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Re: [linux-dell-laptops] Digest Number 347 - Part 6

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  • linux-dell-laptops@yahoogroups.com
    s2d Esta pregunta ha sido enviada a un experto para su atención ... Q: Documents 13 Q: PERFILES-PROFILES Q: StudyWeb: Family:Family Science:Senior Citizens Q:
    Message 1 of 1 , Apr 2, 2001

      Esta pregunta ha sido enviada a un experto para su atenci�n

      > I've been reading through the message archive about s2d problems (most
      > specifically the latest "safe hibernation" thread). There don't seem to
      > be any problems with people doing suspend to ram (s2r) - so why are people
      > using s2d in the first place anyway?
      Q: Documents 13
      Q: StudyWeb: Family:Family Science:Senior Citizens
      Q: A fondo/In depth
      Q: 42 y/owhite male - TIA
      > specifically the latest "safe hibernation" thread). There don't seem to > be any problems with people doing suspend to ram (s2r) - so why are people > using s2d in the first place anyway?"> Si su pregunta no ha sido contesta, por favor pulse aqu� para enviar la pregunta a un experto

      What are the benefits of one vs. the
      > other?

      A: Highlights in Pain Therapy and Regional Anaesthesia. III The European Society of Regional Anaesthesia Contents Dedication. A Van Zunder Guest Lectures Risk Analysis in Regional Anesthesia. David L. Brown Current Status of CSEA Technique Narinder Rawal Ophtalmic Surgery: General Anaesthesia or Regional Anaesthesia? Anthonv Rubin Peripheral Effects of Alpha 2 Adrenergic Agonists. F. Bonnet, C Vezinet Spinal anesthesia and decubitus ulcers. M.F.M. Wagermans, J.J. de Lange How to prevent postdural puncture headache. Mathieu Gielen Management of Hypotension during central neural block Best Approach for Spinal and Epidural Anaesthesia. V. Hempel A multiple center protocol to investigate on maternal expectations and experiences of labor analgesia. G. Capogna, S. Alahuhta D. Celleno, J. Moreira, B. Morgan, F. Reynolds, A. Van Zundert, J. Vertommen The effects of maternal analgesia on the baby. Felicity Reynolds Local anesthetic mixtures and! combination of local anesthetic and other drugs. D. Celleno, G. Capogna, M. Emanuelli, V. Tagariello, L. Bertini Why do central blocks go wrong? How can we make them go right? Philip R. Bromage Spinal opiates in obstetrics. A. Miranda Spinal cord stimulators. M. Meglio, B. Cioni Strontium-89 for systemic pain control for bone metastases from prostatic cancer. Preliminary report. Jos� Blanco Intra-CSF drug delivery for pain control. M. Meglio, B. Cioni Cost effectiveness of pain therapy. M. Zenz, M. Raber, M. Strumpf Toxicity of local anesthetics and dose selection. Cosmo A. DiFazio Bupivacaine Cardiotoxicity: Pathophysiology and Treatment. Jean-Jacques Eledjam, Pascal Buelle, Jean E. de La Coussaye, Josep Brugada Panel Discussions Controversies in obstetric anesthesia 5% dextrose in water is poison in labour.G. Ostheimer 5% dextrose in water is not poison in labour. D. Benhamou, Y. Auroy Feeding or fasting the parturient during labour? Pro fasting.T. A. Thomas Intermittent vs! continuous vs CSE techniques: continuous.F. Reynolds Controversies in Obstetric Anesthesia Intermittent vs continuous vs CSE techniques: intermittent. D. Celleno, G. Capogna and M. Emanuelli Combined spinal blockade for analgesia in labour B. Morgan Do you let the epidural wear off at the second stage of labour? Yes. J.J. Ar�n Do you let the epidural wear off at the second stage of labour? No. F. Reynolds The effects of blocks on coagulation and outcome after major surgery: Coagulation and peripheral blocks. J. De Andr�s Effects of blocks on coagulation and outcome after major surgery. Effects of spinal blocks. A. Sabat� Effects of Epidural blocks. T.A. Thomas Politics of Pain. J.E. Charlton The use of NSAIDS in postoperative pain management. G. Varrassi, A. Piroli Postoperative pain management, ANP peptide and trace metals. Athina Vadaloucas Regional techniques and PCA. Elena Catal�, Merc� Genov� Postoperative pain management. Quality assurance and organization. N. Rawal Sym! pathetically maintained pain: alternative non-block techniques. J.E. Charlton Back Pain. Do serial blocks work? J.E. Charlton Principles and practice of alkalinisation of local anesthetics.Cosmo A. DiFazio Alkalinization of local anesthetics: which agent, which block? G. Capogna, D. Celleno, D. Laudano The saga of carbonated local anaesthetics: the campagne of neural blockade. Philip R. Bromage Risk and Benefits of Regional Anesthesia in Outpatients. David L. Brown Minimal monitoring during Regional Anesthesia. S. Gliogorijevic How long do we keep patients in the PACU after CNB? J.A.W. Wildsmith Can we use spinal anesthesia for outpatient surgery and which local anaesthetic should be used? Santacana Rillo E., Ferrandiz Mach M. Can we use sedation for outpatient surgery? J.I. Casas Drugs management in postoperative pain relief for outpatient surgery. Luis Aliaga, Mercedes Jim�nez How to react with a failed CNB. J.A.W. Wildsmith How to Manage an Accidental Intravenous or Intrath! ecal Injection of Local Anesthetics? Andr� Van Zundert How to resuscitate a pregnant woman. G. Ostheimer How to resuscitate a newborn. G. Ostheimer General anaesthesia is contra-indicated if regional anaesthesia is possible in obstetrics.B. Morgan Combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia is the regional anaesthetic technique of choice. L. Carrie Which Local Anaesthetic? Which Opioid? J. Gardiner New techniques of regional anaesthesia in children. Busoni P., Messeri A Regional blocks in children: A routine technique? E. Armitage Dose requirements in regional anaesthesia techniques. A. Armitage The anesthesiologist's point of view. Trend in cancer pain treatment. Francesco Nicosia Oral and parenteral local anesthetics for the management of chronic pain. Antonio Vigano, Eduardo Bruera Interpleural analgesia in cancer pain. J.L. Aguilar Is there any future for the use of neurolytic blocks? A. Montero Risk-benefit outcomes in aggressive management of acute pain. Philip R. Bromage Spina! l opioids and monitoring routines. N. Rawal
      A: What is the DCCT? What are the results? The DCCT was a large multi-center trial involving over 1400 volunteer patients with type 1 diabetes. It began in 1983, ramped up to full speed by 1989, and ended early in 1993 when the investigators felt the results were clear. The volunteers were all undergoing "standard" treatment when they were recruited, meaning one or two injections per day. They were randomly assigned to two groups. One group continued as before. The other group received intensive treatment aimed at achieving blood glucose (bG) profiles as close as possible to normal. The intensive treatment involved multiple bG checks per day, multiple injections and/or an insulin pump, and access to and regular consultation with a team of treatment experts. It is particularly important to note that intensive treatment was defined as a collaborative effort involving the patient and a skilled team of health care professionals. It was not! defined by particular techniques, although certain techniques were typically used. The frequent consultations and availability of a professional team were critical components of intensive therapy. The results show that the intensive treatment group did indeed achieve bG levels closer to normal, and that they experienced far fewer diabetic complications though also more hypoglycemia. In particular, patients who maintained levels around 7% appear to be much better off than those whose HbA1c hovers around 9%. (See caveats in the .) Though it is not possible to separate the effects of all the aspects of the intensive treatment, it is reasonable to believe that lowering average bG may be effective even in isolation from the other aspects of the intensive treatment. In its position statement, the ADA says Patients should aim for the best level of glucose control they can achieve without placing themselves at undue risk for hypoglycemia or other hazards associated with tight control! . Though type 2 patients were not included in the study, it is generally believed that the results showing the benefits of tight control apply to type 2 patients as well. The entire position statement was published in most of the ADA's publications (see "could you recommend some good reading") in the summer and fall of 1993. The formal report detailing the results was published in The New England Journal of Medicine, aka NEJM, of September 30,1993 (v 329 pp 977-986). The following discussion is based on that article. Visit the NIDDK website: More details about the DCCT The study placed subjects into two cohorts, primary prevention or secondary intervention, depending on duration of diabetes and existing complications -- the primary prevention cohort were those with essentially no complications. Specifically: all subjects met these criteria: Insulin dependent as evidenced by deficient C-peptide secretion Age 13 to 39 years at entry to the study No hypertension, hypercholestero! lemia, severe diabetic complications, or other severe medical conditions Meet the criteria for one of the cohorts and were separated into the two cohorts by these criteria: Primary Secondary Prevention Intervention Cohort Cohort Duration of IDDM 1-5 yrs 1-15 yrs Retinopathy none detectable very mild to moderate nonproliferative Urinary albumin < 40 mg / 24 hr < 200 mg / 24 hr Within each cohort, the subjects were randomly assigned to either conventional therapy or intensive therapy. Thus the study compared intensive to conventional therapy in two different cohorts. The two questions the study was mainly designed to answer were Will intensive therapy prevent the development of in patients with no retinopathy (primary prevention), and Will intensive therapy affect the progression of early retinopathy (secondary intervention)? Conventional therapy included one or two injections per day, daily self monitoring of blood or urine glucose, education, quarterly consultations, and inten! sive therapy during pregnancy. Intensive therapy included three or more daily injections or an , bG monitoring at least 4x/day, adjustment of insulin dosage for bG level and food and exercise, monthly personal consultations and more frequent phone consultations. To simplify a lot, the DCCT showed the following changes in the intensive therapy groups compared to the conventional therapy groups. Note that '-' shows a decrease, '+' shows an increase, in the number of patients affected. Patients were judged as affected or not based on binary criteria, so the results only say how many subjects were affected, not how severely those subjects were affected. Intensive therapy compared to conventional therapy: Primary Secondary Complication Prevention Combined Intervention ------------ ---------- -------- ------------ Retinopathy(*) - 75% - 55% Nephropathy(*) - 35% - 45% Neuropathy(*) - 70% - 55% Hypoglycemia(*) +200% Weight gain(*) + 33% Hypercholesterolemia(*) - 35% (*) This brief tab! le begs many questions about what exactly was measured and how. For more details, read the paper. There were no detectable differences on several measures: Macrovascular disease Mortality Changes in neuropsychological function (a feared result of severe hypoglycemia) Quality of life (based on a questionnaire) Some limitations of the study: type 1 only, patients young and with short duration (under 15 years) of diabetes, and short duration of the study (5-9 years). Measured only number of subjects affected according to binary criteria, not by measurement of severity of complications. Excluded patients who already had severe complications and who thus might benefit the most. The difference between the groups increased during the study, but there is no proof that the difference would continue to increase with time. It is tempting to extrapolate the results to all diabetic patients -- all types, ages, and durations -- and there is at least some support for doing so. However, the D! CCT by itself does not show results for type 2 patients, older patients, patients who have had diabetes for many years, or those who already have severe complications. On the other hand, a different group of subjects might shows differences in areas such as mortality and macrovascular disease, where the young DCCT cohorts simply did not have significantly measurable incidence. The DCCT subjects are being tracked in a followup study which may shed light on some of the unanswered questions. Secondary analysis of the data indicates that retinopathy decreases with decreasing HbA1c. This measure was not part of the study design and is more difficult to interpret, but still shows clearly a correlation between HbA1c and retinopathy. DCCT philosophy: what did it really show? It is often stated that the DCCT proved that tight control or lowered HbA1c reduces complications. This is not the case. The controlled variable in the DCCT was intensive vs conventional therapy, and intensive the! rapy was defined by several factors including a team of skilled health care professionals acting in partnership with the patient. The results show that intensive therapy results in both lowered HbA1c and fewer complications, but do not show that one causes the other. The lead authors provide a good summary of this point in a followup (NEJM 330:642, March 3, 1994): We want to stress that the most valid interpretation of the trial is that intensive therapy, with the **goal** of achieving blood glucose concentrations as close to the nondiabetic range as possible, delays the onset and slows the progression of long-term diabetic complications. The secondary analyses support the notion that lower glycosylated hemoglobin values are associated with a lower risk of progression of retinopathy, but they do not prove that hyperglycemia in itself causes retinopathy. [emphasis added] Many of us believe, and believed before the DCCT, that actually achieving good control aids our health. The ! DCCT adds weight to this case but does not prove the point. � 1996-1998 . All rights reserved. As seen on PharmInfoNet (http://pharminfo.com)
      A: CARDIO-CONSULT Discussion Archive Cholesterol levels after MI Are cholesterol values unreliable after an uncomplicated MI and, if so, when do they become reliable? Should cholesterol-lowering therapy be started right away or "down the road?" I am a student in pharmacy school and this question was posed to us in class cardiac therapeutics. A patient was released after suffering an uncomplicated MI. They were put on a beta-blocker and aspirin. They were told that they may need to be put on a cholesterol lowering drug "down the road". However, the clinicians would not start this cholesterol therapy at the present time because his cholesterol values are considered unreliable after the MI. The question then is, what is the nature of these unreliable cholesterol values and when do they become reliable? A student Responses One posibility is: the cholesterol measurement was done in the first days of the AMI. Many times this value could be h! igher but not reflecting a metabolic disorder but something like an acute response.The ideal: to repeat the measurement 30-60 days after the AMI. Edgardo Beck Serum cholesterol levels will drop, sometimes markedly, following acute MI (or any serious illness) and may not return to baseline for several weeks. In a patient presenting within the first 24 hours after infarction, however, I believe the serum cholesterol levels are still reliable, and, if elevated, warrant treatment(IMO). Rarely is a full lipid analysis done in the ER, but if the total cholesterol is markedly elevated it seems prudent to initiate lipid-lowering therapy pre-discharge. It is a rare MI patient who rolls in the door with an LDL below 100, although they do seem to be out there. Perhaps these are the patients that warrant more extensive apolipoprotein subtyping, etc. With the growing body of evidence supporting the benefits of statins in secondary prevention, I'd be looking for a good reason NOT to start t! hem. You can always take them away later, AFTER the plaques are stable and the patient has gone vegetarian. Lynn Cronin,MD Cholesterol may drop in any acute illness, including AMI. If a patient does have high cholesterol after an MI, I go ahead and treat it, since I expect it to rise after recovery. I will recheck (usually in 3 months) if the cholesterol levels were acceptable at time of MI and there were no previous levels on which to make the evaluation. Probably takes at least a month post-MI for the cholesterol to come back to normal, or, I would wait at least that long before I concluded that the cholesterol was normal. SCC, MD, FACC I don't have a reference handy, but VLDL is elevated over a patient's baseline values for a few weeks after an MI. Testing after 30 days should be reliable - it is important to get an accurate baseline when starting on hypolipidemic therapy. Todd Lorenz "Conventional wisdom" was that cholesterol levels were unreliable until 6 weeks post-AMI. ! Now we believe that LDLc levels fall within 24 hours after AMI (this has reputedly published by Eli Whitney - I haven't found it so far) and then return to baseline over about the same period. ER physicians don't check lipids enough in these patients and neither do cardiologists & internists. Mindful that postMI surveys are sponsored by Merck, etc, who are clearly not disinterested, it seems that only about 50% of AMI discharges have had lipid profiles done. Patients are most receptive to advice about lifestyle modification after surviving a heart attack, and increasingly complacent afterwards. We should be checking lipid profiles - not necessarily fasting - within 24 hours in all patients presenting with cardiac-sounding chest pain: and certainly in all patients admitted for cardiac caths, revascularization, definite AMI, USA or to rule out AMI (ie. with the morning labs). If the LDLc is high, start treatment. If not raised, repeat it. A wait and see strategy, where no lipid ! profile is done for 6 weeks, is useless: certainly in a County system such as this, where adherence to clinic follow up is unreliable. If plaque stabilization is a true effect of statins (who knows for sure?) it makes sense to use them sooner rather than later. Colleagues in cardiology laugh (true) at the concept of a cholesterol 'emergency'. These are the same individuals who were happily and reflexively giving short acting nifedipine for hypertensive 'emergencies'. -Mike Jamieson MD (Clinical Pharmacologist, ER attending, Lipid Clinic Director) For those who would like some references: Brugada R et al: Changes in plasma cholesterollevels after hospitalization for acute coronary events. Cardiology 1996; 87:194-9. [In pts admitted with acute MI and also for CABG and angioplasty, total cholesterol fell markedly after admission from prior baseline, returned to prior values at 3 months after hospitalization] Ronnemaa T et al: Marked decrease in serum HDL cholesterol levels during! acute MI. Acta Med Scand 1980;207:161-6 [Within 24 hours, total chol fell - 24% and HDL 31% by discharge, and returned to prior levels at 4 months. They indicate values taken immediately on admission ARE valid, but not later in the stay.] Ritland S et al: The esterification of cholesterol in plasma after acute MI. Scan J Clin Lab Invest 1975;35:181-7 [Changes begin within 22 hrs, peak after 8 days, return to baseline by 7 weeks.] Edward P Hoffer MD, Framingham, MA Anyone after AMI should have statin therapy. There is ample evidence now that statins decrease coronary events over and above their LDL-lowering effect, possibly due to placque stabilisation, or cytokine mediation, or something else. And, anyone with high risk factors or AMI history should have lipoprotein electrophoresis, HDL subfractions, apolipoprotein evaluations, and, especially, Lp(a) levels determined. Apolipoprotein A-1 (good) and apo-B (bad) do not change immediately after AMI, and can be a better marker th! an HDL and LDL, and should be determined in anyone after AMI. And, I can't stress enough the importance of Lp(a); this is a tremendous 'bad actor'; it is outside of the traditional cholesterol system, and is terribly predictive of early coronary disease. The bottom line: We have been incredibly naive in just looking at total cholesterol levels in our cardiac patients. HDL/LDL, too, doesn't tell the entire story. The apos, Lp(a), homocystine, and others, may be far more important. But, we can help with statin therapy; it's harmless, expensive, but may do far more than we think. Dr. John Gerster, M.D.; Alaska Science & Technology Foundation A "wait and see" strategy is not useless.even in a county system. How many patients that are discharged with a prescription for Zocor (or even the less expensive Lescol) are going to fill that script, much less adjust their life styles? As far as the claim that "cardiologists and internests" don't check lipid values often enough.speak for you! rself pal, my patients, and those of my collegues, have their lipids treated aggresivlely, I don't use short acting nifedipine, and in general I try to refrain from dumb condemnations of large groups of my fellow physicians. SCC Thanks for your comments. My statements weren't directed at you, although they seem to have made you pretty defensive. You and your colleagues clearly run tighter ships than the rest of us; although I'm sure we all have the best intentions. I'm also an internist, run hypertension and lipid clinics and work more shifts than I might like to as staff in the County ER. I see a lot of patients, and I'm not blindly poking a finger at colleagues. I have been equally at fault. The difference I think is that I see there's a problem, and you don't. Tom Pearson presented data at AHA in 1994 that showed that in his Institution only 5.9% of CHD patients were at goal LDL cholesterol 6 months after starting therapy, and 0% at 9 months. Merck's study, that I referred ! to, was of 59389 patients, at 274 practices, 76% of which were cardiology. 82.2% had CAD. Of the CAD patients only 57% had documented LDLcs; only 37% were on drugs therapy, and only 7% were at goal. You can call that aggressive therapy. I don't think anyone else would. I could show you the results from my own audit of our clinic. Have you done that? If not, what evidence are your comments based on? Whether or not you currently use short-acting nifedipine is neither here nor there. Many of us did. Few people do now: they use clonidine instead. Same reflex, different drug. The point I wanted to make is that management of high cholesterol in patients with CAD needs to be regarded with more urgency. Rapidly acting drugs are still used reflexively to bring down moderately raised blood pressure without a great deal of regard to the risk vs benefit of that approach. If we treat hypertension as soon as we see it, why not do the same with cholesterol in CAD? Robert Burns phrased things! better than I could. I think this might apply to how you think you practice. "O wad some Power the giftie gie us To see oursels as ithers see us! It wad frae monie a blunder free us, An' foolish notion" If you come across the title, please don't be offended. No comparison intended. ps I'm not your 'pal'. Michael Jamieson Total Cholesterol and HDL levels drop precipitously about 48 hours after an MI, so that if you fail to determine it within the first two days, then the levels are unreliable. If I may quote Braunwald's Heart Disease (5th ed), p.204 - "During the first 24-48 hours after admission, TC and HDL remain at or near baseline values but generally fall precipitously after that. .For patients admitted beyond 24-48 hours of symptoms, it is best to defer determinations of serum lipid levels until at least 8 weeks after the infarction occurred." With today's more aggressive stance towards the treatment of elevated cholesterol levels, it would make sense to screen for lipid! levels while in the hospital - if it is low or normal, then a repeat determination should be done 8 weeks after. However, if it is elevated, then treatment will be warranted, since if it is left untreated, those levels may still rise even further in the weeks to follow. In fact, there is a school of thought who take the stand that all MI cases should be treated, no matter the level of TC - because, TC levels were already too high for the patient and had already produced significant atherosclerosis. Perhaps the pharmacy student could suggest that the physician involved in the case should brush up on all the recent results of lipid studies so that he/she may be motivated towards a more timely intervention and a realization of the importance of the lipid problem in atherosclerotic disease. Rosario Sevilla, MD, FPCC
      A: Sklar AH, Riesenberg LA, Silber AK, Ahamed W, Ali A: Postdialysis fatigue. Am J Kidney Dis 28:372-376, 1996 99. Passouant P, Cadihac J, Baldy-Moulinier M, Mion C: Etude tu sommeil nocturne chez des uremiques chroniques soumis a une epuration extrrenale. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurphysiol 29:441-449, 1970 100. Hamilton RW, Epstein PE, Henderson LW, Edelman NH, Fishman AP: Control of breathing in uremia: Ventilatory response to CO 2 after hemodialysis. J Appl Physiol 41:213-222, 1976 101. Jean G, Piperno D, Francois B, Charra B: Sleep apnea incidence in maintenance hemodialysis patients: Influence of dialysate buffer. Nephron 71:138-142, 1995 102. Hoffstein V, Chan CK, Slutsky AS: Sleep apnea and systemic hypertension: A causal relationship review. Am J Med 98:118-128, 1991 103. Zoccali C, Benedetto FA, Tripepi G, Cambareri F, Panuccio V, Candela V, Mallamaci F, Enia G, Labate C, Tassone F: Nocturnal hypoxemia, night-day arterial pre! ssure changes and left ventricular geometry in dialysis patients. Kidney Int 53:1078-1084, 1998 104. Pierratos A, Heslegrave RJ, Thornley K, Ouwendyk M, Francoeur R, Sumal P, Hanley P: Nocturnal hemodialysis improves daytime cognitive function. J Am Soc Nephrol 9:180A, 1998 (abstr) 105. Brissenden JE, Pierratos A, Ouwendyk M, Roscoe JM: Improvement in quality of life with nocturnal hemodialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 9:168A, 1998 (abstr) 106. US Renal Data System: USRDS 1997 Annual Data Report. The National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD, 1997 107. Burns FJ, Seddon P, Saul M, Zeidel M: Cost analysis of caring for end-stage kidney disease patients: An analysis based on hospital financial transaction records. J Am Soc Nephrol 9:884-890, 1998 108. Hakim RM, Breyer J, Ismail N, Schulman S: Effect of dose of dialysis on morbidity and mortality. Am J Kidney Dis 23:661-669, 1994 109. Friedman EA, Lundin AP: Outcome and ! complications of chronic hemodialysis, in Schrier RW, Gottschalk CW (eds): Diseases of the Kidney (ed 5). Boston, MA, Little, Brown, 1995, pp 3069-3095 110. Kopple JD, Swendseid ME: Vitamin nutrition in patients undergoing maintainance hemodialysis. Kidney Int 7:S79-S84, 1975 (suppl) 111. Stammler G, Klooker P, Bommer J, Ziegler T, Fiehn W, Manthey J, Ritz E: Response of alkaline phosphatase to zinc repletion in hypozincemic hemodialysis patients. Blood Purif 3:192-198, 1985 112. Stein G, Sperschneider H, Kopple S: Vitamin levels in chronic renal failure and need for supplementation. Blood Purif 3:52-62, 1985 113. Ing TS, Yu AW, Agarwal B, Ansari AU, Leehey DJ, Ghandi VC, Nawab ZM: Increasing plasma phosphorous values by enriching with phosphorous the acid concentrate of bicarbonate buffered dialysate delivery system. Int J Artif Organs 15:701-703, 1992 114. Bommer J, Ritz E, Andrassy K: Side effects due to materials used in hemodialysis equipment. Adv Nephrol Necker Hosp 14:4! 09-438, 1985 115. Lim VS, Flanigan MJ: The effect of interdialytic interval on protein metabolism: Evidence suggesting dialysis-induced catabolism. Am J Kidney Dis 14:96-100, 1989 116. Hakim RM: Clinical implications of hemodialysis membrane biocompatiblity. Kidney Int 44:484-494, 1993 117. Borah MF, Schoenfeld PY, Gotch FA, Sargent JA, Wolfsen M, Humphreys, MH: Nitrogen balance during intermittent dialysis therapy of uremia. Kidney Int 14:491-500, 1978 118. Valderrabano F: Weekly duration of dialysis treatment--Does it matter for survival. Nephrol Dial Transplant 11:569-572, 1996 119. Dumler F, Stalla K, Mohini R, Zasuwa G, Levin NW: Clinical experience with short-time hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 19:49-56, 1992 120. Charra B: Control of blood pressure in long slow hemodialysis. Blood Purif 12:252-258, 1994 121. Raj DSC, Ramachandran S, Somiah S, Mani K, Dominic SS: Quenching the thirst in dialysis patients. Nephron 73:597-600, 1996 122. Fine A, Penner B: The protective effe! ct of cool dialysate is dependent on patients' predialysis temperature. Am J Kidney Dis 28:262-265, 1996 123. Schneditz D, Roob J, Vaclavik M, Holzer H, Kenner T: Noninvasive measurement of blood volume in hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 7:1241-1244, 1996 124. Wolcott DL, Nissenson AR: Quality of life in chronic dialysis patients: A critical comparison of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 11:402-412, 1988 125. Rasgon SA, Chemleski BL, Ho S, Widrow L, Yeoh HH, Schwankovsky L, Idroos M, Reddy CR, Agudelo-Dee L, James-Rogers A, Butts E: Benefits of a multidisciplinary predialysis program in maintaining employment among patients on home dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 12:132-135, 1996 126. Bremer BA, McCauly CR, Wrona RM, Johnson JP: Quality of life in end-stage renal disease: A re-examination. Am J Kidney Dis 13:200-209, 1989 127. Keshaviah P: Urea kinetic and middle molecule approaches to assessing the adequacy of hemodialysis and CAPD.! Kidney Int 40:S28-S38, 1993 (suppl) 128. Collier A, Liao M, Umen A, Hansen G, Keshaviah P: Diabetic hemodialysis patients treated with a higher Kt/V have lower risk of death than standard Kt/V. J Am Soc Nephrol 2:318, 1991 (abstr) 129. Uldall R, Ourendyk M, Francoeur R, Wallace L, Sit W, Vas S, Pierratos A: Slow nocturnal home hemodialysis at the Wellesley Hospital. Adv Renal Replace 3:133-136, 1996 130. De Palma JR: Adequate hemodialysis schedule. N Engl J Med 285:353, 1971 131. Henderson LW, Cheung AK, Chenoweth DE: Choosing a membrane. Am J Kidney Dis 111:5-20, 1983 From the Department of Medicine and the Division of Nephrology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA; Center de Rein Artificiel, Tassin, France; and University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. Received December 28, 1998; accepted in revised form March 26, 1999. Address reprint requests to Dominic S.C. Raj, MD, DM, Department of Medicine, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, 1541 K! ings Hwy, Shreveport, LA 71103. E-mail: draj@... American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Vol 34, No 4 (October), 1999: pp 597-610 � 1999 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.
      > other?"> Si su pregunta no ha sido contesta, por favor pulse aqu� para enviar la pregunta a un experto

      When you suspend to disk, you can turn the computer off and quit
      using the battery. If you suspend to RAM, you have to keep the
      RAM powered up - if the battery dies, your suspended session dies
      with it.

      Q: Medical Informatics: Digital Images
      Q: StudyWeb: Technology:Computer Science:Hardware:General Resources
      Q: StudyWeb: Technology:Engineering:Aeronautical Engineering
      Si su pregunta no ha sido contesta, por favor pulse aqu� para enviar la pregunta a un experto

      John Cronin
      mailto: `echo NjsOc3@... | sed 's/[NOSPAM]//g'`

      Esta pregunta ha sido enviada a un experto para su atenci�n


      Message: 19
      Date: Thu, 29 Mar 2001 21:35:18 -0600
      From: David Rodriguez
      Subject: Re: s2r vs. s2d

      The 'problems' with s2d are (in my humble opinion) not such bad problems.
      Esta pregunta ha sido enviada a un experto para su atenci�n

      The fact is that if you don't use a s2d partition but a file they disappear,
      Q: StudyWeb: History & Social Studies:History:Ancient Civilizations:General Resources
      Q: Documents 13
      Q: Documents 14
      Q: Killer Dream
      Q: A fondo/In depth
      Si su pregunta no ha sido contesta, por favor pulse aqu� para enviar la pregunta a un experto

      and even if you use a partition, nothing should happen if you remember
      whether you suspended or not. The discussion is trying to find a way so
      that the user does not need to remember, but the system will.

      Esta pregunta ha sido enviada a un experto para su atenci�n

      S2r works fine too, and the differences are... Well I don't know, I think that
      Suspend-to-memory should work fine and the batteries should last for a long
      time, so that it could be used, the advantage of s3d is that it does not
      use batteries at all, so that the system can be suspended forever, or you can
      change the battery ... without problems. On the other hand it is quite slower
      than s2r.

      Q: Medical Informatics: Digital Images
      Q: Cholesterol levels after MI
      Q: 42 y/owhite male - TIA
      Q: Documents 6
      Si su pregunta no ha sido contesta, por favor pulse aqu� para enviar la pregunta a un experto

      BTW, in my i5000e I have 3 suspend modes Fn-A (s2d), Fn-S (s2r 1) and Fn-Esc
      (s2r 2). The difference (the only I found) is that Fn-S comes out of the suspend
      mode with any keypress while Fn-Esc requires the power button to be pressed.
      Esta pregunta ha sido enviada a un experto para su atenci�n

      Anyone has information on this??

      A: Valerie Barnes] JU is located in Florida and offers numerous scholarships based on merit. http://www.ju.edu/finaid/Default.htm [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Valerie Barnes] LaGrange College in Georgia offers Presidential Scholarships, Thompson Scholarships, Cunningham Scholarships, Academic Achievement Awards, HOPE Scholarship (for Georgia residents), Servant Leadership Scholarships, Talent and Performance Scholarships, and United Methodist Scholarships. http://www.lgc.peachnet.edu/admission.shtml [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Valerie Barnes] The LAEF awards scholarships to Hispanic students in the state of Colorado. [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 9-12+ Contributor: Valerie Barnes] Lewis-Clark State College in Lewiston, Idaho offers a number of scholarships, including Business, Education, Fine and Performing Arts, Nursing, Math and Scien! ce, Publishing Arts, Social Science, Vocational Programs and others. http://www.lcsc.edu/financialaid/aidschol.html [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Valerie Barnes] Here you'll find a free web version of MACH25, a database containing listings of more than 500,000 private sector awards from 1,570 sponsors. http://www.collegenet.com/mach25/ [Visual Content: Approx. Grade Level: 9-12+ Contributor: David Orozco] A stop at this site will give you the criteria and an on-line application for scholarships established to benefit the children of U.S. Marines. http://www.marine-scholars.org [Visual Content: Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Cynthia Lockwood] This site will give you the opportunity to view the scholarships, awards, and grants affiliated with the Microsoft Corporation. http://www.microsoft.com/Education/students/grant.asp [Visual Content: Approx. Grade Level: 9-12+ Contributor: Cynthia Lockwood] This site offers information about scholarships ! being offered to minority students interested in the fields of chemistry, biochemistry, and chemical engineering. You'll learn about the selection process, mentoring programs, how to apply, and much more. http://www.acs.org/minorityaffairs/scholars.html Source: American Chemistry Society [Visual Content: Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Cynthia Lockwood] The information contained on this site will give you a better understanding of the scholarships established for Miss America contestants. http://www.missamerica.org/scholarships.html [Visual Content: Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Cynthia Lockwood] This is a site offering High School Seniors eligibility and requirement information for the Easley National Scholarship. http://www.naas.org/senior.htm Source: National Academy of American Scholars [Visual Content: Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Cynthia Lockwood] If you are interested in an athletic scholarship, don't miss this site. You can read about the require! ments, qualifications, and the types of scholarships available. http://www.ncaa.org/eligibility/cbsa/financialaid.html Source: National Collegiate Athletic Association [Visual Content: Approx. Grade Level: 9-12+ Contributor: Cynthia Lockwood] New College of USF in Sarasota awards scholarships for students primarily on academic ability. http://www.newcollege.usf.edu/Admissions/ [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Valerie Barnes] This university in Dahlonega, Georgia offers both need and merit-based grants and scholarships, including the Student Incentive Grant, the Regent's Opportunity Grant. http://www.ngc.peachnet.edu/Admiss/FINAID.HTM [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Valerie Barnes] Penn State offers this page as a starting point to find information regarding tuition, applying for student aid, and scholarship resources. http://www.psu.edu/studentaid/ Source: Pennsylvania State University [Visual Content: Approx. Grade Level: 1! 2+ Contributor: Cynthia Lockwood] Oglethorpe is located in Atlanta, Georgia, and offers the James Edward Oglethorpe Scholarship Competition and the Oglethorpe Scholars Award Program. http://www.oglethorpe.edu/financialaid/scholarships.htm [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Valerie Barnes] Enjoy this on-line version of the Pacific Northwest Scholarship Guide. The Guide offers explainations of federal, state, and private aid programs that offer over $20 million in scholarship funds to Pacific NW students. http://www.collegeplan.org/pnwguide.htm [Visual Content: Approx. Grade Level: 9-12+ Contributor: David Orozco] Pickett & Hatcher awards low interest loans of up to $5,500 per year to full time students attending a college or university in the following states: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, or Virginia. http://www.pickettandhatcher.org/ [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 9-12+ Contribut! or: Valerie Barnes] This site offers a free scholarship search database, and information on applying to college, SAT advice, careers and more. http://www.powerstudents.com/ [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 9-12+ Contributor: Valerie Barnes] You can learn all about Georgia Tech's President's Scholarship Program at this site. You can apply online as well as contacting Georgia Tech. for further information. http://www.enrollment.gatech.edu/psp/main/index.html Source: Georgia Institute of Technology [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 9-12+ Contributor: Cynthia Lockwood] This site details the three $500 scholarships available to high school seniors in Putnam County, Florida. http://www.afn.org/~afn05035/applet.htm [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 9-12+ Contributor: Valerie Barnes] Located in Sarasota, Florida, this college offers many scholarship programs, including Presidential and Trustee Scholarships. http://www.rsad.edu/admissions/financial/aid_form.htm! l [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Valerie Barnes] Rollins, located in Winter Park, Florida, awards scholarships based on academic ability, leadership, performing arts and athletic talents, as well as financial need. http://www.rollins.edu/admission/financial.html [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Valerie Barnes] Sallie Mae's Online Scholarship Service allows students to search for scholarships and other financial aid information. http://scholarships.salliemae.com/ [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 9-12+ Contributor: Valerie Barnes] This college in Savannah, Georgia offers both undergraduate and graduate scholarships for academics, SAT scores, travel, portfolio competitions and others. http://www.scad.edu/ [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Valerie Barnes] Here is a great site to help you with your scholarship search. You can search using MOLIS (Minority On-Line Information Service) or do a gene! ral search for science and engineering scholarships. http://www.sciencewise.com/swscholar/ [Visual Content: Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: David Orozco] Here you'll find many resources for helping you with your search for scholarships. http://www.theoldschool.org/scholars.htm [Visual Content: Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Cynthia Lockwood] Majoring in Accounting? If so, be sure to visit this site to review the ASWA scholarship requirements and eligibility. Information provided to contact a chapter near you. http://www.aswa.org/scholarship.html Source: American Society of Women Accountants [Visual Content: Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Cynthia Lockwood] The UC Irvine's Scholarship Opportunities Program lists available scholarships in the following categories: essay, general, graduate, heritage, internship, major, prestigious/Bluebook, research, and symposia. http://www.honors.uci.edu/sop/listings.html [Visual Content: Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor:! David Orozco] An incredible database of Scholarship information is available on this site. Among the fields, you'll be able to search for minority, religious, or special needs scholarships. http://www.free-4u.com/ [Visual Content: Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Cynthia Lockwood] Browse through The Scholarship Page for awards made just for your gender, major, or ethnic background. This resource is free, and has something for just about everyone. http://www.iwc.pair.com/scholarshipage/ [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Brenda Sitzman] This free service lists over 100 scholarships, which are organized by majors. The site is kept up-to-date and easy to explore. http://www.scholarship-page.com/subjects/index.shtml [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 9-12+ Contributor: Brigitte Issel] Don't miss this incredible source for scholarship information. SRN contains over 8,000 programs that provide over 150,000 scholarships per year. http://www.srnexp! ress.com/ [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Cynthia Lockwood] This very useful site provides a listing of many undergraduate and transfer academic scholarships. http://www.fiu.edu/orgs/admiss/ Source: Florida International University [Visual Content: Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Cynthia Lockwood] This site provides you with an overview of the scholarship information associated with America's Junior Miss Scholarship Foundation. You learn about their overall goals, and the award size per college. http://www.ajm.org/html/1999_Specific/scholarships.html Source: America's Junior Miss Scholarship Foundation [Visual Content: Approx. Grade Level: 9-12+ Contributor: Cynthia Lockwood] This site is filled with information about the scholarships and financial aid programs at UNL. You'll also find many helpful links. http://www.unl.edu/scholfa/cover.html Source: University of Nebraska - Lincoln [Visual Content: Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Cynthia! Lockwood] You will find a long list of scholarships at this site. There are scholarships by curriculum, minority scholarships, international scholarships, and many more. http://www.public.iastate.edu/~fin_aid_info/schol/Scholarships.html Source: Iowa State University, Office of Student Financial Aid [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Cynthia Lockwood] This site provides a searchable scholarship database with over 600,000 sources. http://www.netscholarship.net/ [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 9-12+ Contributor: Valerie Barnes] Stopping here, you'll learn of the Scripps Howard Foundation's grants and fellowships for journalism students and those who have established careers in journalism. http://www.scripps.com/foundation/programs/program.html [Visual Content: Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Cynthia Lockwood] Shorter College is located in Rome, Georgia and offers a number of institutional aid, including the Presidential and Provost Schola! rships. http://www.shorter.edu/adminas/finaid/index.html [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Valerie Barnes] The SWE awards approximately 90 grants per year to women with engineering or computer science majors. Read the information contained on this site to learn all the details; you can download the application form as well. http://www.swe.org/ [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Cynthia Lockwood] This women's college in Atlanta, Georgia offers students various scholarships, including the Presidential and Dean's, Bonner and Women in Science and Engineering. http://www.spelman.edu/Scholarships.html [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Valerie Barnes] The Society of Physics provides this page containing Physics scholarship information. Here you will find information about the scholarships, including a description, eligibility, value of the award, and contact information. http://www.aip.org/education/sps/scholar! s.htm Source: The American Institute of Physics [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 9-12+ Contributor: Cynthia Lockwood] Here you will learn about this grant-in-aid established by Society for Software Quality (SSQ) in memory of its founder. The grant is awarded to Essay contest winners, and based on the author's understanding of "quality software principles." http://www.ssq.org/grant/gia.html [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Cynthia Lockwood] SUWG is located in Carrollton and offers the Presidential Scholarship and departmental scholarships, including performing arts and athletics. http://www.westga.edu/~finaid/scholarships.html [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Valerie Barnes] Stetson is located in DeLand, Florida and offers a number of scholarships. http://www.stetson.edu/honors/ [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Valerie Barnes] Here you'll find a database containing information on thousands of! financial educational awards. The information is available in both French and English. http://www.studentawards.com./ [Visual Content: Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Cynthia Lockwood] This site is a great place to learn about free admissions, scholarship essay writing, scholarships anyone can win, and more. http://www.supercollege.com/welcome1.html [Visual Content: Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Cynthia Lockwood] Enter Calgons' "Take Me Away" Scholarship contest. Twenty-five finalists are picked from entrants who have answered questions about Calgon products. Finalists then write an essay. Winners are selected from the essays. http://www.takemeaway.com/scholarship/index_2000.html Source: Coty US Inc. [Visual Content: Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Cynthia Lockwood] Apply on line for scholarships from P.L.A.T.O after reading all about them or conducting a scholarship search at this site. http://www.plato.org/scholarship/home.htm [Visual Content: Approx. Gr! ade Level: 12+ Contributor: Cynthia Lockwood] Enjoy learning about ThinkQuest's challenges and contests and about their terrific award program. These are all separated by age groups, and this site would a great spot for students and parents to "surf" together! http://www.thinkquest.org/ [Visual Content: Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Cynthia Lockwood] Thomas College in Thomasville, Georgia offers numerous scholarships for tuition, including athletic, ROTC, civic, nursing, health services, music and others. http://www.thomascollege.edu/admissions/scholarships.htm [Visual Content: N/A Approx. Grade Level: 12+ Contributor: Valeri

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