_ninqita-_ 'shine white' vs. _ninqitá-_ 'whiten'
- On 14.09.2004, at 19:34, E. Kloczko wrote:
> So _ninquitá-_ 'whiten' (V:378 s.v. NIK-W-) is notI think we're seeing here two different kinds of
> a typo after all?
> But then what might be the meaning of the long
> _á_ as compared to "ninquita- shine white"?
1. Causative (or in this case factitive), that is _*ninqui_
+ tâ_ 'make white, whiten' (for the causative suffix cf.
e.g. Etymologies *_tultâ-_ 'make come' s.v. TUL- 'come',
2. *_ninqui-_ > *_ninquit(a)_, i.e. sundóma extended
+ t(a), the so-called "_kalat-_" type [cf.XI:392].
[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
- --- In message 737
> _Indyalme_ (VT46:3 s.v. ÑGAL-/ÑGÁLAM-) has no gloss.It seems possible. Presumably Edouard is referring to the
> Could it be an intensive form: *_ingyalmê_ > _indyalme_?
N- prefix cited in the A&C (VT45:36), which in Qenya yielded
an intensive prefix that took a variety of forms dependent
on the following consonant: _um_ before _p, q, v_ (this last
yielding _umb_), _an_ before _t_, _iñ_ before _k, g_, etc.
The historical derivation of _indyalme_ might therefore be
from *_n.-ñgyalmê_ (in which _n._ represents syllabic
_n_, i.e. _n_ with an underdot) > *_ñ.-ñgyalmê_ (with
assimilation of _n._ > _ñ._) > *_iñ-ñgyalmê_ (with resolution
of syllabic _ñ._ >_iñ_) >_indyalme_ (with fronting of the stop
in a palatal environment).
If Tolkien did intend a non-intensive/ intensive distinction
between _yalme_ 'clamour' and _indyalme_, perhaps the
latter referred to an extended, overwhelmingly chaotic
din, the 'clamour' of an ongoing battle as opposed to, say, the
clamour of horses entering a courtyard or pots dropped in
A parallel might occur in the much-later text "The Shibboleth
of Feanor", which cites the Common Eldarin stem _ñgol-,
ñgôlo-_, "with or without syllabic _ñ_". In the derivatives
cited, it appears that the forms beginning with _ing-_ from
original syllabic _ñ._ were intensive. Thus (all from XII:360):
_ingólemo_ 'one with very great knowledge, a "wizard"'
(compare _ñolmo_ 'a wise person')
_Ingole_ 'Science/Philosophy as a whole'
(compare _ñolme_ 'a department of wisdom (science etc.)')
_Ingoldo_ '_the_ Ñoldo, one eminent in the kindred'
(as opposed to _Ñoldo_, which simply identifies a member
of that kindred, with no implication of eminence.)
Our only other parallel to _indyalme_ in _Etymologies_ is found
in the entry for the base ÑGYÔ-, ÑGYON- 'grandchild, descendant',
with Qenya derivative _indyo_ (== T. _endo_ and ON _ango_).
Is this _indyo_ intensive, from *_n-ñgyô_? Since the base also
means 'descendant', _indyo_ (probably 'grandson'; a deleted
marginal note by the Etym._base YÔ, YÔN- gives Q _inyo_ 'grandson',
with _inyo_ << _indyo_; VT46:23) might be viewed as intensive
in pertaining to a descendant removed by at least two
-- Patrick H. Wynne
- If _ninqitá-_ 'whiten' has a causative suffix, which seems to be
the case, why do we have _tulta-_ 'send for, fetch, summon'
(< *_tultâ-_ 'make come' < TUL- (cf. VT46:20) and not **_tultá-_?
[I would hesitate to call what we see in _ninqitá-_ a "suffix". Given
the frequent and apparently free variation we see in prehistoric Eldarin
forms between long and short vowels in word- and stem-final position
(denoted by Tolkien as a macron with a breve over it), I would guess that
the actual case is one of _selection_ of variant forms in _association_
with distinguished meaning: thus, in this scenario, the long form was
selected and associated with the causitive and/or inchoative sense (the
gloss 'whiten' is itself ambiguous: it could mean "to cause something to
become white" or the process of a thing itself becoming whiter), and the
short for the intransitive/stative sense; and the length difference then
retained _because_ it maintained the distinction in meaning. To what
extent this selection formed a pattern in other cases is unclear. CFH]