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913Analysis of _Galbedir_,_Lamorni_, _Ornómar_ and _Ornómi_

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  • varavilindo
    May 21, 2006
      In the _War of the Ring_ on page 50 we find various forms for the
      treeish beings later known as _Huorns_ (s. a. RC:425). The first form
      reads _Galbedirs_, which was changed at the time of writing to
      _Lamorni_ and finally to _Ornómar_. In the same line in which these
      appear it is said that _Ornómar_ (here said to be "an oldfashioned
      elvish", i.e. Quenya) means "Talking Trees, that is, that they have trained
      and made half-entish".

      Two pages later Merry informs us that Treebard "...sent off a whole
      wood of the _Ornómi_ down the valley..." and on page 54 Aragorn
      talks about "the _Ornómi_ , the moving woods..." supporting us with
      just another and most likely final form of the half-tree entities in

      _Galbedir_: consists of two elements: *_gal_ 'tree' + *_pedir_
      'speaker'. *_gal_ is derieved from stem GÁLAD- (V:357); yet no
      Noldorin example is listed that would support a reconstruction like
      *_gal_ + noun, instead we see a Doriathrin form _galbreth_ 'beech'
      showing the only similiar construction to _galbedir_ available.
      _*pedir_ (which undergoes lenition when combined with a noun; cp.
      _cirban_ 'haven', V:380) originates from KWET- (and PET-) 'say'
      (V:366) and a substantive suffix *_-dir_ seen also in N. _rhandir_
      'wanderer' (RAN-, V:383) or _Thorondir_ (XII:206). We might assume a
      Primitive elvish form like *_pet-dir_ > N. *_pedir_ 'speaker', but
      that's very speculative.

      _Lamorni_: consists of the elements *_lam_ 'sound, speak' (LAM-,
      V:367) and *_orni_ plural of _orne_ 'tree' (ÔR-NI, V:379). The
      literal translation might be *'Sound-trees'.

      _Ornómar_: consists of above mentioned _orne_ and plural *_ómar_
      'voices' (OM-, V:379). Note that this compound is formed by
      assimilating the last vowel of _orne_(exhibited also in _Minnónar_
      'Firstborn', XI:403). The literal translation of _Ornómar_ might
      be *'Tree-voices' (though translated in the text as "Talking trees").

      _Ornómi_*: consists of _orne_ 'tree' (see above) and *_ómi_
      '?speaking'. The second element seems not to be connected with *_ómar_
      'voices' and is not an adjectival element, but a derivation from stem
      OM-. I suggest that Tolkien constructed _Ornómi_ in a very different
      fashion from that seen in the above given examples. Sometimes the
      plural for a Q(u)enya noun is based upon the stem, just like in
      _talami_ pl. of _talan_ 'floor, ground' (TALAM-, V:390). In the
      particular case of _Ornómi_ we may fathom here the same: Lengthened
      *_óm_ combined with _orne_, while *_óm_ showing nasalisation of *_-m_
      to *_-n_ and _orne_ assimilation of _-e_, producing singular *_Ornón_
      *'talking, speaking tree' (though the text translates _Ornómi_ as
      "trees with voices", VIII:55). Yet, this is very discussable, moreover
      when we consider that plural derivation for a noun might hardly be
      applicable to that of a compound.

      *on page 54 Tolkien also translated it as "moving trees", but there is
      no trace anywhere that _ómi_ could also mean "moving", so I shall
      "ignore" this translation here.

      Philipp Marquart

      P. S.: Edouard Kloczko states in his book "Le dictionnaire des langues
      des Hobbits, des Nains, des Orques" (see Lambengolmor Message 471)
      that : "Lamorni and Ornómar, with a variant plural form Ornómi (see
      WR, p. 50), but all were rejected". Actually only the preceeding forms
      _Galbedir_ and _Lamorni_ were rejected, while the form _Ornómar_ is
      allowed to stand, yet being replaced later by _Ornómi_ which appears
      unaltered also on page 52 and 54.

      [Philipp's interpretation of _Ornómi_ strikes me as needlessly complicated
      and speculative. It is far more probable that _Ornómi_ is simply
      the same sort of compound as _Ornómar_, save that the final element
      has an alternative pl. *_ómi_ 'voices' formed directly from the stem OM-
      (hence the translation of this name in the text itself as 'trees with voices').
      For the variation of pl. _ómar, ómi_, cp. the statement in the _Etym._:
      "Q _Vala_ Power, God (pl. _Valar_ or _Vali_ == PQ *_bal-î_ formed direct
      from stem, cf. _Valinor_)", V:350 s.v. BAL-. -- PHW]