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342Re: _nahamna_ in the Atalante fragments

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  • David Kiltz
    Mar 9, 2003
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      On Samstag, März 8, 2003, at 12:48 Uhr, Petri Tikka wrote:

      > Ales Bican tence:
      >> Petri Tikka wrote:
      >>> I would rather analyze _nahamna_ as
      >>> _na-_ "to" nominal prefix
      >> **What do you mean by "nominal prefix"?
      > I mean it here as a preposition
      > used as a mark of location regardless of grammatical context, being
      > an independent word, like _under-_ in _under-world_.

      Nominal prefixes occur frequently in Quenya: E.g. _mirroanwi_,
      tercenye_ etc.

      [_Mirroanwi_ 'Incarnates, those (spirits) put into flesh' < _mi-
      srawanwe_ (X:350); _essi tercenye_ 'names of insight' (X:216).
      Give glosses and page references, please! -- PHW]

      A discussion of euphony or dysphony follows.

      I think it's quite clear from the attested corpus that Quenya could use
      either a local preposition or a case ending in these cases: _mi Númen_
      vs. _Númessier_, _mi oromardi_ vs. _mahalmassen_. This should be
      possible with _na_ vs _-nna_ as well.

      > Why not *_na hamna_, with
      > _na_ as a simple unglued preposition. I would consider analysing _na-_
      > in _nahamna_ as a grammatical preposition quite implausible, though not
      > impossible.

      Because it's not a preposition here.

      I think to understand the meaning of _nahamna_ one has to see it in the
      context of the evolving text. _Nahamna_ changed to _kamindon_ >
      _akamna_ > _nukumna_ (IX:311). None of these forms seems to
      correspond to the OE "translation" _to h´ythe_. Indeed, I think all
      the above forms mean "humbled" as does the Adunaic
      translation _zabathaan_(IX:247 et al.).

      This leaves us with 3 roots, HAM-, KAM-, KUM-. Petri Tikka notes that
      HAM can be interpreted as"ground" in the QL. KAM might mean the same
      (cf. KEM- in The Etymologies or, perhaps, Adunaic _kamaat_.) I don't
      know about KUM. Maybe it's a further derivative ? Do KU3- "bow" or
      KUM- "void" come in ?

      At any rate, if we assume that HAM/KAM here means "ground", we get:
      "to-ground-ed", "ground-ed-like" (_kamin-ndon_), and "very-ground-ed"
      (with sundóma as an intensifier). _Nukumna_ may be "down-bow-ed"
      or "down-void-ed", if it doesn't also contain "ground".

      Of course, this is just an assumption for heuristic reasons. It shows,
      however, I think, that _-in_/_na_ here are indeed participle endings.
      If anything, the semantic connection with Latin _humilis_, as already
      noted by Ales, makes the case only stronger.

      David Kiltz
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