46Re: [Lambengolmor] Yet more on voiced stops
- Jun 7, 2002--- Pavel Iosad <pavel_iosad@...> wrote:
> Which leads us to the problem of a proper phonological analysis ofThey can only be biphonemic. The question is are they coarticulated
> Quenya. To wit: are the 'nasalised' voiced stops /mb nd �g/ single
> phonemes, or biphonemic sequences?
or not? For example, Ladefoged ignores "phonemes" like [tS] and [d3]
in the IPA, in fact they aren't in the IPA, because his phonetic work
has shown that they are two sounds that are coarticulated (see
Ladefoged _A Course in Phonetics_ 1975. 4th edition). Clusters like
[mb], found in some African languages etc., are also not in the IPA
because they are coarticulated.
I believe by phoneme you mean coarticulate and by biphonemic you mean
two independently articulated segments.
A crucial test (which may be beyond us) is to see if the cluster
splits into a coda and an onset:
e.g. /lambe/ > 1. [lam.be] or 2. [la.mbe].
If (1) then the cluster has two independently articualted segments;
if (2) then the cluster is coarticulated and thus a "phoneme."
An example from English is 'judging:' /d3Ud3 + Ing/ > [d3U.d3Ing],
where /ng/ = the sound ingma, i.e. the velar nasal. In the English
example it's clear that /d3/ is coarticulated as the sound does not
split across syllable boundaries.
I don't remember if Tolkien has given us discriptions of the
syllabification of these clusters. If he hasn't then we need to
listen again to his recordings (but these maybe inaccurate as he
wasn't a native speaker of Quenya, alas).
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