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Re: [Lambengolmor] Names of the languages in -rin

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  • Helios De Rosario Martínez
    ... Early Qenya language-names had also a similar form: see the list of languages _Eldarin_, _Noldorin_, _Solosimpilin_, _Qenyarin_, _Inwelin_, _Telellin_,
    Message 1 of 3 , Feb 23, 2007
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      Richard Derdzinski wrote:

      > What is your opinion on the etymology of the Quenya language-names in
      > _-rin_ i.e. Eldarin, Sindarin, Telerin, Valarin etc.? Such names are
      > treated in Tolkien's late papers as Quenya names though it seems
      > they were first typical for the predecessors of Sindarin

      Early Qenya language-names had also a similar form: see the list of
      languages _Eldarin_, _Noldorin_, _Solosimpilin_, _Qenyarin_, _Inwelin_,
      _Telellin_, _Cor-eldarin_ at the beginning of the Qenyaqetsa (PE12:2).

      The endings _-rin_, _-lin_ in most of them could be the plural endings
      _-r_, _-li_, + _-(i)n_. In fact, most of the plural folk-names implicit
      in those language-names are found in the Qenya Lexicon or the Qenyaqetsa

      The plurals _Eldar_ and _Cor-Eldar_ are found in the text before the
      list (PE12:1-2).

      _Noldor_ and _Inweli_ (and again _Eldar_) are in QL:36 (s.v. _Erinti_);
      there the form _Teleri_ also occurs, but _telelli_ can be found in QL:91
      (s.v. _Teler_).

      _Solosimpeli_ is in QL:35 s.v. _Eldamar_. Note that from _Solosimpilin_
      at PE12:2 the expected plural folk-name would have been *_Solosimpili_,
      which blends two plurals of _Solosimpe_: this one in QL:35 with _-li_,
      and the commoner _Solosimpi_ (cf. PE12:1-2, 4, 17, 85), with _-i_. The
      form _-li_ is usually employed for nouns with vocalic ending, and _-i_
      for nouns with consonantal ending, or in _-e_ < (semivocalic) _-i_ (cp.
      PE14:43-44); thus both plurals forms could be expected for _Solosimpe_,
      though if they coexisted, only one of them would be etymological, the
      other one being probably derived by analogy. The blend *_Solosimpili_
      seems rarer, and perhaps did not occur outside the language-name; but
      note that the language-name form _Solosimpelin_ also occurred, at PE12:22.

      *_Qenyar_ is the only plural that I have not found, and which probably
      does not exist, as _Qenya_ is not a singular folk-name, but an adjective
      related to _Qendi_. The ending _-ya_ is a usual Qenya adjective former,
      as seen in the QL adjectives _inya_ 'tiny' (p.42), _laminya_
      'animal-like, beastly, stupid' (p.50), _mintya_ 'reminding, "memoryful"'
      (p.62), _nyenya_ 'querulous, tearful, plaintive' (p.69), _rûya_
      'unmoved, steadfast' (p.80), _sastya_ 'sore, galled' (p.86), _talanya_
      'burdened, weighed down, sad' (p.88), _telya_ 'attractive' and
      _telyantalya_ (p.90), _tilinya_ 'downy, hairy' (p.92), or _varya_
      'different' (p.100). _Qenyarin_ was probably formed by analogy from the
      other cases.

      The suffix _-in_, on the other hand, could be a short form of _-inwa_,
      another adjective former which is also applied to form folk-related
      adjectives, like _noldorinwa_ (glossed 'goblin (adj.)' in QL:67),
      _telerinwa_ (MC:216, PE16:90ff.), and specially enlightening,
      _eldarinwa_ in the Enlish-Qenya Dictionary, where it is given next to
      _eldarin_ as Qenya glosses to the adjective 'elfin' (PE15:71). The word
      _Qenyarinwa_ is also found, written next to the English form "Qenyatic"
      in PE14:125.

      If related, short _-in_ and long _-inwa_ could have different
      grammatical functions, _-inwa_ being used when the adjective qualified a
      name (as in _losselie telerinwa_ 'the white people of the shores of
      Elfland', MC:215), and _-in_ when the substantive was omitted and thus
      the adjective was itself used substantively (like in the language-names).

      This _-inwa_ ending is an adjective former very productive outside
      language of folk-related words. See for instance in QL:

      _helinwa_ 'of pansies; of colour = "a blue-violet"' (p.39)
      _saminda, -wa_ (i.e. _saminwa_) 'silken' (p. 81)
      _tirinwa_ 'vigilant' (p. 93)
      _turinwa_ 'kingly, royal' (p. 96)

      Making a step further in the analysis, it could be that _-inwa_ was
      derived by analogy from adjectives like the following in QL:

      _finwa_ 'acute, sagacious' (p. 38, s.v. FINI)
      _minwa_ 'small' (p. 61, s.v. MINI)
      _ninwa_ 'blue' (p. 66, s.v. NINI)

      In these ones, _-in-_ is not a suffix, as it belongs to the Qenya root,
      and the suffix was in fact just _-wa_, for which compare the "general
      adjectival suffix" _-va_ (PE14:47, 79). If cases like these were common
      in Qenya, the blend of root ending _-in_ + adjectival _-va_ / _-wa_
      could have yielded by analogy a new adjective ending _-inwa_. It is
      interesting that the Qenya root TURU had both derived adjectives
      _turinwa_ ('kingly, royal') and _turwa_ ('powerful'); cf. PE12:96).

      Now in the frame of Tolkien's late papers, about which Richard asked,
      the etymology could be quite similar.

      From a text as late as "Quendi and Eldar" we know that the term
      _Quenderin_ was formed anew by historians as an adjective meaning
      'Quendian, belonging to the Elves as a whole', and that they made
      it "on the model of _Eldarin_, _Noldorin_, etc." (XI:407).

      _Quenderin_ seems to be formed by the singular _qende_ 'elf' (itself
      formed analogically from pl. _Quendi_, cf. XI:361) + _-rin_. Thus, the
      cited note implies that adjectives meaning 'belonging to a people as a
      whole' may be formed by adding _-rin_ to the referred people. But this
      does not necessarily mean that this was the etymological formation. As
      older _Qenyarin_, it could be just formed by analogy.

      If that is the case, _Eldarin_ and _Noldorin_ could be, as seemingly the
      previous Qenya language-names, plural _Eldar_ and _Noldor_ + _-in_. The
      same may be said of _Sindarin_ and _Valarin_, commented on by Richard.
      _Telerin_ could likewise come from plural _Teleri_ (*_Teleri-in_ >

      And as commented on above about _-in_ for Qenya language-names, in the
      late texts this ending could also be intended to come from adjectival
      _-inwa_, the longer form being used when the adjective qualifies a noun.
      To support this theory, besides _Sindarin_, _Eldarin_, _Valarin_ or
      _Noldorin_ we have _hwesta sindarinwa_ ('Grey-elven [belonging to the
      Sindar] _hw_', LR:1123), _Essekenta Eldarinwa_ (*'Enquiry on the names
      of the Eldar', XI:360), _Lambe Valarinwa_ (*'tongue of the Valar',
      XI:397), and _quentale Ñoldorinwa_ ('the history of the Noldor', VT39:16).


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    • Roman Rausch
      We have also a direct attestation on this matter in the GL: _glin_ sound, voice, utterance, cp. suffix _-glin_, _-grin_, _-drin_, in names of languages
      Message 2 of 3 , Feb 25, 2007
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        We have also a direct attestation on this matter in the GL:

        _glin_ 'sound, voice, utterance, cp. suffix _-glin_, _-grin_, _-drin_,
        in names of languages' (PE11:39). The second suffix is clearly part of
        _Goldo-grin_ *'Noldo-language' itself.

        The word _glin_ and also _gling_ 'music', _glingrin_ 'musical', _lin-_
        'sound (intr.)', _lintha-_ 'sound (tr.), strike or ring bell, etc;
        play an instrument' (PE11:39,54) can be related to LIRI 'sing' or LINI
        (PE12:54); later LIN-, GLIN- 'sing', LIR- 'sing, trill' (V:359,369) in
        the 'Etymologies'.

        But the suffixes _-grin_ and _-drin_ seem to be formed from a parallel
        root *RIN(I) (or modified LIN(I)?), for which I have found no further
        mention. Compare Q. _rinko_ 'disc, circle, orb' (PE12:80), where
        Goldogrin has _drinn_ '+ ring, disc' (PE11:30) or Q. _riqi-_ 'wrench,
        twist' and G. _grinn_ 'ankle, wrist' (PE11:42).

        Therefore I think it is likely that the suffixes _-rin_ and _-lin_ (in
        _Inwelin_) of the Qenya language names are just the cognates of G.
        _-grin_, _-drin_, _-glin_ without the modification with _g_ or _d_; at
        least at the time of the Lexicons.

        Roman Rausch
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