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Re: Q verbal intensive prefix a-

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  • Hans
    ... There are traces of a-infixion in Etymologies and other sources: root MIL-IK with the derivation _maile_ lust (V:415), containing also the (later
    Message 1 of 5 , Sep 16, 2002
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      --- In lambengolmor@y..., Boris Shapiro <elenhil@p...> wrote:

      > Do you have any ideas for a Quenya verbal intensive prefix? There
      > used to be _a-_ in QL, but I do not remember whether it occurs in
      > later sources. Perhaps it could be reasonable enough even in later
      > stages, because of the possible connection with the PE intensive
      > stem variations. Any ideas?

      There are traces of a-infixion in Etymologies and other sources: root
      MIL-IK with the derivation _maile_ "lust" (V:415), containing also the
      (later obviously abandoned) derivation of _Melko_ frorm _*Mailikô_,
      and the etymology of _maeg_ via the 'strong adjective' _*maikâ_
      "sharp, penetrating" from the root _mik_ "pierce" (IX:337).
      In both cases, an intensification was intended, as the 'strong' in the
      latter example indicates explicitly. Maybe those are the stem
      variations Boris had in mind.

      There's at least one example pointing at _a_ as a verbal prefix: under
      root SUK- in Etymologies, we find the Sindarin verb _sogo_ "drink",
      and a past tense form _asogant_ is given (V:434).
      However, it seems that JRRT in Etymologies was inclined towards the
      augment, i.e. the reduplication of the stem vowel, already: the entry
      I- says "intensive prefix where i is base vowel" (V:401).
      In later sources, examples abound. Of course, this gives the same
      result when the _sundóma_ is _a_, and that's frequent.

      Hans
    • pa2rick
      ... The excerpt from Appendix D to Quendi and Eldar published in VT 39 discusses just this process of a-infixion, which it also calls vocalic strengthening
      Message 2 of 5 , Sep 16, 2002
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        --- In lambengolmor@y..., "Hans" <gentlebeldin@h...> wrote:

        > There are traces of a-infixion in Etymologies and other sources:
        > root MIL-IK with the derivation _maile_ "lust" (V:415), containing
        > also the (later obviously abandoned) derivation of _Melko_
        > frorm _*Mailikô_, and the etymology of _maeg_ via the 'strong
        > adjective' _*maikâ_ "sharp, penetrating" from the root _mik_
        > "pierce" (IX:337). In both cases, an intensification was intended,
        > as the 'strong' in the latter example indicates explicitly. Maybe
        > those are the stem variations Boris had in mind.

        The excerpt from Appendix D to "Quendi and Eldar" published
        in VT 39 discusses just this process of a-infixion, which it also
        calls "vocalic strengthening" (p.11 Note 7), whereby _u_ > _au_
        and _i_ > _ai_. Particularly relevant to Hans's comments is the
        following passage (p. 10):

        "The examples of _ai_, _au_ of this origin are not very numerous.
        They were mostly "intensive", as in _rauko_ "very terrible creature"
        (*RUK); _taura_ "very mighty, vast, of unmeasured might or size"
        (*TUR). Some were "continuative", as in _Vaire_ "Ever-weaving"
        (*WIR)."

        Boris's search for an intensive verbal _prefix_ puts me in mind
        of _an-_ in _ancalima_ 'exceedingly bright', which Tolkien
        says consisted of _an-_ "superlative or intensive prefix" +
        _kalima_ 'shining brilliant' (L:278-79), though _ancalima_ is,
        of course, an adjective rather than a verb.

        -- Patrick Wynne
      • Hans
        ... Ah, good that VT39 is among the five back issues I ordered last week! :-) I remembered one more instance of _au_ from a-infixion: _saura_ (foul,
        Message 3 of 5 , Sep 16, 2002
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          --- In lambengolmor@y..., "pa2rick" <pwynne@g...> wrote:

          > The excerpt from Appendix D to "Quendi and Eldar" published
          > in VT 39 discusses just this process of a-infixion, which it also
          > calls "vocalic strengthening" (p.11 Note 7)

          Ah, good that VT39 is among the five back issues I ordered last
          week! :-)

          I remembered one more instance of _au_ from a-infixion: _saura_
          (foul, evil-smelling, putrid) from THUS-, V:439.

          And I found a more direct hint at an a-prefix: _atalante_ is derived
          from TALÁT. It could be an augment, but the general idea wasn't fully
          formed yet at that time, I think. Indeed, the entry in Etymologies
          says specifically "Atalante (a-prefix==complete)".

          Again, this doesn't seem to be limited to verbs, and "complete"
          doesn't contradict the interpretation "exceedingly" of _an-_.
          Maybe that's closer to what Boris was looking for.

          Hans
        • Carl F. Hostetter
          In Sindarin, there is _ aníra ‘(he) desires’ (IX:128–29), perhaps more literally _a-níra_ * (he) greatly desires (cf. _níra_ n. ‘will, as a
          Message 4 of 5 , Sep 17, 2002
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            In Sindarin, there is _ aníra ‘(he) desires’ (IX:128–29), perhaps more
            literally _a-níra_ *'(he) greatly desires' (cf. _níra_ n. ‘will, as a
            potential or faculty’, VT39:30; though it is possible that it is
            instead _an-íra_, with the same literal meaning; cf. the base ID- ‘heart,
            desire, wish’, V:361).

            Carl
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