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227Re: [Lambengolmor] "before" and "after"

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  • Boris Shapiro
    Sep 7, 2002

      So it seems that we have three prepositions of similar meaning.

      1) "before" (*_A naa calima epe B_ - VT42:32, VT44:38)
      2) "after" (_epesse_ - XII:339)

      1) "fore-" (_apacenye_ - X:216)
      2) "after" (_Apanoonar_ - XI:387)
      "behind" (_ap-pata_ - XI:387)

      1) "before" (_merin sa haryalye alasse noo vanyalye Ambarello_ - MS),
      "ahead, in front" (PE12:66)
      2) "*next" (_Nootuile_ - XII:135),
      "after (of time)" (PE12:66)

      Let's try to make it clear. _epe_ "before" (A is bright before B) is
      obviously not temporal, so it is spatial. _epe_ "after" (after-name)
      is temporal.

      _apa_ "fore-" is spatial (to see what lies before one), _apa_
      "after" (after-born) is temporal. But is _ap(a)_ "behind" temporal or

      _noo_ "ahead, in front" is spatial, but is _epe_ "before" (before
      you leave Middle-earth) spatial or temporal? _noo_ "after (of time)"
      is temporal, but is _noo_ "*next" spatial or temporal? I'm a bit

      Namaarie! S.Y., Elenhil Laiquendo [Boris Shapiro]

      : masse sii nar i nuunatani · elessar · elessar? :

      [I think the question to ask is, what is the _primary_ sense of each word?
      Looking at the occurrences of _apa-_, I think we can fairly surely take
      'after' as the primary meaning (and taking the translation of _apacenye_
      as 'foresight' being non-literal, as I suggested before, since it refers
      more literally to sight of something that occurs after the present time).
      With _epe_ and _nу_, it is much harder to say. _nу_ in particular seems to
      have had its primary meaning changed by Tolkien, since its usages in both
      the "_merin_" sentence ('before') and the QL ('after, of time') are
      temporal and apparently irreconcilable. Carl]
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