Never underestimate the alienating effect
            this stuff has on the new inquirer. My favourite is the rubric, "You may
            bow or kneel for the Incarnatus". Makes it sound like the Jabberwocky is
            about to arrive.

            Doug Cowling
            Director of Music
            St. Philip's Church, Toronto
          • Father Robert Lyons, SST
            To provide some more background on my specific situation... ... it s ... I am producing this volume for use in my hospital Chaplaincy and, if later called back
            Message 5 of 12 , May 1, 2007
              To provide some more background on my specific situation...

              --- In liturgy-l@yahoogroups.com, Simon Kershaw <simon@...> wrote:
              >
              > Clarity, dignity, worthiness for its sacred role, easy to hold (if
              it's
              > to be handheld).

              I am producing this volume for use in my hospital Chaplaincy and, if
              later called back into Church-planting, would like to be able to use
              it there as well. As a result, funds are limited in what I can
              realistically do...

              >
              > When drafting the text pay attention to the rubrics. Don't write
              them in
              > some kind of remote ecclesiastical style, but use ordinary
              language
              > wherever possible (some technical terms are no doubt inevitable).

              Being an Eastern rite, this will be more difficult... but this is
              something I am endeavoring to do. I am also trying to minimize the
              variations between rites to keep it fairly uniform and recognizable
              from day to day.

              > Make it easy to distinguish in the printed text who is saying
              which
              > bits. For example, it has become a convention in Britain across
              the
              > denominations since the 1970s to print congregational words in
              bold
              > type. Whilst one might argue about the over-use of bold type from
              a
              > typographical perspective it does have the advantage of being
              quite clear.

              I have toyed around with using the LBW Symbols font to indicate
              speakers, combined with bolding the congregation... not sure what I
              think about the LBW Symbols font, however. Either way, my general
              convention is;

              Priest: regular type
              Deacon/Assisting Ministers: regular type
              Assembly; bold type
              Individual responses in baptism, marriage, confession, etc.: italic
              type

              I wish I could do red rubrics, but I can't afford the printing
              costs. Have thought about grayscale or making the rubric margins a
              bit narrower.

              >
              > Minimize the number of cross-references that must be followed.
              Better
              > perhaps to move forwards to another page and continue from there
              than to
              > have to go forwards then back to the page you came from. Again,
              this may
              > be hard to achieve.

              I am planning to provide the full rites from Invocation to Dismissal
              under one section, not giving the: For the Anaphora of St. Basil,
              turn to page X; For the Anaphora of St. John Chrysostom, turn to
              page Y; etc.

              >
              > Choose paper that provides contrast to the type, remembering that
              the
              > book may be used in poor lighting conditions, and by people with
              failing
              > eyesight.

              I have been giving consideration to a light-ivory colored paper.

              >Choose paper that is not so thin that it is hard to turn and
              > shows the print from the next page or pages. Choose paper that is
              not so
              > thick that the book is unwieldy.

              I am somewhat limited on this, as I'll have to run the books off on
              a commercial Xerox from an electronic original.

              > Choose a binding that will withstand wear and tear and frequent
              opening
              > and closing.

              I am electing to use plastic spiral binding as opposed to comb
              binding (ick!) or attempting to use perfect binding (which, in my
              experience, sucks for books of this nature).

              Rob+
            • Scott Knitter
              And the Eastern Orthodox do not? ... -- Scott R. Knitter Edgewater, Chicago, Illinois USA
              Message 6 of 12 , May 1, 2007
                And the Eastern Orthodox do not?

                On 5/1/07, Douglas Cowling <dcowling@...> wrote:

                > Anglicans love churchy euphemisms

                --
                Scott R. Knitter
                Edgewater, Chicago, Illinois USA
              • James Morgan
                I remember Fr. Earle Maddux, SSJE (editor of the American Missal and the Manual for Priests among other things) who told me back around 1960, that he had an
                Message 7 of 12 , May 1, 2007
                  I remember Fr. Earle Maddux, SSJE (editor of the American Missal and the
                  Manual for Priests among other things) who told me back around 1960, that he
                  had an 'editorial board' of housewives andother people with only a high
                  school education that he had read his rubrics. If the average fellow or
                  woman with an average education (for those days--I know I am grasping here
                  given the present state of public education) could figure out how to do
                  something liturgically, then so could the average priest! May his memory be
                  blessed!
                  And Simon's closing remarks are spot on! I hate so-called 'Liturgical
                  Books' in which the pages fly all over the room first time you open them.
                  Bah! Liturgical books done on the cheap may indicate cheap liturgy.
                  "Reverence is taking pains." As someone once said.

                  Rdr. James
                  Olympia, WA

                  -----Original Message-----
                  From: Simon Kershaw
                  Sent: Tuesday, May 01, 2007 6:03 AM
                  To: liturgy-l@yahoogroups.com
                  Subject: Re: [liturgy-l] Crafting the Printed Liturgical Book

                  Robert Lyons wrote:
                  > What suggestions might the folks on this list have for the layout,
                  > design, appearance, etc... of a contemporary liturgy book? What would
                  > make the book easy to use for you if you were visiting a local
                  > congregation, worshipping in a different rite than you were used to
                  > (or, for that matter, worshipping liturgically for the first time)?

                  Clarity, dignity, worthiness for its sacred role, easy to hold (if it's
                  to be handheld).

                  Minimize page turns -- never break a ministerial congregational text
                  across a page turn, and if possible avoid across facing pages too. If a
                  text is too long to fit on a single page then it must be broken: always
                  break it at a paragraph break or similar. These are simple practical
                  details for any liturgical book.

                  When drafting the text pay attention to the rubrics. Don't write them in
                  some kind of remote ecclesiastical style, but use ordinary language
                  wherever possible (some technical terms are no doubt inevitable).

                  Make it easy to distinguish in the printed text who is saying which
                  bits. For example, it has become a convention in Britain across the
                  denominations since the 1970s to print congregational words in bold
                  type. Whilst one might argue about the over-use of bold type from a
                  typographical perspective it does have the advantage of being quite clear.

                  Minimize the number of cross-references that must be followed. Better
                  perhaps to move forwards to another page and continue from there than to
                  have to go forwards then back to the page you came from. Again, this may
                  be hard to achieve. But ribbon bookmarks are expensive things to insert
                  into book manufacture -- and too many ribbons are too confusing for all
                  but the cognoscenti anyway.

                  Choose paper that provides contrast to the type, remembering that the
                  book may be used in poor lighting conditions, and by people with failing
                  eyesight. Choose paper that is not so thin that it is hard to turn and
                  shows the print from the next page or pages. Choose paper that is not so
                  thick that the book is unwieldy.

                  Choose a binding that will withstand wear and tear and frequent opening
                  and closing.

                  simon
                • James Morgan
                  We love em all! Especially if they are derived from the holy greek. I could give you some terms but they would only bewilder. I think I know a few things but
                  Message 8 of 12 , May 1, 2007
                    We love 'em all! Especially if they are derived from the holy greek.
                    I could give you some terms but they would only bewilder. I think I know a
                    few things but even I am buffaloed sometimes. Someone recently called me an
                    'agnognost.' I wanted to tell him I really believed in the Holy Trinity, but
                    it turned out it was a Greek word meaning 'reader' an order to which I was
                    tonsured. Oh, well....

                    Rdr. James
                    Olympia, WA

                    -----Original Message-----
                    From: Scott Knitter
                    Sent: Tuesday, May 01, 2007 7:21 AM
                    To: liturgy-l@yahoogroups.com
                    Subject: Re: [liturgy-l] Hannibal the Lector

                    And the Eastern Orthodox do not?

                    On 5/1/07, Douglas Cowling <dcowling@...> wrote:

                    > Anglicans love churchy euphemisms
                    --
                    Scott R. Knitter
                  • Scott Knitter
                    Our copy of Readings for the Daily Office From the Early Church, ed. Robert J. Wright, from Church Publishing, is in about 13 chunks of pages held together by
                    Message 9 of 12 , May 1, 2007
                      Our copy of Readings for the Daily Office From the Early Church, ed.
                      Robert J. Wright, from Church Publishing, is in about 13 chunks of
                      pages held together by remnants of glue, within a clothbound cover and
                      ripped dust jacket, with a frayed ribbon marker that has a bad case of
                      split ends. It's used daily by the Evening Prayer officiant. Guess I
                      should purchase a new one...yikes, $47! I certainly hope the quality
                      has improved.

                      On 5/1/07, James Morgan <rdrjames@...> wrote:

                      > And Simon's closing remarks are spot on! I hate so-called 'Liturgical
                      > Books' in which the pages fly all over the room first time you open them.
                      > Bah! Liturgical books done on the cheap may indicate cheap liturgy.
                      > "Reverence is taking pains." As someone once said.

                      --
                      Scott R. Knitter
                      Edgewater, Chicago, Illinois USA
                    • Michael
                      Good idea. I do recall that the last time I had a programme that checked for readability, the programme indicated that anything beyond a fifth grade level was
                      Message 10 of 12 , May 1, 2007
                        Good idea. I do recall that the last time I had a programme that checked
                        for readability, the programme indicated that anything beyond a fifth grade
                        level was too much for most people. Scary. BTW, Fr. Rob, I like very much
                        the idea of the plastic spirals. That way the book can be doubled back on
                        itself without damage. That is what I finally ended up with for our various
                        liturgical books.



                        Shalom b'Yeshua haMoshiach,



                        +Michael Joe Thannisch



                        _____

                        From: liturgy-l@yahoogroups.com [mailto:liturgy-l@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf
                        Of James Morgan
                        Sent: Tuesday, May 01, 2007 8:56 PM
                        To: liturgy-l@yahoogroups.com
                        Subject: RE: [liturgy-l] Crafting the Printed Liturgical Book



                        I remember Fr. Earle Maddux, SSJE (editor of the American Missal and the
                        Manual for Priests among other things) who told me back around 1960, that he
                        had an 'editorial board' of housewives andother people with only a high
                        school education that he had read his rubrics. If the average fellow or
                        woman with an average education (for those days--I know I am grasping here
                        given the present state of public education) could figure out how to do
                        something liturgically, then so could the average priest! May his memory be
                        blessed!
                        And Simon's closing remarks are spot on! I hate so-called 'Liturgical
                        Books' in which the pages fly all over the room first time you open them.
                        Bah! Liturgical books done on the cheap may indicate cheap liturgy.
                        "Reverence is taking pains." As someone once said.

                        Rdr. James
                        Olympia, WA

                        -----Original Message-----
                        From: Simon Kershaw
                        Sent: Tuesday, May 01, 2007 6:03 AM
                        To: liturgy-l@yahoogrou <mailto:liturgy-l%40yahoogroups.com> ps.com
                        Subject: Re: [liturgy-l] Crafting the Printed Liturgical Book

                        Robert Lyons wrote:
                        > What suggestions might the folks on this list have for the layout,
                        > design, appearance, etc... of a contemporary liturgy book? What would
                        > make the book easy to use for you if you were visiting a local
                        > congregation, worshipping in a different rite than you were used to
                        > (or, for that matter, worshipping liturgically for the first time)?

                        Clarity, dignity, worthiness for its sacred role, easy to hold (if it's
                        to be handheld).

                        Minimize page turns -- never break a ministerial congregational text
                        across a page turn, and if possible avoid across facing pages too. If a
                        text is too long to fit on a single page then it must be broken: always
                        break it at a paragraph break or similar. These are simple practical
                        details for any liturgical book.

                        When drafting the text pay attention to the rubrics. Don't write them in
                        some kind of remote ecclesiastical style, but use ordinary language
                        wherever possible (some technical terms are no doubt inevitable).

                        Make it easy to distinguish in the printed text who is saying which
                        bits. For example, it has become a convention in Britain across the
                        denominations since the 1970s to print congregational words in bold
                        type. Whilst one might argue about the over-use of bold type from a
                        typographical perspective it does have the advantage of being quite clear.

                        Minimize the number of cross-references that must be followed. Better
                        perhaps to move forwards to another page and continue from there than to
                        have to go forwards then back to the page you came from. Again, this may
                        be hard to achieve. But ribbon bookmarks are expensive things to insert
                        into book manufacture -- and too many ribbons are too confusing for all
                        but the cognoscenti anyway.

                        Choose paper that provides contrast to the type, remembering that the
                        book may be used in poor lighting conditions, and by people with failing
                        eyesight. Choose paper that is not so thin that it is hard to turn and
                        shows the print from the next page or pages. Choose paper that is not so
                        thick that the book is unwieldy.

                        Choose a binding that will withstand wear and tear and frequent opening
                        and closing.

                        simon





                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      • Tom Poelker
                        Yes, very convenient, but not very edifying unless one considers doing liturgy to be not much more than following recipes from a cook book. {:-) Actually,
                        Message 11 of 12 , May 1, 2007
                          Yes, very convenient, but not very edifying unless one
                          considers doing liturgy to be not much more than following
                          recipes from a cook book. {:-)>

                          Actually, Kinko's or their competitors can produce some
                          pretty nice things. I would check around with local
                          printers and binders before committing myself to 8.5X11" and
                          merely practical binding. Heavier paper in an executive
                          binder from Office Max with nice tabs might be better, for
                          example. Think creatively. How about a series of 5.5X8.5"
                          stapled booklets, boxed?

                          Tom Poelker
                          St. Louis, Missouri
                          USA
                          ---
                          It is not we who do Christ the favor of
                          worshiping him; it is Christ who
                          empowers us by strengthening us, and
                          enabling us to fight for the things that
                          are worth fighting for, the things that endure;
                          and that is a promise worth fighting for,
                          worth dying for, and worth living for.
                          -- Peter Gomes, "Strength for the Journey."



                          mjthannisch@... wrote:
                          >
                          >
                          > Good idea. I do recall that the last time I had a programme that checked
                          > for readability, the programme indicated that anything beyond a fifth grade
                          > level was too much for most people. Scary. BTW, Fr. Rob, I like very much
                          > the idea of the plastic spirals. That way the book can be doubled back on
                          > itself without damage. That is what I finally ended up with for our various
                          > liturgical books.
                          >
                          > Shalom b'Yeshua haMoshiach,
                          >
                          > +Michael Joe Thannisch
                          >
                          > _____
                          >
                          > From: liturgy-l@yahoogroups.com <mailto:liturgy-l%40yahoogroups.com>
                          > [mailto:liturgy-l@yahoogroups.com <mailto:liturgy-l%40yahoogroups.com>]
                          > On Behalf
                          > Of James Morgan
                          > Sent: Tuesday, May 01, 2007 8:56 PM
                          > To: liturgy-l@yahoogroups.com <mailto:liturgy-l%40yahoogroups.com>
                          > Subject: RE: [liturgy-l] Crafting the Printed Liturgical Book
                          >
                          > I remember Fr. Earle Maddux, SSJE (editor of the American Missal and the
                          > Manual for Priests among other things) who told me back around 1960, that he
                          > had an 'editorial board' of housewives andother people with only a high
                          > school education that he had read his rubrics. If the average fellow or
                          > woman with an average education (for those days--I know I am grasping here
                          > given the present state of public education) could figure out how to do
                          > something liturgically, then so could the average priest! May his memory be
                          > blessed!
                          > And Simon's closing remarks are spot on! I hate so-called 'Liturgical
                          > Books' in which the pages fly all over the room first time you open them.
                          > Bah! Liturgical books done on the cheap may indicate cheap liturgy.
                          > "Reverence is taking pains." As someone once said.
                          >
                          > Rdr. James
                          > Olympia, WA
                          >
                          > -----Original Message-----
                          > From: Simon Kershaw
                          > Sent: Tuesday, May 01, 2007 6:03 AM
                          > To: liturgy-l@yahoogrou <mailto:liturgy-l%40yahoogroups.com> ps.com
                          > Subject: Re: [liturgy-l] Crafting the Printed Liturgical Book
                          >
                          > Robert Lyons wrote:
                          > > What suggestions might the folks on this list have for the layout,
                          > > design, appearance, etc... of a contemporary liturgy book? What would
                          > > make the book easy to use for you if you were visiting a local
                          > > congregation, worshipping in a different rite than you were used to
                          > > (or, for that matter, worshipping liturgically for the first time)?
                          >
                          > Clarity, dignity, worthiness for its sacred role, easy to hold (if it's
                          > to be handheld).
                          >
                          > Minimize page turns -- never break a ministerial congregational text
                          > across a page turn, and if possible avoid across facing pages too. If a
                          > text is too long to fit on a single page then it must be broken: always
                          > break it at a paragraph break or similar. These are simple practical
                          > details for any liturgical book.
                          >
                          > When drafting the text pay attention to the rubrics. Don't write them in
                          > some kind of remote ecclesiastical style, but use ordinary language
                          > wherever possible (some technical terms are no doubt inevitable).
                          >
                          > Make it easy to distinguish in the printed text who is saying which
                          > bits. For example, it has become a convention in Britain across the
                          > denominations since the 1970s to print congregational words in bold
                          > type. Whilst one might argue about the over-use of bold type from a
                          > typographical perspective it does have the advantage of being quite clear.
                          >
                          > Minimize the number of cross-references that must be followed. Better
                          > perhaps to move forwards to another page and continue from there than to
                          > have to go forwards then back to the page you came from. Again, this may
                          > be hard to achieve. But ribbon bookmarks are expensive things to insert
                          > into book manufacture -- and too many ribbons are too confusing for all
                          > but the cognoscenti anyway.
                          >
                          > Choose paper that provides contrast to the type, remembering that the
                          > book may be used in poor lighting conditions, and by people with failing
                          > eyesight. Choose paper that is not so thin that it is hard to turn and
                          > shows the print from the next page or pages. Choose paper that is not so
                          > thick that the book is unwieldy.
                          >
                          > Choose a binding that will withstand wear and tear and frequent opening
                          > and closing.
                          >
                          > simon
                          >
                          > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                          >
                          >
                        • Ron Miller
                          A alternative suggestion would be to buy a decently printed and bound Bible and take a few minutes each week or two and mark the lessons by hand with notes for
                          Message 12 of 12 , May 2, 2007
                            A alternative suggestion would be to buy a decently printed and bound
                            Bible and take a few minutes each week or two and mark the lessons by
                            hand with notes for liturgical date and the beginning and end of each
                            reading. After two years you will have a useful book which can be used
                            for other purposes as well. (If you include at the end of each reading
                            the citation for the next one when they are not contiguous even fairly
                            dense lectors should be able to find their way.)

                            The fact that our Pension Fund sells these things does not make them
                            official or required. The convenience comes at the costs you, James, and
                            Simon make. The market for Episcopal liturgical books is so small that
                            the costs can not be kept low enough for us to buy them.

                            End of screed!!! Best wishes, Ron

                            Scott Knitter wrote:
                            > Our copy of Readings for the Daily Office From the Early Church, ed.
                            > Robert J. Wright, from Church Publishing, is in about 13 chunks of
                            > pages held together by remnants of glue, within a clothbound cover and
                            > ripped dust jacket, with a frayed ribbon marker that has a bad case of
                            > split ends. It's used daily by the Evening Prayer officiant. Guess I
                            > should purchase a new one...yikes, $47! I certainly hope the quality
                            > has improved.
                            >
                            > On 5/1/07, James Morgan <rdrjames@...> wrote:
                            >
                            >> And Simon's closing remarks are spot on! I hate so-called 'Liturgical
                            >> Books' in which the pages fly all over the room first time you open them.
                            >> Bah! Liturgical books done on the cheap may indicate cheap liturgy.
                            >> "Reverence is taking pains." As someone once said.
                            >

                            --
                            Ron Miller (The Rev. Ronald H.) Baltimore, MD
                            Every individual will receive from God the amount of indulgence he has
                            himself given to his neighbor.
                            Augustine, quoted by Defensor Grammaticus
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