Re: Education and scientific research in developing countries
- Hi Andrius
I hope things are going well.
This is just another copyright topic to discuss with people, if you
get a minute. It's about a subtle form of social-exclusion relating
to copyright, or 'disenfranchisement of the poor'.
I was thinking, one aspect of Copyright is that breaching someone
else's copyright an 'offence', a bit like a car parking-offence.
There are 2 aspects to any type of offence :-
1. Understanding the law, to avoid committing the offence.
2. Being aware of the consequences of committing an offence, in
precise numerical terms, such as the maximum fine or maximum prison
With a 'breach of copyright offence', there's a lot of emphasis on
making the different types of Copyright simple and understandable.
There isn't much emphasis on knowing the 'worst-case scenario' or
maximum consequences for a 'breach of copyright' offence.
For something like a car-parking offence, the consequences are known
in advance, approximately; a small fine. The offence is against
society as a whole, so everyone is treated equally and the
punishment they receive is fairly similar. For a breach of copyright
offence, whether accidental or deliberate, your offence is against
an individual or company. Each copyright owner may react
differently. One copyright-holder may be really laid-back and take
no action, another may sue you for every penny you've got, driving
you into bankruptcy. So, people don't know in advance of an offence,
what would happen. The consequences are almost random and unknowable
This means that people often 'play it safe' and don't do things with
text, photos, video, music and other information that might raise
their income or help the community, because they don't dare take any
risk at all. They become 'risk averse'.
What can anyone do about it?
Would it be possible for an insurance company to
offer 'Unintentional Breach of Copyright Insurance', where they will
fight your case and pay any fine, provided you comply with the terms
of the insurance policy.
These could be...
The breach was unintentional.
You didn't aim to profit from it.
Any reasonable person could have made the same mistake, because the
copyright license had a lot of very difficult to understand small-
This reduces the amount that people in developing countries are
disenfranchised or become 'risk averse', by several orders of
magnitude. Instead of thinking 'Can I take the risk of a 1 million
dollar fine?', they just have to think 'Can I afford the insurance
premiums?' in the range of tens, hundreds or thousands of dollars,
depending on their activities and level of cover.
I would be interested in your views on it.
--- In firstname.lastname@example.org, Andrius Kulikauskas
> Maria Agnese Giraudo, Thank you for your statement and I look
> seeing you! Richard Stallman, thank you for your feedback! Andriusin
> Kulikauskas, ms@...
> Education and scientific research in developing countries
> My reflections come from my experience in Tanzania with projects
> support of Primary schools and as librarian in a scientificresearch
> institute about food and nutrition (INRAN) in Rome, Italy.for
> Education in Developing Countries
> In Tanzanian Primary schools the rate of provision of textbooks
> children is about 1/6-8 and in Secondary school parents have tobuy
> books that are quite expensive, while schools haven't any librarythere
> are and only few public libraries around. Considering theunacceptable
> inequality between north and south also regardinginformation/knowledge
> provision and the availability of contents and learningopportunities by
> digital and internet technologies, it seems no more avoidabletaking
> measures to rethink the whole copyright system.the
> I don't have the competence to enter into the technical aspects of
> copyright but the possibility of rethinking and redesigningCopyright
> system and of inverting the system and the role of "Exceptions andto
> Limitations" into a hypothetical new frame of general Human Rights
> recognition (1) seems a revolution of the trend mainly conceived
> defend author and publisher/distributor economic interests.as to
> The Digital Divide is inequality of access to the Internet as well
> the content, while there is in digital contents and Internet aglobalized
> "potential for explosive distribution, especially in tertiary
> institutions and libraries in developing countries".(2) In a
> world the less restrictions are in developed countries digitalcontent
> the more developing countries benefit of it.of
> Indigenous Content. Developing Countries are more and more aware
> their heritage: of their socio-cultural traditions and ofpeculiarity of
> their natural environment. They are creating contents as well astheir
> collecting written and oral documents. The reconsideration of
> culture is progressing in proposing original approaches ofresearch at
> the university level in international collaboration.scientists
> The OA impact to Scientific Research dissemination
> The development of Open Access Movement has offered to all
> all over the world the possibility of publishing in Open Archives,commercial
> whether institutional or tematic or in open access journals to
> disseminate their works without bottleneck restrictions of
> publishers. The controversial tool of Impact Factor has beenchallenged
> by Open Access and its mechanism of citations has been treated bythe
> increasing amount of on-line OA publications. Although IF has beenthe
> main means of selection of scientists in their career progression,now
> it appears to be totally inadequate to evaluate such amount ofpart in
> publications not only in English while scientists of developing
> countries, before excluded by " the scientific world" can take
> the scientific community.Information Law
> (1) P. Bernt Hugenholtz & Ruth L. Okediji (Institute for
> University of Minnesota /University of Amsterdam Law School)Conceiving
> an International Insrument on Limitations and Exceptions toCopyright.
> Final Report March 06, 2008hybrids of
> (2) The first thing to realize is such access techniques are
> digital and analog technologies, therefore requiring that only onetechnologies such
> person in a sharing community have a computer and access to the
> internet. Coupled with analog copying and reprographic
> as photocopiers, as well as public communication devices such asradio,
> televisions and mobile phones, this makes information potentiallywidely
> accessible and easily distributable. For example, whereindividuals have
> computers but few can access the internet, one person orsame
> institution with a CD-burner can distribute many copies of the
> document by burning a CD. (Shabalala, 2007, p.41).