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46Re: [Lambengolmor] Yet more on voiced stops

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  • Candon McLean
    Jun 7, 2002
      --- Pavel Iosad <pavel_iosad@...> wrote:

      > Which leads us to the problem of a proper phonological analysis of
      > Quenya. To wit: are the 'nasalised' voiced stops /mb nd �g/ single
      > phonemes, or biphonemic sequences?

      They can only be biphonemic. The question is are they coarticulated
      or not? For example, Ladefoged ignores "phonemes" like [tS] and [d3]
      in the IPA, in fact they aren't in the IPA, because his phonetic work
      has shown that they are two sounds that are coarticulated (see
      Ladefoged _A Course in Phonetics_ 1975. 4th edition). Clusters like
      [mb], found in some African languages etc., are also not in the IPA
      because they are coarticulated.

      I believe by phoneme you mean coarticulate and by biphonemic you mean
      two independently articulated segments.

      A crucial test (which may be beyond us) is to see if the cluster
      splits into a coda and an onset:

      e.g. /lambe/ > 1. [lam.be] or 2. [la.mbe].

      If (1) then the cluster has two independently articualted segments;
      if (2) then the cluster is coarticulated and thus a "phoneme."

      An example from English is 'judging:' /d3Ud3 + Ing/ > [d3U.d3Ing],
      where /ng/ = the sound ingma, i.e. the velar nasal. In the English
      example it's clear that /d3/ is coarticulated as the sound does not
      split across syllable boundaries.

      I don't remember if Tolkien has given us discriptions of the
      syllabification of these clusters. If he hasn't then we need to
      listen again to his recordings (but these maybe inaccurate as he
      wasn't a native speaker of Quenya, alas).


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